Presentation on theme: "1 Overview of Process Safety & Industrial Disaster Management and their Inter-relationship R. P. Bhanushali Adviser (Tech), NSC National Workshop on PROCESS."— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of Process Safety & Industrial Disaster Management and their Inter-relationship R. P. Bhanushali Adviser (Tech), NSC National Workshop on PROCESS SAFETY & DISASTER MANAGEMENT Jaipur (29-31 July, 2009)
3 There are Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable chemicals in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals. there is a potential for an accidental release any time they are not properly controlled, creating the possibility of disaster. An effective Process Safety Management program can help prevent releases and prepare for emergency response in the event of a chemical release.
4 A process is an activity or combination of activities including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling or the on-site movement of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. Process Safety Management is intended to prevent an incident finally leading to a Disaster.
5 Good management practice Process steps that enable improvement in decision making A logical and systematic approach Identifying opportunities Avoiding or minimising losses What is Risk Management?
6 Risk Management is the logical and systematic method to identify, analyse, treat and monitor the risks involved in any activity or process. What is Risk Management?
7 Risk Management is a methodology that helps managers make best use of their available resources What is Risk Management?
8 It is the complete process of understanding risk, risk assessment, and decision making to ensure effective risk controls are in place and implemented. Risk management begins with identifying possible hazards leading to ongoing mgt of those risks deemed to be acceptable. management of those risks deemed to be acceptable. Risk Management
9 analyze risk (for probability and consequences), so the risk (with respect to acceptability) can be assessed, and ultimately managed it is simply not possible to commence this cycle without first effectively identifying the hazards of concern.
10 Process safety is a blend of engineering and management skills focused on preventing catastrophic accidents, particularly explosions, fires, toxic releases (associated with the use of chemicals and petroleum products).
11 Process safety management refers to the general management systems in place to address major accident hazardsmanagement systems
12 Process Safety Management have a positive effect on safety of employees offer potential benefits to employers, such as increased productivity, smaller businesses with limited resources might consider alternative avenues of decreasing risks associated with highly hazardous chemicals at their workplaces.
13 One method is reducing inventory. The reduction in inventory results in reducing the risk or potential for a catastrophic incident. Employers can establish more efficient inventory control by reducing, to below the established threshold, the quantities of highly hazardous chemicals onsite. When reduced inventory is not feasible, disperse inventory to several locations onsite so that a release in one location will not affect another location. This is also a practical way to reduce the risk or potential for catastrophic incidents.
14 Various lines of defense that have been incorporated into the design and operation of the process to prevent or mitigate the release of hazardous chemicals need to be evaluated and strengthened to ensure their effectiveness at each level. Process safety management is the proactive identification, evaluation and mitigation or prevention of chemical releases that could occur as a result of failures in processes, procedures, or equipment.
15 To control these types of hazards, employers need to develop necessary expertise, experience, judgment, and initiative within their work force to properly implement and maintain an effective process safety management program
16 Process Safety Management (PSM) is the application of management principles and systems to identification, understanding and control of process hazards to prevent process-related injuries and accidents.
18 There are 12 Elements 1 ACCOUNTABILITY 2 PROCESS KNOWLEDGE AND DOCUMENTATION 3 CAPITAL PROJECT REVIEW AND DESIGN PROCEDURES 4 PROCESS RISK MANAGEMENT 5 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
19 6 PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT INTEGRITY 7 HUMAN FACTORS 8 TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE 9 INCIDENT INVESTIGATION 10 COMPANY STANDARDS, CODES AND REGULATIONS 11 AUDITS AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS 12 ENHANCEMENT OF PROCESS SAFETY KNOWLEDGE
20 1 ACCOUNTABILITY: OBJECTIVES & GOALS Management commitment at all levels is necessary for PSM to be effective. objectives for establishing accountability are to demonstrate the status of process safety compared to other business objectives (e.g. production and cost), to set objectives for safe process operation and to set specific process safety goals. These objectives should be internally consistent, i.e., supported by appropriate resources.
21 2. PROCESS KNOWLEDGE & DOCUMENTATION Information necessary for the safe design, operation and maintenance of any facility should be written, reliable, current and easily accessible by people who need to use it.
22 3. CAPITAL PROJECT REVIEW & DESIGN PROCEDURES Appropriation request procedures Risk assessment for investment purposes Hazards review Siting (relative to risk management) Plot plan Process design & review procedures Project management procedures
23 4 PROCESS RISK MANAGEMENT Hazards identification Risk assessment of existing operations Reduction of risk Residual risk management (in-plant emergency response and mitigation) Process management during emergencies Encouraging client & supplier companies to adopt similar risk management practices Selection of business with acceptable risks
24 5. MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE Clear definition of change (scope of application); Description & technical basis for the proposed change; Potential impact of proposed change on H,S & E Authorization requirements to make the change; Training requirements of change for people at work; Updating of documentation including; process safety information, operating & maintenance procedures, alarm and interlock settings, fire protection systems, etc.; and contingencies for "emergency" changes. A system to manage change is critical to the operation of any facility. A written procedure should be required for all changes except replacement in kind. system should address:
25 6 PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT INTEGRITY Pressure vessels and storage tanks; Piping, instrument and electrical systems; Process control software; Relief and vent systems and devices; Emergency and fire protection systems; Controls including monitoring devices and sensors, alarms and interlocks; and Rotating equipment. A documented file should be maintained for each equipment. Procedures for fabricating, inspecting and maintaining equipment vital to process safety. Written procedures should be used to maintain ongoing integrity of process equipment such as:
26 Human factors are a significant contributor to many process accidents. Three key areas are operator – process/equipment interface, administrative controls and human error assessment. 7 HUMAN FACTORS
27 8. TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE People to be trained in the skills & to have ongoing retraining to maintain these skills. 9 INCIDENT INVESTIGATION Major incidents Near-miss reporting Follow-up & resolution Communication Incident recording Third-party participation as needed
28 10. CO. STANDARDS, CODES & REGULATIONS A management system is needed to ensure that the various internal and external published guidelines, standards and regulations are current, disseminated to appropriate people and departments, and applied throughout the plant.
29 11 AUDITS AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS The purpose of safety audits is to determine the status and effectiveness of safety management efforts versus goals and also the progress toward those goals.
30 12. ENHANCEMENT OF PROCESS SAFETY KNOWLEDGE A management system for process safety should be designed for continuous improvement. Safety requirements are becoming more stringent, while knowledge of systems and technology is growing. Safe operation of a process plant calls for personnel to stay abreast of current develop-ments, & for safety information to be accessible.
32 What is a disaster? An occurrence inflicting widespread destruction and distress DISASTER HazardVulnerability
33 What is a disaster? “A sudden calamitous event bringing great damage, loss or destruction.” “What happens only if you are not prepared for it.” “An event the timing of which is unexpected and the consequences seriously destructive.”
34 What is Disaster? A catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man- made causes, leading to accident, and resulting in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of property, or damage to, or degradation of environment, and is of such a nature and/or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area. (Source: DM Act, 2005)
35 Factors contributing to industrial disasters Storage of flammable, explosive, or toxic chemicals, including radioactive materials Uncontrolled release of un-reacted chemicals, chemical reaction products, or energy from a chemical reaction The presence of people in the proximity to result in exposure Exposure sufficient to cause serious injury or death
36 Bhopal Disaster -3 Dec., 1984–A Turning Point Methyl isocyanate (MIC) released resulting in over 2 500 dead and 100 000 injured Brought home the unprecedented scale of disaster potential of a hazchem incident in terms of loss of life, health and injury and evacuation needed and created a compelling evidence to apply a holistic Disaster Management approach to chemical safety A new era of restructuring and inducting new HAZCHEM control systems & procedures started
37 Major post-Bhopal developments Major Hazard remained an unknown concept in India till the Bhopal disaster
38 Major post-Bhopal developments BROADER FOCUS The focus of protection was made more comprehensive to include property, environment and community instead of the earlier narrow focus only on employees
40 MAJOR POST-BHOPAL DEVELOPMENTS… NSC-ADPC 2-week Asia Region Training Course on `Technological Risk Mitigation in Cities’ (Mumbai, 1998 with 20 participants from 8 Asian countries) Signing of MOU between NIDM & NSC (2005) MOU with Lokmanya Medical Foundation for Strengthening EMS for road accidents (July, 2006)
41 PRESENT STATUS Well developed MAHC System Legislation, organisation, technical competence, enforcement APELL Process institutionalized Set up Crisis Groups with participation from authorities, emergency response services, industry and community Identified hazard-prone industrial pockets with > 5 MAH units Established inventory of 1,666 MAH units in 24 States & UTs and 347 Isolated storages
42 PRESENT STATUS… Enactment of Public Liability Insurance Act, ’91 On-site emergency plans (1 628) and Off-site plans (166) prepared Mutual Aid Response Groups developed Institutional framework (NAC NSC, NIDM,DMI) Indian Standards -14489:1998, 15656:2006 MOEF Guidelines- MSIHC Rules
43 PARADIGM SHIFT IN DISASTER MGT Disaster Management Act, 2005 National Disaster Management Authority Development of National Disaster Management Guidelines on- chemical disasters, earthquakes etc Institutional Mechanisms Approach at National, State and Local levels Focus on- Prevention, Mitigation & Preparedness
44 THE PHASES OF A DISASTER EVENT! Response Recovery Development Prevention/ Mitigation Preparedness
45 PREVENTION Measures aimed at impeding occurrence of a disaster event and/or averting such an occurrence having harmful effects on community
46 MITIGATION Measures aimed at reducing the impact of a disaster There is a very thin line of separation between Prevention and Mitigation. Hence the combined term “Prevention/Mitigation” is used.
47 PREPAREDNESS Measures to enable to respond rapidly and effectively to disaster situations
48 DISASTER IMPACT Point at which a disaster event occurs It has varying degrees of consequences
49 RESPONSE Measures taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact Measures directed towards saving life, protecting property and to dealing with immediate disruption, damage, and other effects caused by a disaster
50 RECOVERY Process by which communities and the affected entities are assisted in returning to their proper level of functioning following a disaster Activities include Restoration Rehabilitation Reconstruction
51 Looking Ahead Strengthening District and Local Crisis Groups Strengthening capacities of fire brigades, police, etc Developing Model off-site plans Annual testing and updating of off-site plans Community awareness responsibility by crisis groups Enforcement Authorities’ role, activities and contribution in the new National approach on DM Developing good medical response system Post disaster reviews Publishing case studies Developing MAH database Designating institutions on technological DM and developing package of training courses
52 INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT & DISASTER MANAGEMENT
54 THE PHASES OF A DISASTER EVENT! Response Recovery Development Prevention/ Mitigation Preparedness
55 PREVENTION Measures aimed at impeding occurrence of a disaster event and/or averting such an occurrence having harmful effects on community
56 MITIGATION Measures aimed at reducing the impact of a disaster There is a very thin line of separation between Prevention and Mitigation. Hence the combined term “Prevention/Mitigation” is used.
57 PREPAREDNESS Measures to enable to respond rapidly and effectively to disaster situations
58 DISASTER IMPACT Point at which a disaster event occurs It has varying degrees of consequences
59 RESPONSE Measures taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact Measures directed towards saving life, protecting property and to dealing with immediate disruption, damage, and other effects caused by a disaster
60 RECOVERY Process by which communities and the affected entities are assisted in returning to their proper level of functioning following a disaster Activities include Restoration Rehabilitation Reconstruction