2What is the achievement gap? Correlation between race, and or poverty and low academic achievement
3-Closing the Achievement Gap The Roots of the Gap“…while the achievement gap formally appears as early as kindergarten, assessments have shown that a sizable gap can be found in young children before they start school. (Kober, 2001)”-Closing the Achievement Gap
4The History 1966 James Coleman 1970 NAEP 1983 A Nation At Risk 1988 High water mark1990 The Bell Curve, Hernstein and Murray1998 ECLS-KNCLB 2001
5The gap varies geographically The gaps are widest in the Midwest and Northeast.
6Closing the Achievement Gap, 2003 Urban Problem“…dimensions of the gap transcend the conditions found in urban schools.”Closing the Achievement Gap, 2003
7-Closing the Achievement Gap, 2003 Poverty or Race“Even within the same schools middle class black students tend to score lower on achievement tests than whites.”-Closing the Achievement Gap, 2003
8How is it measured? Standardized Testing ITBS/ ITED Gifted and Talented, Special EducationAP and Advanced course enrollmentsGraduation RatesCollege Going RatesCollege Completion RatesGraduate School AdmissionsIncome Levels
9Why ? Parent Involvement Teacher Expectations Teacher Race TV Test BiasCurriculumOTLStereotype ThreatBooks in the Home
10Achievement Gap National Data National Thoughts on Strategies Des Moines DataDes Moines StrategiesDes Moines Plans
11Where Are We Now? NAEP 8th Grade Mathematics All Students 2000
14Gaps Narrow, Then Hold Steady or Widen: NAEP Math Scores, 13 Year-Olds Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000
15Gaps Narrow, Then Mostly Widen NAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000
16Too Few 17 Year-Olds Demonstrate Strong Reading Skills African AmericanLatinoWhiteLearn from Specialized Materials1%2%8%Understand Complicated Information17%24%42%Make Generalizations95%97%98%Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Data Tables
17Too Few 17 Year-Olds Demonstrate Strong Math Skills African AmericanLatinoWhiteMulti-step Problems1%3%10%Moderately Complex27%38%70%Numerical Operations89%94%99%Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Data Tables
18African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year Olds Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)
19African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Read at Same Levels as White 13 Year Olds Source: Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)
20Not surprisingly, these patterns are also clear in graduation and college entry rates Education Trust
21Students Graduate From High School At Different Rates Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1998 (p ), Detailed Tables No. 2
22Highest Achieving Low-Income Students Attend Postsecondary at Same Rate as Bottom Achieving High Income StudentsSource: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third Follow up (1994); in, USDOE, NCES, NCES Condition of Education 1997 p. 64
23Of Every 100 White Kindergartners: (24 Year-Olds)Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States; March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2
24Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners: 87 Graduate from High School51 Complete at Least some College17 Graduate from College
25Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners: (24 Year-Olds)Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States; March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2
26Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native Kindergartners: (24 Year Olds)
27College Graduates by Age 24 Source: Tom Mortenson, Research Seminar on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Post Secondary, 1997.
29Wrigley Elementary KENTUCKY 78% Low-Income 3rd Highest Performing in State in Reading6th Highest Performing in State in WritingKENTUCKY
30Mount Royal Elementary/Middle, Baltimore, MD 99% African American73% Low-IncomeHighest Performing in State on state’s 5th grade Math test.Top 10% of state in 5th grade reading.MARYLAND
31Pimlico Elementary, Baltimore, MD 100% African American94% Low-IncomeTop 1% in improvement on the state’s 5th grade Math test.Maryland
32DC Key Academy 100% African American 81% low-income Founded in 2001 in southeast D.C. In its first year, housed in the basement of a church in Anacostia.Source: “KIPP:Schools” fact sheet from KIPP National office.
33DC Key Academy: First-Year Student Gains Are Double the National Average Source: New American Schools Education Performance Network. Evaluating Success: KIPP Educational Program Evaluation.October Key Academy gains compare spring 5th grade results to fall pre-test; national gains based on spring 4th to spring 5th.
34Hambrick Middle School, Aldine, TX 94% African American and Latino (state = 56%)85% low-income (state = 50%)Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas middle schools in both reading and math in both 7th and 8th grades over a 3-year period.
35Hambrick Middle School, Aldine, TX Source: New York State Department of Education. Analyses by Student Subgroup of School Performance in English LanguageArts and Mathematics for Lincoln School in Mount Vernon City School District. March 7, 2002.
36Prince Edward County High, Farmville VA (715 students – 55% African American and Latino)Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site,
37Norview High School, Norfolk, VA (1,560 students – 70% African American and Latino)Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site,
38Iowa Cedar Falls Creston Davenport* LeMars Saydel South Tama Breaking Barriers to Learning and Teaching Award, 2004
404th Grade Math African American Gains Between 1992 and 2000 Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
414th Grade Math Latino Gains Between 1992 and 2000 Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables
42Differences among states so large that minority and/or poor students in some states outperforming white and/or non-poor students in others.
438th Grade Writing: African Americans in Texas Perform as Well or Better Than Whites in 7 States Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress
44Successful schools, districts, and states a wonderful good news story for public education.
45But also contain a lot of lessons on what works...
46They Have Clear, High Goals and Consistent Approaches They are relentless in pursuing themThey don’t keep changing strategies.
47Grade 10 Writing Assignment A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.
48Grade 10 Writing Assignment Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.
49Cliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box, U.S. Department of Education. Transcript Study: single biggest predictor of college success is the quality and intensity of the high school curriculumCliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box, U.S. Department of Education.
51A Rigorous Math Curriculum Improves Scores For All Students Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1992 Mathematics Trend Assessment, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1992 Trends in Academic Progress (p 113). Washington, DC: US Department of Education. 1994
52Students Who Take Algebra Show Greater Gains in Mathematics Achievement Source: “Algebra for Everyone? Benefits of College-Preparatory Mathematics for Students With Diverse Abilities in Early Secondary School,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol. 22, Fall 2000.
53Vocational Students Taking High-Level English Courses Score Higher Source: Bottoms, Gene. “Report of the SREB, High Schools That Work 1998 Secondary Teacher Survey”, SREB, 1998, NAEP Scores.
54Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep Courses* *Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement.Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College and Vocation
65Most teachers--like most other professionals--can get more and more effective.
66Accordingly, smart districts do two important things: Stop drive-by workshopsInvest in intensive, focused professional development.
67In the meantime, though, we’ve got to work toward a more equitable distribution of teachers.
68Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. “High” and “low” refer to top and bottom quartiles.Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000.
69High-Poverty Schools Get More Low-Scoring* Teachers *Teachers scoring in the bottom quartile on on SAT/ACT. “High-poverty” schools have 2/3 or morestudents eligible for reduced-price lunch.Source: Education Week, “Quality Counts 2001,” January 2001.
70“By our estimates from Texas schools, having an above average teacher for five years running can completely close the average gap between low-income students and others.” John Kain and Eric Hanushek
71Other Research High Quality early childhood education Well prepared experienced teachersReduce class size in the early gradesEquitable representation across tracks in high schoolsBridge home and school culturesFind reasons to expect each student to succeed
72Other Research, contd. Hold schools and students accountable Support students with tutoring, summer programs and follow-up assistanceDesegregate schools and programs within schools Eliminating the Black-White Achievement Gap, Thompson and Quinn
73Sonia Nieto,Dept of Teacher Education, UMASS Other Research“To adopt a multicultural basal reader is far easier than to guarantee that all children will learn to read…to train teachers in a few behaviors in cultural awareness or curriculum inclusion is easier than to address widespread student disengagement in learning.”Sonia Nieto,Dept of Teacher Education, UMASS
74Other ResearchLook at the sociopolitical context of education and school policies and practices
75Sociopolitical Context Societal ideologiesGovernment policies and mandatesSchool finance
76School Policies and Practices CurriculumPedagogyTrackingTestingDisciplineHiring
77Troubling Questions Who is taking calculus? (12% v. 6.6%) Which classes meet in the basement?Who is teaching the children ?Experience, preparationRace, ethnicityTeachers’ influence
78Teachers’ Influence…The proof is growing that all teachers-regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender-who care about, mentor,and guide their students can have dramatic influence on their futures, even when these students face tremendous barriers related to poverty, racism, and other social ills.”Sonia Nieto
80Measures of Student Data Used to Demonstrate Achievement Gaps Standardized Test Scores ITBSCollege Preparatory Course Enrollment andAP Course Enrollment and AP Test Passing RatesGraduation RatesACT Scores
96Federal Role Minimize interstate resource differences Mississippi spent $4900 to New Jersey’s $9090 adjusted for cost of living1996 Mississippi received $590 and New Jersey received $340Flanagan and Grissmer, The Role of Federal Resources in Closing the Achievement Gap
97Federal Role Support sound educational research Improve teacher qualityBroaden assessmentsAll Students Reaching the Top, Strategies for Closing Academic Achievement Gaps, NCREL 2004
98Colleges and Universities Teacher training focused on research from learning sciencesAll Students Reaching the Top, Strategies for Closing Academic Achievement Gaps, NCREL 2004
99State Level Preparation of School Leaders High quality supplemental education services
100Des Moines Strategies Early Childhood Programs All Day Kindergarten Focused Professional DevelopmentClass Size ReductionAdditional ResourcesFocus on LiteracyCurriculum AlignmentPrep Academy
101Des Moines Strategies Sisters for Success Minority Achievement Program Collaboration, Partners in Economic ProgressTransformational Leadership for PrincipalsBenchmark on the Gap 2000
102Gap Plan Focus on African American, and Latino student achievement 80% FRPLLowest achievementSuccess transferable
103Plan for Progress Input from Multiple Sources Soft Data Hard Data ParentsCommunityStudents, focus on successStaff, focus on successHard DataTest Scores, 1.4AP EnrollmentsSuspensionsResearch
104Existence Proof Students Schools Districts No one has brought it to scale
105Gap Plan Areas Engage the Community Build Leadership Capacity Quality TeachersImprove District and School CultureAligned, Rigorous and Engaging CurriculumAddress the Needs of Struggling StudentsEvaluate Current Programs, Focus EffortsBenchmark Districts
106-Adam Urbansky, President Rochester AFT Excellence without equity is privilege. Equity without excellence is tokenism.-Adam Urbansky, President Rochester AFT
107-Marian Wright Edelman A lot of folks are waiting for Dr. King or Mahatma Ghandi to come back. They are not coming back. We are it.-Marian Wright Edelman