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Academic Achievement Gap December 2, 2004. What is the achievement gap? Correlation between race, and or poverty and low academic achievement.

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Achievement Gap December 2, 2004. What is the achievement gap? Correlation between race, and or poverty and low academic achievement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Achievement Gap December 2, 2004

2 What is the achievement gap? Correlation between race, and or poverty and low academic achievement

3 The Roots of the Gap “…while the achievement gap formally appears as early as kindergarten, assessments have shown that a sizable gap can be found in young children before they start school. (Kober, 2001)” -Closing the Achievement Gap

4 The History 1966 James Coleman 1966 James Coleman 1970 NAEP 1970 NAEP 1983 A Nation At Risk 1983 A Nation At Risk 1988 High water mark 1988 High water mark 1990 The Bell Curve, Hernstein and Murray 1990 The Bell Curve, Hernstein and Murray 1998 ECLS-K 1998 ECLS-K NCLB 2001 NCLB 2001

5 The gap varies geographically The gaps are widest in the Midwest and Northeast.

6 Urban Problem “…dimensions of the gap transcend the conditions found in urban schools.” Closing the Achievement Gap, 2003

7 Poverty or Race “Even within the same schools middle class black students tend to score lower on achievement tests than whites.” - Closing the Achievement Gap, 2003

8 How is it measured? Standardized Testing ITBS/ ITED Standardized Testing ITBS/ ITED Gifted and Talented, Special Education Gifted and Talented, Special Education AP and Advanced course enrollments AP and Advanced course enrollments Graduation Rates Graduation Rates College Going Rates College Going Rates College Completion Rates College Completion Rates Graduate School Admissions Graduate School Admissions Income Levels Income Levels

9 Why ? Parent Involvement Parent Involvement Teacher Expectations Teacher Expectations Teacher Race Teacher Race TV TV Test Bias Test Bias Curriculum Curriculum OTL OTL Stereotype Threat Stereotype Threat Books in the Home Books in the Home

10 Achievement Gap National Data National Data National Thoughts on Strategies National Thoughts on Strategies Des Moines Data Des Moines Data Des Moines Strategies Des Moines Strategies Des Moines Plans Des Moines Plans

11 Where Are We Now? NAEP 8th Grade Mathematics All Students 2000

12 NAEP 8th Grade Mathematics 2000

13 NAEP 8th Grade Math Performance 2000

14 Gaps Narrow, Then Hold Steady or Widen: NAEP Math Scores, 13 Year- Olds Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

15 Gaps Narrow, Then Mostly Widen NAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

16 Too Few 17 Year-Olds Demonstrate Strong Reading Skills Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Data Tables African American LatinoWhite Learn from Specialized Materials 1%2%8% Understand Complicated Information 17%24%42% Make Generalizations 95%97%98%

17 Too Few 17 Year-Olds Demonstrate Strong Math Skills Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Data Tables African American LatinoWhite Multi-step Problems 1%3%10% Moderately Complex 27%38%70% Numerical Operations 89%94%99%

18 African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year Olds Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)

19 African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Read at Same Levels as White 13 Year Olds Source: Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)

20 Not surprisingly, these patterns are also clear in graduation and college entry rates Education Trust

21 Students Graduate From High School At Different Rates Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1998 (p ), Detailed Tables No. 2

22 Highest Achieving Low-Income Students Attend Postsecondary at Same Rate as Bottom Achieving High Income Students Source: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third Follow up (1994); in, USDOE, NCES, NCES Condition of Education 1997 p. 64

23 Of Every 100 White Kindergartners: (24 Year-Olds) Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States; March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2

24 Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners: 87 Graduate from High School 87 Graduate from High School 51 Complete at Least some College 51 Complete at Least some College 17 Graduate from College 17 Graduate from College

25 Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners: (24 Year-Olds) Source: US Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Educational Attainment in the United States; March 2000, Detailed Tables No. 2

26 Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native Kindergartners: (24 Year Olds)

27 College Graduates by Age 24 Source: Tom Mortenson, Research Seminar on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Post Secondary, 1997.

28 Schools Making Gains

29 Wrigley Elementary 78% Low-Income 78% Low-Income 3rd Highest Performing in State in Reading 3rd Highest Performing in State in Reading 6th Highest Performing in State in Writing 6th Highest Performing in State in Writing KENTUCKY

30 Mount Royal Elementary/Middle, Baltimore, MD 99% African American 99% African American 73% Low-Income 73% Low-Income Highest Performing in State on state’s 5th grade Math test. Highest Performing in State on state’s 5th grade Math test. Top 10% of state in 5th grade reading. Top 10% of state in 5th grade reading. MARYLAND

31 Pimlico Elementary, Baltimore, MD 100% African American 100% African American 94% Low- Income 94% Low- Income Top 1% in improvement on the state’s 5th grade Math test. Top 1% in improvement on the state’s 5th grade Math test. Maryland

32 DC Key Academy 100% African American 100% African American 81% low-income 81% low-income Founded in 2001 in southeast D.C. In its first year, housed in the basement of a church in Anacostia. Founded in 2001 in southeast D.C. In its first year, housed in the basement of a church in Anacostia. Source: “KIPP:Schools” fact sheet from KIPP National office.

33 DC Key Academy: First-Year Student Gains Are Double the National Average Source: New American Schools Education Performance Network. Evaluating Success: KIPP Educational Program Evaluation. October Key Academy gains compare spring 5 th grade results to fall pre-test; national gains based on spring 4 th to spring 5 th.

34 Hambrick Middle School, Aldine, TX 94% African American and Latino (state = 56%) 94% African American and Latino (state = 56%) 85% low-income (state = 50%) 85% low-income (state = 50%) Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas middle schools in both reading and math in both 7 th and 8 th grades over a 3-year period. Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas middle schools in both reading and math in both 7 th and 8 th grades over a 3-year period.

35 Hambrick Middle School, Aldine, TX Source: New York State Department of Education. Analyses by Student Subgroup of School Performance in English Language Arts and Mathematics for Lincoln School in Mount Vernon City School District. March 7, 2002.

36 Prince Edward County High, Farmville VA Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site, (715 students – 55% African American and Latino)

37 Norview High School, Norfolk, VA Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site, (1,560 students – 70% African American and Latino)

38 Iowa Cedar Falls Cedar Falls Creston Creston Davenport* Davenport* LeMars LeMars Saydel Saydel South Tama South Tama Breaking Barriers to Learning and Teaching Award, 2004

39 And some entire states...

40 4th Grade Math African American Gains Between 1992 and 2000 Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables

41 4th Grade Math Latino Gains Between 1992 and 2000 Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables

42 Differences among states so large that minority and/or poor students in some states outperforming white and/or non-poor students in others.

43 8th Grade Writing: African Americans in Texas Perform as Well or Better Than Whites in 7 States Source: NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress

44 Successful schools, districts, and states a wonderful good news story for public education.

45 But also contain a lot of lessons on what works...

46 They Have Clear, High Goals and Consistent Approaches They are relentless in pursuing them They are relentless in pursuing them They don’t keep changing strategies. They don’t keep changing strategies.

47 Grade 10 Writing Assignment A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.

48 Grade 10 Writing Assignment Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

49 Transcript Study: single biggest predictor of college success is the quality and intensity of the high school curriculum Cliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box, U.S. Department of Education.

50 Students of all sorts will learn more...

51 Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1992 Mathematics Trend Assessment, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1992 Trends in Academic Progress (p 113). Washington, DC: US Department of Education A Rigorous Math Curriculum Improves Scores For All Students

52 Students Who Take Algebra Show Greater Gains in Mathematics Achievement Source: “Algebra for Everyone? Benefits of College-Preparatory Mathematics for Students With Diverse Abilities in Early Secondary School,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol. 22, Fall 2000.

53 Source: Bottoms, Gene. “Report of the SREB, High Schools That Work 1998 Secondary Teacher Survey”, SREB, 1998, NAEP Scores. Vocational Students Taking High-Level English Courses Score Higher

54 Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College and Vocation *Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement. Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep Courses*

55 Take Manufacturing, for example…

56 Requirements for Tool and Die Makers Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or postsecondary training; Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or postsecondary training; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics; Average earnings: $40,000 per year. Average earnings: $40,000 per year.

57 Requirements for Sheet Metal Workers Four or five years of apprenticeship; Four or five years of apprenticeship; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and technical reading; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and technical reading;

58 Auto Mechanics Reading Level- Grade 13 Aviation Mechanics Reading Level- College

59 Leading districts, states making college prep the default curriculum.

60 Leading Districts, States Provide Extra Instruction for Students Who Need It

61 And if you don’t live in a smart state? Many schools, districts finding ways to double, even triple, amount of time spent on literacy, math.

62 Good Teaching Matters More Than Anything Else

63 Students who have several strong teachers in a row, will thrive no matter what their family background.

64 1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.

65 Most teachers--like most other professionals--can get more and more effective.

66 Accordingly, smart districts do two important things: Stop drive-by workshops Stop drive-by workshops Invest in intensive, focused professional development. Invest in intensive, focused professional development.

67 In the meantime, though, we’ve got to work toward a more equitable distribution of teachers.

68 Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. “High” and “low” refer to top and bottom quartiles. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000.

69 High-Poverty Schools Get More Low-Scoring* Teachers *Teachers scoring in the bottom quartile on on SAT/ACT. “High-poverty” schools have 2/3 or more students eligible for reduced-price lunch. Source: Education Week, “Quality Counts 2001,” January 2001.

70 “ By our estimates from Texas schools, having an above average teacher for five years running can completely close the average gap between low- income students and others.” John Kain and Eric Hanushek

71 Other Research High Quality early childhood education High Quality early childhood education Well prepared experienced teachers Well prepared experienced teachers Reduce class size in the early grades Reduce class size in the early grades Equitable representation across tracks in high schools Equitable representation across tracks in high schools Bridge home and school cultures Bridge home and school cultures Find reasons to expect each student to succeed Find reasons to expect each student to succeed

72 Other Research, contd. Hold schools and students accountable Hold schools and students accountable Support students with tutoring, summer programs and follow-up assistance Support students with tutoring, summer programs and follow-up assistance Desegregate schools and programs within schoolsEliminating the Black-White Achievement Gap, Thompson and Quinn Desegregate schools and programs within schoolsEliminating the Black-White Achievement Gap, Thompson and Quinn

73 Other Research “To adopt a multicultural basal reader is far easier than to guarantee that all children will learn to read…to train teachers in a few behaviors in cultural awareness or curriculum inclusion is easier than to address widespread student disengagement in learning.” Sonia Nieto,Dept of Teacher Education, UMASS

74 Other Research Look at the sociopolitical context of education and school policies and practices

75 Sociopolitical Context Societal ideologies Societal ideologies Government policies and mandates Government policies and mandates School finance School finance

76 School Policies and Practices Curriculum Curriculum Pedagogy Pedagogy Tracking Tracking Testing Testing Discipline Discipline Hiring Hiring

77 Troubling Questions Who is taking calculus? (12% v. 6.6%) Who is taking calculus? (12% v. 6.6%) Which classes meet in the basement? Which classes meet in the basement? Who is teaching the children? Who is teaching the children? Experience, preparation Experience, preparation Race, ethnicity Race, ethnicity Teachers’ influence Teachers’ influence

78 Teachers’ Influence …The proof is growing that all teachers- regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender-who care about, mentor,and guide their students can have dramatic influence on their futures, even when these students face tremendous barriers related to poverty, racism, and other social ills.” Sonia Nieto

79 Des Moines Data

80 Measures of Student Data Used to Demonstrate Achievement Gaps Standardized Test Scores ITBS Standardized Test Scores ITBS College Preparatory Course Enrollment and College Preparatory Course Enrollment and AP Course Enrollment and AP Test Passing Rates AP Course Enrollment and AP Test Passing Rates Graduation Rates Graduation Rates ACT Scores ACT Scores

81 Standardized Test Scores by Language Fluency

82 Standardized Test Scores by Ethnicity

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88 Standardized Test Scores by Income

89 Graduation Rates by Ethnicity “Graduation Rate” defined as: Number of 12 th graders receiving diplomas divided by number of entering 8 th graders four years earlier

90 Standardized Test Scores by Income

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96 Federal Role Minimize interstate resource differences Minimize interstate resource differences Mississippi spent $4900 to New Jersey’s $9090 adjusted for cost of living Mississippi spent $4900 to New Jersey’s $9090 adjusted for cost of living 1996 Mississippi received $590 and New Jersey received $ Mississippi received $590 and New Jersey received $340 Flanagan and Grissmer, The Role of Federal Resources in Closing the Achievement Gap Flanagan and Grissmer, The Role of Federal Resources in Closing the Achievement Gap

97 Federal Role Support sound educational research Support sound educational research Improve teacher quality Improve teacher quality Broaden assessments Broaden assessments All Students Reaching the Top, Strategies for Closing Academic Achievement Gaps, NCREL 2004

98 Colleges and Universities Teacher training focused on research from learning sciences Teacher training focused on research from learning sciences All Students Reaching the Top, Strategies for Closing Academic Achievement Gaps, NCREL 2004

99 State Level Preparation of School Leaders Preparation of School Leaders High quality supplemental education services High quality supplemental education services

100 Des Moines Strategies Early Childhood Programs Early Childhood Programs All Day Kindergarten All Day Kindergarten Focused Professional Development Focused Professional Development Class Size Reduction Class Size Reduction Additional Resources Additional Resources Focus on Literacy Focus on Literacy Curriculum Alignment Curriculum Alignment Prep Academy Prep Academy

101 Des Moines Strategies Sisters for Success Sisters for Success Minority Achievement Program Minority Achievement Program Collaboration, Partners in Economic Progress Collaboration, Partners in Economic Progress Transformational Leadership for Principals Transformational Leadership for Principals Benchmark on the Gap 2000 Benchmark on the Gap 2000

102 Gap Plan Focus on African American, and Latino student achievement Focus on African American, and Latino student achievement 80% FRPL 80% FRPL Lowest achievement Lowest achievement Success transferable Success transferable

103 Plan for Progress Input from Multiple Sources Input from Multiple Sources Soft Data Soft Data Parents Parents Community Community Students, focus on success Students, focus on success Staff, focus on success Staff, focus on success Hard Data Hard Data Test Scores, 1.4 Test Scores, 1.4 AP Enrollments AP Enrollments Suspensions Suspensions Research Research

104 Existence Proof Students Students Schools Schools Districts Districts No one has brought it to scale No one has brought it to scale

105 Gap Plan Areas Engage the Community Engage the Community Build Leadership Capacity Build Leadership Capacity Quality Teachers Quality Teachers Improve District and School Culture Improve District and School Culture Aligned, Rigorous and Engaging Curriculum Aligned, Rigorous and Engaging Curriculum Address the Needs of Struggling Students Address the Needs of Struggling Students Evaluate Current Programs, Focus Efforts Evaluate Current Programs, Focus Efforts Benchmark Districts Benchmark Districts

106 Excellence without equity is privilege. Equity without excellence is tokenism. -Adam Urbansky, President Rochester AFT

107 A lot of folks are waiting for Dr. King or Mahatma Ghandi to come back. They are not coming back. We are it. -Marian Wright Edelman


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