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Presentation on theme: "BITUMEN PAVES THE WAY."— Presentation transcript:



3 Bitumen - HISTORY Used in Building and Paving since Ancient times.
Oldest adhesive known to man. Used in 3500 B.C. as mortar for building stones and paving blocks in Mesopotamia. Used for water tightening of reservoirs, canals, bathing pools & embankments of rivers in Indus Valley. Used for Mummification in 300 B.C. Rock Asphalt used for flooring/sidewalks in France in 1800 A.D. First road surfacing with Bitumen done in New Jersey in 1870 A.D. From 1900 onwards Bitumen produced from Refineries being used extensively.



Produced at temperatures above 1200OC during manufacturing of coke. High aromatic content. Pitch content - 50 %. LOW AROMATIC TAR Produced at temperatures 600OC to 700OC. Less viscous. Paraffinic in nature. Pitch content - 35 %.

7 Natural Asphalt / Rock Asphalt / Lake Asphalt
Naturally occurring Bituminous binder. Biggest deposits in Trinidad 100 Acres, 90 meter deep 10 to 15 Million MT Pen max Asphalt found in France, Italy & Switzerland - Rock Asphalt.

8 Bitumen Cutback Bitumen Emulsions Modified Bitumen
Conventional Bitumen Paving Grade Bitumen Industrial Grade Bitumen Cutback Bitumen Emulsions Modified Bitumen Modified Bitumen Emulsions


10 Production Process Fractional distillation Process
Crude Oil heated to 300 – 350OC is fed into atmospheric distillation column. Lighter fractions like Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel separated at different heights Heaviest fractions at bottom column are called long residue. Long residue heated to OC fed into distillation column at reduced pressure. Residue at bottom of column called short residue used as feedstock for Bitumen. Hot air is blown into short residue to make Bitumen.


12 Bitumen A viscous liquid or a solid, consisting essentially of Hydrocarbons and their derivatives, which is soluble in Trichloroethylene and is substantially non-volatile and softens gradually when heated. It is Black or Brown in colour and posses water proofing & adhesive properties. It is obtained by refining processes from Crude Petroleum.


14 Elemental Analysis Carbon 82 - 88 % Hydrogen 8 - 11 % Sulphur 0 - 6 %
Oxygen % Nitrogen %

15 Elemental Analysis Elemental composition depends on origin of crude
processes used in refinery Elemental composition Extremely complex with the number of molecules with different chemical structures being very large Not feasible to attempt a complete analysis Elemental composition provides little information of the types of molecular structure

16 Chemical Composition

17 Properties of BITUMEN

18 Properties of Bitumen Characteristics 80/100 60/70 30/40
Specific gravity at 27OC Softening Point OC to to to 65 Penetration at 25OC, to to to 40 100gm, 5 secs., 1/10 mm Ductility at 27OC, in cm min

19 SIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS Penetration Test Indicates consistence
Softening Point Indicates melting temperature Loss on heating / thin film oven test Hardening on road Ductility Test Affinity for aggregates Solubility in Trichloroethelene Indicates purity of Bitumen

20 Penetration Travel in dmm of a specified needle under 100 g wt. for 5 secs into Bitumen at 25OC Denotes consistency

21 Softening Point 3.5 g steel ball placed on Bitumen sample in Brass ring Bath temp. raised at 5OC per minute

22 DUCTILITY Indicates the extent to which a sample can be stretched before breaking. Length in cm. at breaking point is ductility

23 FLASH POINT Used to measure temperature to which a sample bitumen may be safely heated The flash point is the temperature reached when the vapour causes an instantaneous flash

24 Handling of BITUMEN

25 Storage & Handling Bitumen tanks should have low surface to volume ratio. p r2 1 Exposed surface = pr2h h Product should be recirculated, however, return lines should enter the tank below Bitumen surface. Bitumen should always be handled at lowest possible temperature, consistent with efficient use. In case of reheating, heating should be done intermittently to prevent high localised temperatures. Prolonged direct flame heating may cause cracking of Bitumen.

26 Recommended Handling Temperatures
Characteristics / /70 30/40 Min. Pumping Temp.27OC Mixing/Coating Temp. OC 150 to to to 175 Laying Temp.OC to to to 160 Spraying Temp.OC Max. Safe Hdlng. Temp. OC

27 Normally Bitumen hardens by one grade during mixing and laying.

28 Selection of GRADE

29 Selection Criteria Choice of Bitumen is based on
Climatic Conditions - Maximum & Minimum temperature & rainfall. Intensity of Traffic - Number of vehicles per day, Traffic speed & axle load of vehicles.

30 Applications of 80/100 Grade
Less viscous grade. Used in all climatic conditions. Suited for traffic load < 1500 cv/day. Better suited for high altitude/snow bound regions irrespective of traffic intensity.

31 Applications of 60/70 Grade
More viscous grade. Higher softening point. Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/day. Can withstand heavier axle loads. Better suited for highways, expressways & urban roads. Suited for areas where difference between min. & max. temp. is > 25oC. Reduced stripping in presence of water.

32 Applications of 30/40 Grade
Suited for areas where diff. between min. & max. temp. < 25oC. Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/ day Used in metropolitan areas. Used in airport runways.

33 Durability of BITUMINOUS ROADS

34 Factors Affecting Adhesion
External Rainfall Humidity water pH Presence of salts Temperature Temperature cycles Traffic Design Workmanship Drainage Aggregate Mineralogy Surface texture Porosity Dirt Durability Surface area Absorption Moisture content Shape Weathering

35 Factors Affecting Adhesion
Bitumen Rheology Constitution Mix Void content Permeability Bitumen content Bitumen film thickness Filler type Aggregate grading Mix type

36 Durability of Bitumen Oxidative hardening. Evaporative hardening.
Exudative hardening. Hardening in Bulk storage. Hardening during mixing. Physical hardening.

37 Bitumen Advantages

38 Advantages Smooth Safe Economical Speed Quiet Environment friendly
Versatile State of-the-art Stage Construction Resistant to de-icing material Serviceability

39 Smooth Better riding quality Absence of joints
Estimated 15% increase in pavement life for 50% increase in smoothness Less wear and tear to vehicle Lesser fuel consumption Enjoyable ride

40 Safe Better skid resistance over a longer period of time
Use of OGFC reduces Tyre Spray, Hydroplaning and Improves Visibility Better contrast with pavement markings

41 Economical Low initial cost compared to PCC
Gap widens throughout pavement life A well designed and constructed pavement Can last for 25 to 34 years without reconstruction Can serve for 15 year or more before distresses become sufficient to require rehabilitation

42 Speed of Construction Newark Airport – 1,15,000MT in 15 days, 11,000MT in 24 hours Pave during off peak hours and open to traffic as soon as it cools down Reduces work zone accident Can result in 80% reduction in user delay costs 24-hour closure will have 3 to 10 times more vehicles pass through the work zone

43 Quiet Pavements Dense graded asphalt is quieter by 2 to 3 dB(A) compared to PCC 3 dB(A) corresponds to Doubling the distance in the line of source Reducing traffic volume by 50% Reducing traffic speed by 25% Open graded Friction Course Reduces noise further Costs 1/8th of noise barrier on side of the road Aesthetically superior

44 Environment Friendly Used for water proofing of fish ponds without any problem Very low level of leachable compounds Most recycled product in the world 100% recyclable Second highest - Aluminium cans – 60% Can use waste material from other fields also like worn out PCC

45 Versatile

46 State-of-the-Art Road design, construction and maintenance methods are being overhauled New tests being developed New plants providing high quality materials Pavers with laser controlled screeds for even smoother pavements Better material transfer vehicles for uniformity and rollers with increased compactive effort. The ultimate result of this new technology will be: smoother, more durable, longer lasting asphalt pavements

47 Stage Construction Bituminous pavements can be constructed in stages
Being made thicker and/or wider as the need arises Each successive layer becomes an integral part of the pavement structure, increasing the load carrying capacity.

48 De-icing Materials Bituminous pavements are not harmed by de-icing chemicals Also snow and ice melt quickly from bituminous pavements

49 Serviceability Bituminous pavements can easily maintain a high level of serviceability with minimal disruption to the traffic Can be easily trenched, patched and quickly opened to traffic when underground utilities need to be repaired.



52 Engineering Properties of Bitumen
Bitumen is a visco-elastic material & it’s deformation under stress is a function of both temperature & loading time At higher temperature &/or longer loading time Behave as viscous liquids At low temperature &/or short loading time Behave as elastic solids The intermediate range of temperatures, more typical of the conditions in service, result in visco-elastic behaviour.

53 The Stiffness Concept In solids : E = s e where E = Elastic modulus
s = Stress e = Strain

54 The Stiffness Concept In visco-elastic material : St,T = s et,T
Where St,T = Stiffness modulus at specific time t & Temp. T. s = Stress et,T = Strain at specific time t & temp. T.

55 MODIFIED BITUMEN Binder of the future

56 Why Modified Bitumen? Demands on Road increasing every year
Increasing Number of Vehicles Increasing Axle Load Desire to maintain higher serviceability level Higher fatigue resistance Higher resistance to weathering Better adhesion Higher stiffness modulus Lesser cracking, ravelling, deformation & creep failure Reduce number of overlays Reduction in vehicle operation cost

57 Why Modified Bitumen? Another view point
2.75 million vehicles generate discarded tyres 30, ,000 tyres are disposed every day 1,00,000 –1,20,000 tyres will be available by 2021 Use of CRMB in maintenance of roads can consume 3500 Kg/km non-biodegradable waste rubber

58 Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen
+ Additives (Modifiers/Treated Crumb Rubber)

59 Advantages of CRMB Higher resistance to deformations/ wear & tear
Resistance to reflective cracking Reduced expense on frequent overlays Lower susceptibility to temp. variation Higher resistance to deformation at high temperature Better Age Resistance Properties Higher Fatigue Life of Mixes Better Adhesion Properties Reduced Noise

60 Types of Modifiers Polymers Plastics Rubbers Thermoset Thermoplastic
Synthetic Elastomers SBS, SBR etc. Polymers Plastics Rubbers Crumb Rubber Natural Rubber (Latex) Thermoset Epoxy Resins Plain Thermoplastic LDPE, EVA, EBA Chemically Treated

Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) Styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene (SEBS) Ethylene-prppylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) Isobutene-isoprene copolymer (IIR) Natural Rubber Crumb Rubber Polybutadiene (PBD) Polyisoprene THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) Ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) Ethylene butyl acrylate (EBA) Atactic polypropylene (APP) Polyethylene (PE) Polypropylene (PP) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polystyrene (PS) THERMOSETTING POLYMERS Epoxy resin Polyurethane resin Acrylic resin Phenolic resin CHEMICAL MODIFIERS Organo-metallic compounds Sulphur Lignin FIBRES Cellulose Alumino-magnesium silicate Glass fibre Asbestos Polyester Polypropylene ADHESION IMPROVERS Orgainc amines Amides ANTIOXIDANTS Amines Phenols Organo-zinc/organo-lead compounds NATURAL ASPHALTS Trinidad lake Asphalt (TLA) Gilsonite Rock asphalt FILLERS Carbon black Hydrated lime Lime Fly ash

Meets IRC:SP:

63 Tests on CRMB Penetration Softening Point Elastic Recovery
Thin Film Oven Test

64 Test and Trials with CRMB
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi. Highway Research Station, Chennai. Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Research Station, P.W (R&B) Dept., Hyderabad., Andhra Pradesh.


66 International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen
CRMB is being used in USA from 1960 Currently Arizona , Florida , Texas and California using 2 million tons of Rubberized Bitumen. CRMB is very popular in Australia for chip sealing wearing courses and structural layers . Use of CRMB increasing in developing countries of Latin America.

67 International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen
CRMB in use in USA, Canada, France , Germany and South Africa. UK Environmentalist’s want use of CRMB to be encouraged on roads. Govts. especially are considering making the use mandatory. Belgian Road Research center encouraging the use of CRMB on Freeways South African companies are increasingly using Rubber Modified mixes


69 Conclusions Total thickness of conventional pavement was 21 inches Vs. 13 ½ inches for a rubberized pavement, the cost saving in initial construction was approx. 42% Roughness value of conventional pavement was poorer by 27% initially but due to higher deterioration the gap increased to 50% by end of 11 years In span of 11 years 50% less money was spent on maintenance cost on rubberized pavement in comparison to conventional pavement The benefit to the user by way of savings in VOC was also seen and estimated that it is significantly less on rubberized pavement in comparison to conventional pavement

70 Conclusions Quote: “Based on the data analysis presented for the two pavements, an asphalt-rubber pavement would be more cost-effective than a conventional pavement with respect to agency costs as well as user costs. In addition, the good performance of the asphalt-rubber pavement would increase its service life, which in turn would have a substantial impact on life cycle cost analysis. Furthermore, if one or more rehabilitation is eliminated in a typical analysis period (35 years), it would also have a significant impact on user costs during the work zone periods.” Unquote.

71 Selection Criteria Atmospheric Temperature OC <35 35-45 >45
Minimum Maximum < >45 < CRMB50 CRMB 55 CRMB 55 -10 to CRMB CRMB CRMB 60 > CRMB CRMB CRMB 60

72 Recommended Handling Temperatures
Stage of Work Viscosity, Poise Temp. Range, OC Binder at Mixing < 2 165 – 185 Mix at Mixing Plant < 4 Mix at Laying Site < 5 Rolling at Site 10 – 1,000

73 HANDLING OF CRMB CRMB should ideally be used in hot condition.
When supplied in drums, it shall be agitated properly in melted condition for minutes before use. Mixing & rolling temperature should be approx. 10OC higher than conventional temperature.

74 Bitumen New Trends

75 Future Trends in Bituminous Roads
ISO Certification of Roads Road Safety Audit Performance Based Specifications Stone Mastic Asphalt Perpetual Pavements Foamed Bitumen Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen Sulphur Extended Bitumen Modifiers

76 ISO Certification of Roads
Growth in EN ISO 9000 certification in European countries Voluntary activity driven by individual companies or by the national asphalt industry. To obtain management and marketing tools. In several countries certification is becoming a regulatory requirement, usually by mutual agreement between suppliers and clients. Effective quality schedules can be produced only by joint action of supplier and client side of road sector. If the positive aspects of certification are not taken into account in contract arrangements its introduction will increase the overall cost of asphalt roads

77 Road Safety Audit Fresh project proposals Existing network of roads
Safety audit applied to Fresh project proposals Existing network of roads Specific existing project Auditors should be completely independent of the organization involved in development of project. The audit team comprising of 4-5 people inspect the roads during daytime and also at night. The team identifies aspects that the road controlling authority does well, as well as the aspects that could be improved.

78 Road Safety Audits (Contd.)
The team selects aspects and features that were observed on a number of audited roads. The teams’ recommendations focus on policies and procedures and not on correcting the identified deficiencies. The team ranks each recommendation on a four point subjective scale. The draft report in a standard format is reported to the authority for their comments A formal final report is submitted Database is developed for all road safety audits

79 Performance Grade Specifications
Existing Specifications Most tests are empirical tests and are not directly related to performance on the road Tests are conducted at one standard temp. Performance under climatic condition prevailing throughout the year are not evaluated Only short term ageing is evaluated, that too only in a few cases Performance grade tests simulate the actual field conditions in a more realistic way

80 Stone Mastic Asphalt Increasingly popular Worldwide in heavy traffic roads & airfields. Even surface gives better riding comfort. Texture gives good skid resistance & relatively low traffic noise. Strong aggregate structure provided by the coarse aggregate particles gives excellent resistance to permanent deformation. Rich mastic, which fills the voids, makes SMA highly durable. Modified bitumen & Fibres can be used to further enhance the mechanical properties. Allows thin layer application.

81 Stone Mastic Asphalt (Contd.)
The aggregate grading is similar to that of Porous Asphalt, but with the voids filled with mortar. The process of designing Stone Mastic Asphalt mix involves adjusting grading to accommodate required binder and void content rather than the more familiar process of adjusting the binder content to suit the aggregate grading. Cost effective despite high quality aggregate & higher binder content. Extremely low maintenance. Longer life.

82 Perpetual Pavements Structure Lasts 50+ years
Bottom-Up Design and Construction Indefinite Fatigue Life Renewable Pavement Surface. High Rutting Resistance Tailored for Specific Application Consistent, Smooth and Safe Driving Surface. Environmentally Friendly Avoids Costly Reconstruction

83 Perpetual Pavements Designed and build to last at least 50 years
Will result in reduced maintenance cost and traffic disruptions Build bottom-up with strong foundation and structural stability Higher fatigue resistance in lower layers Higher rutting resistance in upper layers Drainage is an important consideration in the design of pavement structures The change in foundation properties with the different seasons must be adequately accounted for Special soil conditions such as frost heave and expansive behavior need to be included in the site investigation and design, depending upon the local situation and standard practice The selection of materials and mix design for the HMA layers is dependent upon the needs for the individual layers with respect to the overall performance of the pavement Aggregate interlock is an important component to mix stability.

84 Perpetual Pavements The use of crushed, hard aggregate particles and an aggregate structure evaluation will help to guarantee particle-to-particle contact. use of polymers and fibers can enhance the high-temperature performance of asphalt binders. It is important to achieve the proper density during construction. An air void content higher than about six percent may result in consolidation and rutting early in the pavement’s life. The material in the top HMA layer may be either a SMA, OGFC or Superpave mix, depending upon the needs of a specific area. In any case, as distresses dictate the need for a new pavement surface, the old surface may be milled up and replaced with a minimum of traffic disruption and cost. This underscores the principles of the Perpetual Pavement: Design: build it for the traffic, soil and climate, and the only cost thereafter should be associated with periodic overlays. There are a number of initiatives by various countries and states to formalize the concept of Perpetual Pavements. In Europe, particularly England and France, the idea of high-modulus pavements has gained acceptance. These are thick asphalt pavements placed over one or more layers of granular material. Illinois is engaged in developing a long-life asphalt pavement design procedure. Participants have included the Illinois DOT, the HMA industry and the University of Illinois. The Michigan Asphalt Pavement Association has developed a Perpetual Pavement design procedure. Wisconsin is in the process of researching Perpetual Pavements at a number of test sites. Texas is using Perpetual Pavements along the heavily traveled I-35 corridor. Kentucky has used the Perpetual Pavement concept to design portions of interstate pavements. Other efforts are proceeding in Virginia and Ohio. What makes the Perpetual Pavement perpetual is that, while the surface will need periodic replacement, the bulk of the pavement structure will remain intact.

85 Foamed Bitumen Mixture of Bitumen (98%), water (1%) and foaming agent (1%) When hot bitumen (160 to 200OC) comes in contact with cold water (15 to 25OC) Mixture expands more than 10 times Forms a fine mist or foam Foamed bitumen is sprayed on fine aggregate in mixing drums to get a strong flexible pavement material Used for durable, fast and low cost rehabilitation of existing pavements

86 Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen
Lower stripping compared to other bitumens Reduction in mixing and laying temperatures Improves fracture strength and ductility Very low dosage of modifier Test tracks in the world are still under evaluation but preliminary results are very promising

87 Sulphur Extended Asphalt Modifier
Odourless pellets consisting of Sulphur, Plasticizers and additives Is added to the hot mix Melts and disperses easily Acts as binder extender and asphalt mix modifier Environmentally safe Reduces Bitumen requirement by 30% Mixing temperature is reduced by 10OC Higher resistance to rutting, fatigue failure and low temperature cracking Suitable for perpetual pavements


89 More direct correlation between bitumen and road performance is needed
BITUMEN TODAY Penetration/Viscosity based classification 80/100, 60/70, 30/40 Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Viscosity Empirical tests done at standard temp., loading, etc. Ageing is not considered No direct correlation with actual field conditions Seems to work somehow – Has stood the test of time Need to cut inefficiencies – Cost effective More direct correlation between bitumen and road performance is needed

90 BITUMEN TOMORROW - New system of classification to be developed
More direct correlation between road performance and properties of bitumen Properties desired Easier handling (mixing, coating, rolling) Better rutting resistance Higher fatigue life Resistance to low temperature cracking - New system of classification to be developed - New tests to be developed




94 CLASSIFICATION PG 58 -22 Min. pavement design temp. Performance Grade
Average 7 day max. pavement design temp.

95 MIXING AND LAYING Tested in rotational viscometer
Max. viscosity of 3 Pa-s at 135oC

96 AGEING OF BITUMEN During Construction Early in Pavement’s life
Post construction upto two years Late in pavement’s life Seven plus years of life Rotating thin film oven test (RTFOT) RTFOT + Pressure Ageing Vessel (PAV)



99 RUTTING Due to melting of bitumen on the road
Always occurs at max. pavement temp. Test to be conducted at max. pavement temp. Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer G*/Sind min rad/s for unaged bitumen G*/Sind min rad/s for RTFOT aged bitumen


101 FATIGUE Due to repeated loading,unloading cycles
Always occurs near the average pavement temp. Test to be conducted at average + 4OC pavement temp. Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer G*Sind max rad/s for RTFOT + PAV aged bitumen

102 LOW TEMP CRACKING Failure strain min. 1%
Due to loss of elasticity at very low temp. Always occurs at lowest pavement temp. Testing done at min. temp. + 10OC Bending Beam Rheometer Creep Stiffness of max. 300,000 kPa, m-value min. 0.30 Direct Tension Test - For Modified Bitumens Failure strain min. 1%




106 GRADE BUMPING Choice of grade depends on max. and min. pavement temperature 20 mm below road surface. Correction for Traffic speed > 90 km/h No Correction < 90 km/h Increase one high temp. grade < 20 km/h Increase two high temp. grade Correction for Traffic volume < 10 million ESAL - No Correction > 10 million ESAL - Increase one high temp. grade > 30 million ESAL - Increase two high temp. grade

107 Packed Bitumen Quality

108 Packed Bitumen Quality

109 Bitumen Quality Depends on quality of input crude and process adopted
Operates on set parameters with minimal human intervention Each batch tested for critical parameters

110 Drum Quality Fabricated as per IS 3575-1977 Type B
Quality of steel as per IS – 0.63mm Quality of drum fabrication Ensure zero defects Ensure min. wastage of steel Double sealing Strengthening corrugations – 5+1mm Quality of Painting – 2 coats of Bituminous paint Testing Each drum is tested at 0.25 kgf/cm2 pressure

111 Drum Filling Highest quantity per drum – 161.8kg
Lesser steel consumption per MT. Filling at reduced temp. – 110OC Less spillage More qty. can be filled Proper dimension of lids 175 mm Delayed sealing of lids Coefficient of expansion – /oC Bitumen cools down Reduced temp. variations after sealing Less stress on drum surface & joints

112 Storage Storage & handling different from Lube drums Vertical storage
Pyramid style Storage on firm surface Asphalted Concreted WBM Firms dry soil Avoid Black cotton soil Stacks of 500 or 1000 with passage between stacks Single layer/Double layer/Triple layer depending upon the surface

113 Handling Different from Lube drums
Always transport drums in vertical position only While unloading drums are vertically lowered onto the tyres Where ever possible fork lift can be used While rolling the surface should be free of pebbles Where ever possible wooden pellets to be used for unloading and storing


115 Health, Safety & Environmental Aspects
Low order of potential hazard provided good handling practices are observed. Contains Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. PCAs with molecular wt. Of 200 to 4500 are biologically active carcenogens. Concentration of these in Bitumen is extremely low. Other than heat burns, hazards are negligible. However it is prudent to avoid prolonged & intimate skin contact.

116 Health, Safety & Environmental Aspects (contd.)
In case of skin burns plunge the affected area under cold running water for 10 minutes. When bitumen is heated or mixed with aggregate, fumes are emitted. The fumes contain particulate matter, Hydrocarbon vapours & very small amount of H2S. However, the concentration is rarely above permissible limits.

117 No Wonder “The smart choice is HP Bitumen”
Thank You!

118 Thank You


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