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PAVES THE WAY BITUMEN BITUMEN BITUMENBITUMEN A BRIEF HISTORY.

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Presentation on theme: "PAVES THE WAY BITUMEN BITUMEN BITUMENBITUMEN A BRIEF HISTORY."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PAVES THE WAY BITUMEN BITUMEN

3 BITUMENBITUMEN A BRIEF HISTORY

4 Bitumen - HISTORY Used in Building and Paving since Ancient times. Used in Building and Paving since Ancient times. Oldest adhesive known to man. Oldest adhesive known to man. Used in 3500 B.C. as mortar for building stones and paving blocks in Mesopotamia.Used in 3500 B.C. as mortar for building stones and paving blocks in Mesopotamia. Used for water tightening of reservoirs, canals, bathing pools & embankments of rivers in Indus Valley.Used for water tightening of reservoirs, canals, bathing pools & embankments of rivers in Indus Valley. Used for Mummification in 300 B.C. Used for Mummification in 300 B.C. Rock Asphalt used for flooring/sidewalks in France in 1800 A.D. Rock Asphalt used for flooring/sidewalks in France in 1800 A.D. First road surfacing with Bitumen done in New Jersey in 1870 A.D. First road surfacing with Bitumen done in New Jersey in 1870 A.D. From 1900 onwards Bitumen produced from Refineries being used extensively. From 1900 onwards Bitumen produced from Refineries being used extensively.

5 BITUMENBITUMEN THE PRODUCT

6 Types of Binders 1. TAR 2. NATURAL ASPHALT / ROCK ASPHALT / LAKE ASPHALT 3. BITUMEN

7 Tar COKE OVEN TAR COKE OVEN TAR Produced at temperatures above 1200 O C during manufacturing of coke. Produced at temperatures above 1200 O C during manufacturing of coke. High aromatic content. High aromatic content. Pitch content - 50 %. Pitch content - 50 %. LOW AROMATIC TAR LOW AROMATIC TAR Produced at temperatures 600 O C to 700 O C. Produced at temperatures 600 O C to 700 O C. Less viscous. Less viscous. Paraffinic in nature. Paraffinic in nature. Pitch content - 35 %. Pitch content - 35 %.

8 Natural Asphalt / Rock Asphalt / Lake Asphalt Naturally occurring Bituminous binder. Naturally occurring Bituminous binder. Biggest deposits in Trinidad Biggest deposits in Trinidad 100 Acres,100 Acres, 90 meter deep90 meter deep 10 to 15 Million MT10 to 15 Million MT Pen - 5 max Pen - 5 max Asphalt found in France, Italy & Switzerland - Rock Asphalt. Asphalt found in France, Italy & Switzerland - Rock Asphalt.

9 Bitumen Conventional Bitumen Conventional Bitumen  Paving Grade Bitumen  Industrial Grade Bitumen Cutback Cutback Bitumen Emulsions Bitumen Emulsions Modified Bitumen Modified Bitumen Modified Bitumen Emulsions Modified Bitumen Emulsions

10 PAVING BITUMEN

11 Production Process Fractional distillation Process Fractional distillation Process Crude Oil heated to 300 – 350 O C is fed into atmospheric distillation column.Crude Oil heated to 300 – 350 O C is fed into atmospheric distillation column. Lighter fractions like Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel separated at different heights Lighter fractions like Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel separated at different heights Heaviest fractions at bottom column are called long residue. Heaviest fractions at bottom column are called long residue. Long residue heated to 350-400 O C fed into distillation column at reduced pressure.Long residue heated to 350-400 O C fed into distillation column at reduced pressure. Residue at bottom of column called short residue used as feedstock for Bitumen. Residue at bottom of column called short residue used as feedstock for Bitumen. Hot air is blown into short residue to make Bitumen.Hot air is blown into short residue to make Bitumen.

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13 Bitumen A viscous liquid or a solid, consisting essentially of Hydrocarbons and their derivatives, which is soluble in Trichloroethylene and is substantially non-volatile and softens gradually when heated. It is Black or Brown in colour and posses water proofing & adhesive properties. It is obtained by refining processes from Crude Petroleum. A viscous liquid or a solid, consisting essentially of Hydrocarbons and their derivatives, which is soluble in Trichloroethylene and is substantially non-volatile and softens gradually when heated. It is Black or Brown in colour and posses water proofing & adhesive properties. It is obtained by refining processes from Crude Petroleum.

14 COMPOSITION B I T U M E N

15 Elemental Analysis Carbon82 - 88 % Hydrogen 8 -11 % Sulphur 0 - 6 % Oxygen 0 -1.5 % Nitrogen 0 - 1 %

16 Elemental Analysis Elemental composition depends on Elemental composition depends on origin of crudeorigin of crude processes used in refineryprocesses used in refinery Elemental composition Elemental composition Extremely complex with the number of molecules with different chemical structures being very largeExtremely complex with the number of molecules with different chemical structures being very large Not feasible to attempt a complete analysisNot feasible to attempt a complete analysis Elemental composition provides little information of the types of molecular structureElemental composition provides little information of the types of molecular structure

17 Chemical Composition Bitumen Asphaltenes 5 to 25% wt.Maltenes Saturates 5 to 20% wt.Aromatics 40 to 65% wt.Resines 10 to 20% wt.

18 Properties of BITUMENBITUMEN

19 Properties of Bitumen Characteristics80/10060/70 30/40 Specific gravity at 27 O C 0.99 0.99 0.99 Softening Point O C 40 to 55 45 to 55 55 to 65 Penetration at 25 O C, 80 to 100 60 to 70 30 to 40 100gm, 5 secs., 1/10 mm Ductility at 27 O C, in cm min. 75 75 50

20 SIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS Penetration Test Penetration Test Indicates consistence Indicates consistence Softening Point Softening Point Indicates melting temperature Indicates melting temperature Loss on heating / thin film oven test Loss on heating / thin film oven test Hardening on roadHardening on road Ductility Test Ductility Test Affinity for aggregatesAffinity for aggregates Solubility in Trichloroethelene Solubility in Trichloroethelene Indicates purity of BitumenIndicates purity of Bitumen

21 Penetration Travel in dmm of a specified needle under 100 g wt. for 5 secs into Bitumen at 25 O C Travel in dmm of a specified needle under 100 g wt. for 5 secs into Bitumen at 25 O C Denotes consistency Denotes consistency

22 Softening Point 3.5 g steel ball placed on Bitumen sample in Brass ring 3.5 g steel ball placed on Bitumen sample in Brass ring Bath temp. raised at 5 O C per minute Bath temp. raised at 5 O C per minute

23 DUCTILITY Indicates the extent to which a sample can be stretched before breaking. Indicates the extent to which a sample can be stretched before breaking. Length in cm. at breaking point is ductility Length in cm. at breaking point is ductility

24 FLASH POINT Used to measure temperature to which a sample bitumen may be safely heated Used to measure temperature to which a sample bitumen may be safely heated The flash point is the temperature reached when the vapour causes an instantaneous flash The flash point is the temperature reached when the vapour causes an instantaneous flash

25 Handling of BITUMENBITUMEN

26 Storage & Handling Bitumen tanks should have low surface to volume ratio. Bitumen tanks should have low surface to volume ratio. r 2 1 Exposed surface = r 2 h h Product should be recirculated, however, return lines should enter the tank below Bitumen surface. Product should be recirculated, however, return lines should enter the tank below Bitumen surface. Bitumen should always be handled at lowest possible temperature, consistent with efficient use. Bitumen should always be handled at lowest possible temperature, consistent with efficient use. In case of reheating, heating should be done intermittently to prevent high localised temperatures. Prolonged direct flame heating may cause cracking of Bitumen. In case of reheating, heating should be done intermittently to prevent high localised temperatures. Prolonged direct flame heating may cause cracking of Bitumen.

27 Recommended Handling Temperatures Characteristics 80/100 60/7030/40 Min. Pumping Temp.27 O C 105 110 125 Mixing/Coating Temp. O C 150 to 163 150 to 163 160 to 175 Laying Temp. O C 130 to 160 130 to 160 140 to 160 Spraying Temp. O C 175 - - Max. Safe Hdlng. Temp. O C 175 175 175

28 Normally Bitumen hardens by one grade during mixing and laying.

29 Selection of GRADEGRADE

30 Selection Criteria Choice of Bitumen is based on Choice of Bitumen is based on  Climatic Conditions - Maximum & Minimum temperature & rainfall.  Intensity of Traffic - Number of vehicles per day, Traffic speed & axle load of vehicles.

31 Applications of 80/100 Grade Less viscous grade. Less viscous grade. Used in all climatic conditions. Used in all climatic conditions. Suited for traffic load < 1500 cv/day. Suited for traffic load < 1500 cv/day. Better suited for high altitude/snow bound regions irrespective of traffic intensity. Better suited for high altitude/snow bound regions irrespective of traffic intensity.

32 Applications of 60/70 Grade More viscous grade. More viscous grade. Higher softening point. Higher softening point. Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/day. Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/day. Can withstand heavier axle loads.Can withstand heavier axle loads. Better suited for highways, expressways & urban roads.Better suited for highways, expressways & urban roads. Suited for areas where difference between min. & max. temp. is > 25 o C. Suited for areas where difference between min. & max. temp. is > 25 o C. Reduced stripping in presence of water. Reduced stripping in presence of water.

33 Applications of 30/40 Grade Suited for areas where diff. between min. & max. temp. < 25 o C. Suited for areas where diff. between min. & max. temp. < 25 o C. Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/ day Suited for traffic intensity > 1500 cv/ day Used in metropolitan areas. Used in metropolitan areas. Used in airport runways. Used in airport runways.

34 Durability of BITUMINOUS ROADS

35 Factors Affecting Adhesion External External RainfallRainfall HumidityHumidity water pHwater pH Presence of saltsPresence of salts TemperatureTemperature Temperature cyclesTemperature cycles TrafficTraffic DesignDesign WorkmanshipWorkmanship DrainageDrainage Aggregate Aggregate Mineralogy Surface texture Porosity Dirt Durability Surface area Absorption Moisture content Shape Weathering

36 Factors Affecting Adhesion Bitumen Bitumen RheologyRheology ConstitutionConstitution Mix Mix Void content Permeability Bitumen content Bitumen film thickness Filler type Aggregate grading Mix type

37 Durability of Bitumen 1 Oxidative hardening. 2 Evaporative hardening. 3 Exudative hardening. 4 Hardening in Bulk storage. 5 Hardening during mixing. 6 Physical hardening.

38 Advantages

39 Advantages Smooth Smooth Safe Safe Economical Economical Speed Speed Quiet Quiet Environment friendly Environment friendly Versatile Versatile State of-the-art State of-the-art Stage Construction Stage Construction Resistant to de-icing material Resistant to de-icing material Serviceability Serviceability

40 Smooth Better riding quality Better riding quality Absence of joints Absence of joints Estimated 15% increase in pavement life for 50% increase in smoothness Estimated 15% increase in pavement life for 50% increase in smoothness Less wear and tear to vehicle Less wear and tear to vehicle Lesser fuel consumption Lesser fuel consumption Enjoyable ride Enjoyable ride

41 Safe Better skid resistance over a longer period of time Better skid resistance over a longer period of time Use of OGFC reduces Tyre Spray, Hydroplaning and Improves Visibility Use of OGFC reduces Tyre Spray, Hydroplaning and Improves Visibility Better contrast with pavement markings Better contrast with pavement markings

42 Economical Low initial cost compared to PCC Low initial cost compared to PCC Gap widens throughout pavement life Gap widens throughout pavement life A well designed and constructed pavement A well designed and constructed pavement Can last for 25 to 34 years without reconstructionCan last for 25 to 34 years without reconstruction Can serve for 15 year or more before distresses become sufficient to require rehabilitationCan serve for 15 year or more before distresses become sufficient to require rehabilitation

43 Speed of Construction Newark Airport – 1,15,000MT in 15 days, 11,000MT in 24 hours Newark Airport – 1,15,000MT in 15 days, 11,000MT in 24 hours Pave during off peak hours and open to traffic as soon as it cools down Pave during off peak hours and open to traffic as soon as it cools down Reduces work zone accidentReduces work zone accident Can result in 80% reduction in user delay costsCan result in 80% reduction in user delay costs 24-hour closure will have 3 to 10 times more vehicles pass through the work zone24-hour closure will have 3 to 10 times more vehicles pass through the work zone

44 Quiet Pavements Dense graded asphalt is quieter by 2 to 3 dB(A) compared to PCC Dense graded asphalt is quieter by 2 to 3 dB(A) compared to PCC 3 dB(A) corresponds to 3 dB(A) corresponds to Doubling the distance in the line of sourceDoubling the distance in the line of source Reducing traffic volume by 50%Reducing traffic volume by 50% Reducing traffic speed by 25%Reducing traffic speed by 25% Open graded Friction Course Open graded Friction Course Reduces noise furtherReduces noise further Costs 1/8 th of noise barrier on side of the roadCosts 1/8 th of noise barrier on side of the road Aesthetically superiorAesthetically superior

45 Environment Friendly Used for water proofing of fish ponds without any problem Used for water proofing of fish ponds without any problem Very low level of leachable compoundsVery low level of leachable compounds Most recycled product in the world Most recycled product in the world 100% recyclable100% recyclable Second highest - Aluminium cans – 60%Second highest - Aluminium cans – 60% Can use waste material from other fields also like worn out PCC Can use waste material from other fields also like worn out PCC

46 Versatile

47 State-of-the-Art Road design, construction and maintenance methods are being overhauled Road design, construction and maintenance methods are being overhauled New tests being developed New tests being developed New plants providing high quality materials New plants providing high quality materials Pavers with laser controlled screeds for even smoother pavements Pavers with laser controlled screeds for even smoother pavements Better material transfer vehicles for uniformity and rollers with increased compactive effort. Better material transfer vehicles for uniformity and rollers with increased compactive effort. The ultimate result of this new technology will be: smoother, more durable, longer lasting asphalt pavements The ultimate result of this new technology will be: smoother, more durable, longer lasting asphalt pavements

48 Stage Construction Bituminous pavements can be constructed in stages Bituminous pavements can be constructed in stages Being made thicker and/or wider as the need arises Being made thicker and/or wider as the need arises Each successive layer becomes an integral part of the pavement structure, increasing the load carrying capacity. Each successive layer becomes an integral part of the pavement structure, increasing the load carrying capacity.

49 De-icing Materials Bituminous pavements are not harmed by de-icing chemicals Bituminous pavements are not harmed by de-icing chemicals Also snow and ice melt quickly from bituminous pavements Also snow and ice melt quickly from bituminous pavements

50 Serviceability Bituminous pavements can easily maintain a high level of serviceability with minimal disruption to the traffic Bituminous pavements can easily maintain a high level of serviceability with minimal disruption to the traffic Can be easily trenched, patched and quickly opened to traffic when underground utilities need to be repaired. Can be easily trenched, patched and quickly opened to traffic when underground utilities need to be repaired.

51 BEAUTIFUL

52 B I T U M E N A VISCO - ELASTIC MATERIAL

53 Engineering Properties of Bitumen  Bitumen is a visco-elastic material & it’s deformation under stress is a function of both temperature & loading time  At higher temperature &/or longer loading time  Behave as viscous liquids  At low temperature &/or short loading time  Behave as elastic solids  The intermediate range of temperatures, more typical of the conditions in service, result in visco-elastic behaviour.

54 The Stiffness Concept In solids : E =     where E = Elastic modulus Stress Stress Strain Strain

55 The Stiffness Concept In visco-elastic material : S t,T =    t,T Where S t,T = Stiffness modulus at specific time t & Temp. T. Stress Stress  t,T = Strain at specific time t & temp. T.  t,T = Strain at specific time t & temp. T.

56 MODIFIED BITUMEN Binder of the future

57 Why Modified Bitumen? Demands on Road increasing every year Demands on Road increasing every year èIncreasing Number of Vehicles èIncreasing Axle Load èDesire to maintain higher serviceability level èHigher fatigue resistance èHigher resistance to weathering èBetter adhesion èHigher stiffness modulus èLesser cracking, ravelling, deformation & creep failure èReduce number of overlays èReduction in vehicle operation cost

58 Why Modified Bitumen? Another view point Another view point è2.75 million vehicles generate discarded tyres è 30,000- 40,000 tyres are disposed every day è1,00,000 –1,20,000 tyres will be available by 2021 èUse of CRMB in maintenance of roads can consume 3500 Kg/km non-biodegradable waste rubber

59 Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen Bitumen+ Additives (Modifiers/Treated Crumb Rubber)

60 Advantages of CRMB Higher resistance to deformations/ wear & tear Higher resistance to deformations/ wear & tear Resistance to reflective cracking Resistance to reflective cracking Reduced expense on frequent overlays Reduced expense on frequent overlays Lower susceptibility to temp. variation Lower susceptibility to temp. variation Higher resistance to deformation at high temperature Higher resistance to deformation at high temperature Better Age Resistance Properties Better Age Resistance Properties Higher Fatigue Life of Mixes Higher Fatigue Life of Mixes Better Adhesion Properties Better Adhesion Properties Reduced Noise Reduced Noise

61 Types of Modifiers Polymers Rubbers Plastics Thermoplastic LDPE, EVA, EBA Thermoset Epoxy Resins Synthetic Elastomers SBS, SBR etc. Crumb Rubber Chemically Treated Natural Rubber (Latex) Plain

62 Types of Modifiers THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) Styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) Styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene (SEBS) Styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene (SEBS) Ethylene-prppylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) Ethylene-prppylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) Isobutene-isoprene copolymer (IIR) Isobutene-isoprene copolymer (IIR) Natural Rubber Natural Rubber Crumb Rubber Crumb Rubber Polybutadiene (PBD) Polybutadiene (PBD) Polyisoprene Polyisoprene THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) Ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) Ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) Ethylene butyl acrylate (EBA) Ethylene butyl acrylate (EBA) Atactic polypropylene (APP) Atactic polypropylene (APP) Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylene (PE) Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene (PP) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polystyrene (PS) Polystyrene (PS) THERMOSETTING POLYMERS Epoxy resin Epoxy resin Polyurethane resin Polyurethane resin Acrylic resin Acrylic resin Phenolic resin Phenolic resin CHEMICAL MODIFIERS Organo-metallic compounds Organo-metallic compounds Sulphur Sulphur Lignin LigninFIBRES Cellulose Cellulose Alumino-magnesium silicate Alumino-magnesium silicate Glass fibre Glass fibre Asbestos Asbestos Polyester Polyester Polypropylene Polypropylene ADHESION IMPROVERS Orgainc amines Orgainc amines Amides AmidesANTIOXIDANTS Amines Amines Phenols Phenols Organo-zinc/organo-lead compounds Organo-zinc/organo-lead compounds NATURAL ASPHALTS Trinidad lake Asphalt (TLA) Trinidad lake Asphalt (TLA) Gilsonite Gilsonite Rock asphalt Rock asphaltFILLERS Carbon black Carbon black Hydrated lime Hydrated lime Lime Lime Fly ash Fly ash

63 Grades of CRMB Grades of CRMB GRADES HP GRADES GRADES HP GRADES CRMB 50 HP MB(CR) 50 CRMB 55 HP MB(CR) 55 CRMB 60 HP MB(CR) 60 Meets IRC:SP:53-2002

64 Tests on CRMB Penetration Penetration Softening Point Softening Point Elastic Recovery Elastic Recovery Thin Film Oven Test Thin Film Oven Test PenetrationPenetration Softening PointSoftening Point Elastic RecoveryElastic Recovery

65 Test and Trials with CRMB Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi. Highway Research Station, Chennai. Highway Research Station, Chennai. Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara. Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Research Station, P.W (R&B) Dept., Hyderabad., Andhra Pradesh. Research Station, P.W (R&B) Dept., Hyderabad., Andhra Pradesh.

66 INTERNATIONAL USAGE OF CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN

67 International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen  CRMB is being used in USA from 1960  Currently Arizona, Florida, Texas and California using 2 million tons of Rubberized Bitumen.  CRMB is very popular in Australia for chip sealing wearing courses and structural layers.  Use of CRMB increasing in developing countries of Latin America.

68 CRMB in use in USA, Canada, France, Germany and South Africa. CRMB in use in USA, Canada, France, Germany and South Africa. UK Environmentalist’s want use of CRMB to be encouraged on roads. Govts. especially are considering making the use mandatory. UK Environmentalist’s want use of CRMB to be encouraged on roads. Govts. especially are considering making the use mandatory. Belgian Road Research center encouraging the use of CRMB on Freeways Belgian Road Research center encouraging the use of CRMB on Freeways South African companies are increasingly using Rubber Modified mixes South African companies are increasingly using Rubber Modified mixes International Use of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

69 25 YEAR ANALYSIS BY DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT, ARIZONA

70 Conclusions I.Total thickness of conventional pavement was 21 inches Vs. 13 ½ inches for a rubberized pavement, the cost saving in initial construction was approx. 42% II.Roughness value of conventional pavement was poorer by 27% initially but due to higher deterioration the gap increased to 50% by end of 11 years III.In span of 11 years 50% less money was spent on maintenance cost on rubberized pavement in comparison to conventional pavement IV.The benefit to the user by way of savings in VOC was also seen and estimated that it is significantly less on rubberized pavement in comparison to conventional pavement

71 Quote: Quote: “ Based on the data analysis presented for the two pavements, an asphalt-rubber pavement would be more cost-effective than a conventional pavement with respect to agency costs as well as user costs. In addition, the good performance of the asphalt-rubber pavement would increase its service life, which in turn would have a substantial impact on life cycle cost analysis. Furthermore, if one or more rehabilitation is eliminated in a typical analysis period (35 years), it would also have a significant impact on user costs during the work zone periods. ” “ Based on the data analysis presented for the two pavements, an asphalt-rubber pavement would be more cost-effective than a conventional pavement with respect to agency costs as well as user costs. In addition, the good performance of the asphalt-rubber pavement would increase its service life, which in turn would have a substantial impact on life cycle cost analysis. Furthermore, if one or more rehabilitation is eliminated in a typical analysis period (35 years), it would also have a significant impact on user costs during the work zone periods. ” Unquote Unquote. Conclusions

72 Selection Criteria Selection Criteria Atmospheric Temperature O C Atmospheric Temperature O C Minimum Maximum 45 45 <-10 CRMB50CRMB 55CRMB 55 <-10 CRMB50CRMB 55CRMB 55 -10 to10 CRMB 50 CRMB 55 CRMB 60 >10 CRMB 55 CRMB 55 CRMB 60 >10 CRMB 55 CRMB 55 CRMB 60

73 Recommended Handling Temperatures Stage of Work Viscosity, Poise Temp. Range, O C Binder at Mixing < 2< 2< 2< 2 165 – 185 Mix at Mixing Plant < 4< 4< 4< 4 140 - 160 Mix at Laying Site < 5< 5< 5< 5 130 - 150 Rolling at Site 10 – 1,000 115 - 135

74 HANDLING OF CRMB CRMB should ideally be used in hot condition. CRMB should ideally be used in hot condition. When supplied in drums, it shall be agitated properly in melted condition for 10 - 15 minutes before use. When supplied in drums, it shall be agitated properly in melted condition for 10 - 15 minutes before use. Mixing & rolling temperature should be approx. 10 O C higher than conventional temperature. Mixing & rolling temperature should be approx. 10 O C higher than conventional temperature.

75 New Trends

76 Future Trends in Bituminous Roads ISO Certification of Roads ISO Certification of Roads Road Safety Audit Road Safety Audit Performance Based Specifications Performance Based Specifications Stone Mastic Asphalt Stone Mastic Asphalt Perpetual Pavements Perpetual Pavements Foamed Bitumen Foamed Bitumen Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen Sulphur Extended Bitumen Modifiers Sulphur Extended Bitumen Modifiers

77 ISO Certification of Roads Growth in EN ISO 9000 certification in European countries Growth in EN ISO 9000 certification in European countries Voluntary activity driven by individual companies or by the national asphalt industry. Voluntary activity driven by individual companies or by the national asphalt industry. To obtain management and marketing tools. To obtain management and marketing tools. In several countries certification is becoming a regulatory requirement, usually by mutual agreement between suppliers and clients. In several countries certification is becoming a regulatory requirement, usually by mutual agreement between suppliers and clients. Effective quality schedules can be produced only by joint action of supplier and client side of road sector. Effective quality schedules can be produced only by joint action of supplier and client side of road sector. If the positive aspects of certification are not taken into account in contract arrangements its introduction will increase the overall cost of asphalt roads If the positive aspects of certification are not taken into account in contract arrangements its introduction will increase the overall cost of asphalt roads

78 Road Safety Audit Safety audit applied to Safety audit applied to Fresh project proposals Fresh project proposals Existing network of roads Existing network of roads Specific existing project Specific existing project Auditors should be completely independent of the organization involved in development of project. Auditors should be completely independent of the organization involved in development of project. The audit team comprising of 4-5 people inspect the roads during daytime and also at night. The audit team comprising of 4-5 people inspect the roads during daytime and also at night. The team identifies aspects that the road controlling authority does well, as well as the aspects that could be improved. The team identifies aspects that the road controlling authority does well, as well as the aspects that could be improved.

79 Road Safety Audits (Contd.) The team selects aspects and features that were observed on a number of audited roads. The team selects aspects and features that were observed on a number of audited roads. The teams’ recommendations focus on policies and procedures and not on correcting the identified deficiencies. The teams’ recommendations focus on policies and procedures and not on correcting the identified deficiencies. The team ranks each recommendation on a four point subjective scale. The team ranks each recommendation on a four point subjective scale. The draft report in a standard format is reported to the authority for their comments The draft report in a standard format is reported to the authority for their comments A formal final report is submitted A formal final report is submitted Database is developed for all road safety audits Database is developed for all road safety audits

80 Performance Grade Specifications Existing Specifications Existing Specifications Most tests are empirical tests and are not directly related to performance on the roadMost tests are empirical tests and are not directly related to performance on the road Tests are conducted at one standard temp.Tests are conducted at one standard temp. Performance under climatic condition prevailing throughout the year are not evaluatedPerformance under climatic condition prevailing throughout the year are not evaluated Only short term ageing is evaluated, that too only in a few casesOnly short term ageing is evaluated, that too only in a few cases Performance grade tests simulate the actual field conditions in a more realistic way Performance grade tests simulate the actual field conditions in a more realistic way

81 Stone Mastic Asphalt Increasingly popular Worldwide in heavy traffic roads & airfields. Increasingly popular Worldwide in heavy traffic roads & airfields. Even surface gives better riding comfort. Even surface gives better riding comfort. Texture gives good skid resistance & relatively low traffic noise. Texture gives good skid resistance & relatively low traffic noise. Strong aggregate structure provided by the coarse aggregate particles gives excellent resistance to permanent deformation. Strong aggregate structure provided by the coarse aggregate particles gives excellent resistance to permanent deformation. Rich mastic, which fills the voids, makes SMA highly durable. Rich mastic, which fills the voids, makes SMA highly durable. Modified bitumen & Fibres can be used to further enhance the mechanical properties. Modified bitumen & Fibres can be used to further enhance the mechanical properties. Allows thin layer application. Allows thin layer application.

82 Stone Mastic Asphalt (Contd.) The aggregate grading is similar to that of Porous Asphalt, but with the voids filled with mortar. The aggregate grading is similar to that of Porous Asphalt, but with the voids filled with mortar. The process of designing Stone Mastic Asphalt mix involves adjusting grading to accommodate required binder and void content rather than the more familiar process of adjusting the binder content to suit the aggregate grading. The process of designing Stone Mastic Asphalt mix involves adjusting grading to accommodate required binder and void content rather than the more familiar process of adjusting the binder content to suit the aggregate grading. Cost effective despite high quality aggregate & higher binder content. Cost effective despite high quality aggregate & higher binder content. Extremely low maintenance. Extremely low maintenance. Longer life. Longer life.

83 Perpetual Pavements Structure Lasts 50+ years Structure Lasts 50+ years Bottom-Up Design and ConstructionBottom-Up Design and Construction Indefinite Fatigue LifeIndefinite Fatigue Life Renewable Pavement Surface. Renewable Pavement Surface. High Rutting ResistanceHigh Rutting Resistance Tailored for Specific ApplicationTailored for Specific Application Consistent, Smooth and Safe Driving Surface. Consistent, Smooth and Safe Driving Surface. Environmentally Friendly Environmentally Friendly Avoids Costly Reconstruction Avoids Costly Reconstruction

84 Perpetual Pavements Designed and build to last at least 50 years Designed and build to last at least 50 years Will result in reduced maintenance cost and traffic disruptions Will result in reduced maintenance cost and traffic disruptions Build bottom-up with strong foundation and structural stability Build bottom-up with strong foundation and structural stability Higher fatigue resistance in lower layers Higher fatigue resistance in lower layers Higher rutting resistance in upper layers Higher rutting resistance in upper layers Drainage is an important consideration in the design of pavement structures Drainage is an important consideration in the design of pavement structures The change in foundation properties with the different seasons must be adequately accounted for The change in foundation properties with the different seasons must be adequately accounted for Special soil conditions such as frost heave and expansive behavior need to be included in the site investigation and design, depending upon the local situation and standard practice Special soil conditions such as frost heave and expansive behavior need to be included in the site investigation and design, depending upon the local situation and standard practice The selection of materials and mix design for the HMA layers is dependent upon the needs for the individual layers with respect to the overall performance of the pavement The selection of materials and mix design for the HMA layers is dependent upon the needs for the individual layers with respect to the overall performance of the pavement Aggregate interlock is an important component to mix stability. Aggregate interlock is an important component to mix stability.

85 Perpetual Pavements The use of crushed, hard aggregate particles and an aggregate structure evaluation will help to guarantee particle-to-particle contact. The use of crushed, hard aggregate particles and an aggregate structure evaluation will help to guarantee particle-to-particle contact. use of polymers and fibers can enhance the high- temperature performance of asphalt binders. use of polymers and fibers can enhance the high- temperature performance of asphalt binders. It is important to achieve the proper density during construction. An air void content higher than about six percent may result in consolidation and rutting early in the pavement’s life. It is important to achieve the proper density during construction. An air void content higher than about six percent may result in consolidation and rutting early in the pavement’s life. The material in the top HMA layer may be either a SMA, OGFC or Superpave mix, depending upon the needs of a specific area. In any case, as distresses dictate the need for a new pavement surface, the old surface may be milled up and replaced with a minimum of traffic disruption and cost. The material in the top HMA layer may be either a SMA, OGFC or Superpave mix, depending upon the needs of a specific area. In any case, as distresses dictate the need for a new pavement surface, the old surface may be milled up and replaced with a minimum of traffic disruption and cost. This underscores the principles of the Perpetual Pavement: Design: build it for the traffic, soil and climate, and the only cost thereafter should be associated with periodic overlays. This underscores the principles of the Perpetual Pavement: Design: build it for the traffic, soil and climate, and the only cost thereafter should be associated with periodic overlays. There are a number of initiatives by various countries and states to formalize the concept of Perpetual Pavements. There are a number of initiatives by various countries and states to formalize the concept of Perpetual Pavements. In Europe, particularly England and France, the idea of high-modulus pavements has gained acceptance. These are thick asphalt pavements placed over one or more layers of granular material. In Europe, particularly England and France, the idea of high-modulus pavements has gained acceptance. These are thick asphalt pavements placed over one or more layers of granular material. Illinois is engaged in developing a long-life asphalt pavement design procedure. Participants have included the Illinois DOT, the HMA industry and the University of Illinois. Illinois is engaged in developing a long-life asphalt pavement design procedure. Participants have included the Illinois DOT, the HMA industry and the University of Illinois. The Michigan Asphalt Pavement Association has developed a Perpetual Pavement design procedure. The Michigan Asphalt Pavement Association has developed a Perpetual Pavement design procedure. Wisconsin is in the process of researching Perpetual Pavements at a number of test sites. Wisconsin is in the process of researching Perpetual Pavements at a number of test sites. Texas is using Perpetual Pavements along the heavily traveled I-35 corridor. Texas is using Perpetual Pavements along the heavily traveled I-35 corridor. Kentucky has used the Perpetual Pavement concept to design portions of interstate pavements. Kentucky has used the Perpetual Pavement concept to design portions of interstate pavements. Other efforts are proceeding in Virginia and Ohio. Other efforts are proceeding in Virginia and Ohio. What makes the Perpetual Pavement perpetual is that, while the surface will need periodic replacement, the bulk of the pavement structure will remain intact. What makes the Perpetual Pavement perpetual is that, while the surface will need periodic replacement, the bulk of the pavement structure will remain intact.

86 Foamed Bitumen Mixture of Bitumen (98%), water (1%) and foaming agent (1%) Mixture of Bitumen (98%), water (1%) and foaming agent (1%) When hot bitumen (160 to 200 O C) comes in contact with cold water (15 to 25 O C) When hot bitumen (160 to 200 O C) comes in contact with cold water (15 to 25 O C) Mixture expands more than 10 timesMixture expands more than 10 times Forms a fine mist or foamForms a fine mist or foam Foamed bitumen is sprayed on fine aggregate in mixing drums to get a strong flexible pavement material Foamed bitumen is sprayed on fine aggregate in mixing drums to get a strong flexible pavement material Used for durable, fast and low cost rehabilitation of existing pavements Used for durable, fast and low cost rehabilitation of existing pavements

87 Polyphosphoric Acid Modified Bitumen Lower stripping compared to other bitumens Lower stripping compared to other bitumens Reduction in mixing and laying temperatures Reduction in mixing and laying temperatures Improves fracture strength and ductility Improves fracture strength and ductility Very low dosage of modifier Very low dosage of modifier Test tracks in the world are still under evaluation but preliminary results are very promising Test tracks in the world are still under evaluation but preliminary results are very promising

88 Sulphur Extended Asphalt Modifier Odourless pellets consisting of Sulphur, Plasticizers and additives Odourless pellets consisting of Sulphur, Plasticizers and additives Is added to the hot mix Is added to the hot mix Melts and disperses easily Melts and disperses easily Acts as binder extender and asphalt mix modifier Acts as binder extender and asphalt mix modifier Environmentally safe Environmentally safe Reduces Bitumen requirement by 30% Reduces Bitumen requirement by 30% Mixing temperature is reduced by 10 O C Mixing temperature is reduced by 10 O C Higher resistance to rutting, fatigue failure and low temperature cracking Higher resistance to rutting, fatigue failure and low temperature cracking Suitable for perpetual pavements Suitable for perpetual pavements

89 PERFORMANCE GRADE BITUMEN

90 BITUMEN TODAY Penetration/Viscosity based classification Penetration/Viscosity based classification 80/100, 60/70, 30/40 80/100, 60/70, 30/40 Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Viscosity Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Viscosity Empirical tests done at standard temp., loading, etc. Empirical tests done at standard temp., loading, etc. Ageing is not considered Ageing is not considered No direct correlation with actual field conditions No direct correlation with actual field conditions Seems to work somehow – Has stood the test of time Seems to work somehow – Has stood the test of time Need to cut inefficiencies – Cost effective Need to cut inefficiencies – Cost effective More direct correlation between bitumen and road performance is needed

91 BITUMEN TOMORROW More direct correlation between road performance and properties of bitumen More direct correlation between road performance and properties of bitumen Properties desired Properties desired Easier handling (mixing, coating, rolling)Easier handling (mixing, coating, rolling) Better rutting resistanceBetter rutting resistance Higher fatigue lifeHigher fatigue life Resistance to low temperature crackingResistance to low temperature cracking - New system of classification to be developed - New tests to be developed

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95 CLASSIFICATION PG 58 -22 Performance Grade Average 7 day max. pavement design temp. Min. pavement design temp.

96 MIXING AND LAYING Tested in rotational viscometer Tested in rotational viscometer Max. viscosity of 3 Pa-s at 135 o C Max. viscosity of 3 Pa-s at 135 o C

97 AGEING OF BITUMEN During Construction During Construction Early in Pavement’s life Early in Pavement’s life Post construction upto two yearsPost construction upto two years Late in pavement’s life Late in pavement’s life Seven plus years of lifeSeven plus years of life Rotating thin film oven test (RTFOT) RTFOT + Pressure Ageing Vessel (PAV)

98 ROTATING THIN FILM OVEN TEST

99 PRESSURE AGEING VESSEL

100 RUTTING Due to melting of bitumen on the road Due to melting of bitumen on the road Always occurs at max. pavement temp. Always occurs at max. pavement temp. Test to be conducted at max. pavement temp. Test to be conducted at max. pavement temp. Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer G*/Sinmin. 1 kPa, @ 10 rad/s for unaged bitumen G*/Sinmin. 1 kPa, @ 10 rad/s for unaged bitumen G*/Sinmin. 2.2 kPa, @ 10 rad/s for RTFOT aged bitumen G*/Sinmin. 2.2 kPa, @ 10 rad/s for RTFOT aged bitumen

101 DYNAMIC SHEAR RHEOMETER

102 FATIGUE Due to repeated loading,unloading cycles Due to repeated loading,unloading cycles Always occurs near the average pavement temp. Always occurs near the average pavement temp. Test to be conducted at average + 4 O C pavement temp. Test to be conducted at average + 4 O C pavement temp. Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer Tested in Dynamic Shear Rheometer G*Sinmax. 5000 kPa, @ 10 rad/s for RTFOT + PAV aged bitumen G*Sinmax. 5000 kPa, @ 10 rad/s for RTFOT + PAV aged bitumen

103 LOW TEMP CRACKING Due to loss of elasticity at very low temp. Due to loss of elasticity at very low temp. Always occurs at lowest pavement temp. Always occurs at lowest pavement temp. Testing done at min. temp. + 10 O C Testing done at min. temp. + 10 O C Bending Beam Rheometer Bending Beam Rheometer Creep Stiffness of max. 300,000 kPa, m-value min. 0.30 Creep Stiffness of max. 300,000 kPa, m-value min. 0.30 Direct Tension Test - For Modified Bitumens Direct Tension Test - For Modified Bitumens Failure strain min. 1% Failure strain min. 1%

104 BENDING BEAM RHEOMETER

105 DIRECT TENSILE TESTER

106 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

107 GRADE BUMPING Choice of grade depends on max. and min. pavement temperature 20 mm below road surface. Choice of grade depends on max. and min. pavement temperature 20 mm below road surface. Correction for Traffic speed Correction for Traffic speed > 90 km/h - No Correction> 90 km/h - No Correction < 90 km/h - Increase one high temp. grade< 90 km/h - Increase one high temp. grade < 20 km/h - Increase two high temp. grade< 20 km/h - Increase two high temp. grade Correction for Traffic volume Correction for Traffic volume < 10 million ESAL - No Correction< 10 million ESAL - No Correction > 10 million ESAL - Increase one high temp. grade> 10 million ESAL - Increase one high temp. grade > 30 million ESAL - Increase two high temp. grade> 30 million ESAL - Increase two high temp. grade

108 Packed Bitumen Quality

109 Packed Bitumen Bitumen Drum Filling Storage & Handling

110 Bitumen Quality Depends on quality of input crude and process adopted Depends on quality of input crude and process adopted Operates on set parameters with minimal human intervention Operates on set parameters with minimal human intervention Each batch tested for critical parameters Each batch tested for critical parameters

111 Drum Quality Fabricated as per IS 3575-1977 Type B Fabricated as per IS 3575-1977 Type B Quality of steel as per IS 513-1973 – 0.63mm Quality of steel as per IS 513-1973 – 0.63mm Quality of drum fabrication Quality of drum fabrication Ensure zero defectsEnsure zero defects Ensure min. wastage of steelEnsure min. wastage of steel Double sealingDouble sealing Strengthening corrugations – 5+1mmStrengthening corrugations – 5+1mm Quality of Painting – 2 coats of Bituminous paint Quality of Painting – 2 coats of Bituminous paint Testing Testing Each drum is tested at 0.25 kgf/cm 2 pressureEach drum is tested at 0.25 kgf/cm 2 pressure

112 Drum Filling Highest quantity per drum – 161.8kg Highest quantity per drum – 161.8kg Lesser steel consumption per MT.Lesser steel consumption per MT. Filling at reduced temp. – 110 O C Filling at reduced temp. – 110 O C Less spillageLess spillage More qty. can be filledMore qty. can be filled Proper dimension of lids 175 mm Proper dimension of lids 175 mm Delayed sealing of lids Delayed sealing of lids Coefficient of expansion – 0.00061/ o CCoefficient of expansion – 0.00061/ o C Bitumen cools downBitumen cools down Reduced temp. variations after sealingReduced temp. variations after sealing Less stress on drum surface & jointsLess stress on drum surface & joints

113 Storage Storage & handling different from Lube drums Storage & handling different from Lube drums Vertical storage Vertical storage Pyramid stylePyramid style Storage on firm surface Storage on firm surface AsphaltedAsphalted ConcretedConcreted WBMWBM Firms dry soilFirms dry soil Avoid Black cotton soilAvoid Black cotton soil Stacks of 500 or 1000 with passage between stacks Stacks of 500 or 1000 with passage between stacks Single layer/Double layer/Triple layer depending upon the surface Single layer/Double layer/Triple layer depending upon the surface

114 Handling Different from Lube drums Different from Lube drums Always transport drums in vertical position only Always transport drums in vertical position only While unloading drums are vertically lowered onto the tyres While unloading drums are vertically lowered onto the tyres Where ever possible fork lift can be used Where ever possible fork lift can be used While rolling the surface should be free of pebbles While rolling the surface should be free of pebbles Where ever possible wooden pellets to be used for unloading and storing Where ever possible wooden pellets to be used for unloading and storing

115 SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

116 Health, Safety & Environmental Aspects 1 Low order of potential hazard provided good handling practices are observed. 2 Contains Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. PCAs with molecular wt. Of 200 to 4500 are biologically active carcenogens. Concentration of these in Bitumen is extremely low. 3 Other than heat burns, hazards are negligible. However it is prudent to avoid prolonged & intimate skin contact.

117 Health, Safety & Environmental Aspects (contd.) 4 In case of skin burns plunge the affected area under cold running water for 10 minutes. 5 When bitumen is heated or mixed with aggregate, fumes are emitted. The fumes contain particulate matter, Hydrocarbon vapours & very small amount of H 2 S. However, the concentration is rarely above permissible limits.

118 No Wonder “The smart choice is HP Bitumen” Thank You!

119 Thank You


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