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Priyatmadi PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI OTOMASI. Priyatmadi PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI 170019002050 2000 Teknologi Materi Teknologi Energi Automasi Teknologi Informasi.

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Presentation on theme: "Priyatmadi PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI OTOMASI. Priyatmadi PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI 170019002050 2000 Teknologi Materi Teknologi Energi Automasi Teknologi Informasi."— Presentation transcript:


2 Priyatmadi PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI Teknologi Materi Teknologi Energi Automasi Teknologi Informasi

3 Priyatmadi Apakah Automasi Itu? Klassifisi pengendalian Kendali Aritmetika VS Logik Kendali Manual VS Otomatis Kendali Feed forward VS Feedback Kendali Analog VS Digital Automatic, Feedback&forward, Digital, Arithmetic&logic Automasi adalah implementasi teknologi kendali dalam produksi barang dan jasa yang mengambil alih pekerjaan yang biasa dilakukan oleh manusia.

4 Priyatmadi Manual Arithmetic Feedback Control

5 Priyatmadi Analog Automatic Arithmetic Feedback Control TT TIC I/P 4-20 mA 3-15psi Set point Cold water in hot water out steam in

6 Priyatmadi Digital Automatic Arithmetic Feedback Control TT I/P 4-20 mA 3-15psi Set point Cold water in hot water out steam in DAC KOMPUTER ADC

7 Priyatmadi Arithmetic Feedback Control TT TIC I/P 4-20 mA 3-15psi Set point Cold water in hot water out steam in Plant Controller Sensor + - Set point e(t)m(t) c(t)


9 Priyatmadi ON-OFF CONTROL ACTION m(t) = M 1 if e(t)>0 m(t) = M 2 if e(t)<0 Plant Controller Sensor + - Set point r(t) m(t) e(t) c(t) e m M1 M2

10 Priyatmadi ON-OFF CONTROL ACTION WITH GAP m(t) = M 1 if e(t)>e 1 m(t) = M 2 if e(t)

11 Priyatmadi Example of ON-OFF action h(t) q i (t) q o (t) Level sensor

12 Priyatmadi example

13 Priyatmadi Proportional Control Action m(t)=K p e(t) Plant Controller Sensor + - Set point r(t) m(t) e(t) c(t) e(t) m(t) t

14 Priyatmadi Integral Control Action m(t)=K i ∫ e(t)dt e(t) m(t) t Plant Controller Sensor + - Set point r(t) m(t) e(t) c(t)

15 Priyatmadi Derivative Control Action m(t)=K d (de(t)/dt) e(t) m(t) t Plant Controller Sensor + - Set point r(t) m(t) e(t) c(t)

16 Priyatmadi Problem in Analog control Stability Sensitivity Disturbance rejection Steady state accuracy Transient response Noise

17 Priyatmadi STABILITY A control loop will be stable if at the frequency of oscillation that gives a total phase shift of around the loop, the gain around the loop is less then 1 Plant Controller Sensor + - Set point r(t) m(t) e(t) c(t)

18 Priyatmadi OUTPUT OF CONTROL SYSTEM WHEN SET POINT IS RISEN n tn t c(t)c(t) Plant Controller Sensor + - Set point r(t) m(t) e(t) c(t) UNSTABLE r(t)

19 Priyatmadi SENSITIVITY Sensitivity is a measure of changes in system characteristic due to changes in parameters. Example: Load change Sensor characteristic change Plant characteristic change etc. Controller can be design to be insensitive to one parameter but often it must be sensitive to the others.

20 Priyatmadi Disturbance rejection The input to the plant we manipulated is m(t). Plant also receives disturbance input that we do not control. The plant then can be modeled as follow Methods to reduce T d (j  ) 1.make G d (s) small 2.increase loop gain by increasing G c 3.reduced D(s) 4.use feed forward compensation D(t)D(t) M(t)M(t) + C(t)C(t) Gp(t)Gp(t) G d (s) + plant GcGc + – H Gd(t)D(t)Gd(t)D(t) R(r)R(r)

21 Priyatmadi Disturbance rejection Feedforward compensation Feedforward compensation can be applied if the disturbance can be measured. C(s)C(s) D(s)D(s) M(s)M(s) + Gp(s)Gp(s) G d (s) + plant GcGc + – H Gd(s)D(s)Gd(s)D(s) G cd (s) – R(s)R(s)

22 Priyatmadi 5.5 Steady State Accuracy C(t)C(t)M(t)M(t) Gp(t)Gp(t)GcGc + – R(t)R(t) E(t)E(t) n tn t c(t)c(t) R(t)R(t) e ss C(t)C(t) Used integrator to eliminate steady state error but be carefull system can be unstable n tn t c(t)c(t) r(t)

23 Priyatmadi Time Response of Control System The typical of unit step response of a system is as ntnt c(t)c(t) M pt TrTr TpTp 1+ d 1 d1 d c ss TsTs

24 Priyatmadi Problem of Noise Random, meaningless signals can occur in many parts of control loops. These signals, often referred to as noise, can interfere with the intelligence of the signal. For example, heater control the cold water and heated water may not be completely intermixed by the time they reach the thermometer bulb. Slugs of cold water may alternate with hot water to give a rapidly fluctuating, wholly meaningless temperature signal at the bulb. If such a noise bearing signal is allowed to reach the controller, it may result in wild and meaningless corrections to the process, which may cause fluctuating or completely unstable automatic control.

25 Priyatmadi Problem of Noise Similar noise problems can occur in connection with most signals, e.g., random pulsations in pressure signals, waves in liquid-level signals, turbulence in differential-measured flow signals, and induced currents in circuits (electromagnetic wave, lightning, groundloop, etc)

26 Priyatmadi Solutions to Noise Problem Derivative action produces difficulties where noise exists and, therefore, it should generally not be used in such instances. Filtering or averaging the noise out of the signal. For example, in heater control the source of the thermal noise can be eliminated by better mixing of the hot and cold water in the tank or by using an averaging-type thermometer bulb that measures temperature over a considerable length instead of at one point.

27 Priyatmadi Solutions to Noise Problem Reduction or elimination of the noise at its source, for example rotary instead of reciprocating pumps to avoid pulsating pressures, larger mixing tanks or surge tanks, stirrers to obtain a uniform signal, longer pipe runs and straightening vanes in flow measurement, shielding of wires against stray voltages Use STP wires.

28 Priyatmadi Ratio Control In ratio control, a predetermined ratio is maintained between two or more variables. Each controller has its own measured variable and output to a separate final control element. However, all set points are from a master primary signal that is modified by individual ratio settings A typical application of ratio control is the control of the fuel flow/airflow ratio in a combustion control system

29 Priyatmadi

30 Auctioneering Control (Override Control, Limiting Control) In suction and discharge pressure compressor control, the discharge control valve is normally regulated from the discharge pressure. However, if the suction pressure drops below its set point, control is transferred to the suction pressure controller. This prevents excessive suction on the supply side, from demand exceeding supply, with resultant compressor damage

31 Priyatmadi Auctioneering Control (Override Control, Limiting Control)

32 Priyatmadi Modern Control Action Fuzzy control Optimal control Sliding mode control Adaptive control (Self tuning control)

33 Priyatmadi Logic Control

34 Priyatmadi What is Logic control Logic control is a control based on a logic concept, that is the on-off state of variable and/or equipment Logic control is often used to control combinational and/or sequential events such as lift control, automatic production line, engine start-up, etc. Originally used device such as switches, relay, timer, drum, and any other mechanism to enable changes of the on-off state

35 Priyatmadi SWITCHES

36 Priyatmadi Toggle Hand Switches ~ Single pole single throw (SPST)

37 Priyatmadi Toggle Hand Switches ~ Single pole double throw SPDT switches

38 Priyatmadi Toggle Hand Switches DPST DPDT

39 Priyatmadi Hand Switches 3PST Rotary Swtich

40 Priyatmadi Push button Hand Switches Normally open NO Normally close NC

41 Priyatmadi Push-Push Switch This looks like a momentary action push switch but it is a standard on-off switch: –push once to switch on, –push again to switch off. This is called a latching action.

42 Priyatmadi Microswitch usually SPDT Microswitches are designed to switch fully open or closed in response to small movements. They are available with levers and rollers attached.

43 Priyatmadi Keyswitch A key operated switch. The example shown is SPST.

44 Priyatmadi Reed Switch Usually SPST The contacts of a reed switch are closed by bringing a small magnet near the switch. They are used in security circuits, for example to check that doors are closed. Standard reed switches are SPST (simple on-off) but SPDT (changeover) versions are also available. reed switches have a glass body which is easily broken!

45 Priyatmadi DIP Switch DIP = Dual In-line Parallel This is a set of miniature SPST on-off switches, the example shown has 8 switches. The package is the same size as a standard DIL (Dual In-Line) integrated circuit. This type of switch is used to set up circuits, e.g. setting the code of a remote control.

46 Priyatmadi Multi-pole Switch The picture shows a 6- pole double throw switch, also known as a 6-pole changeover switch. It can be set to have momentary or latching action. Latching action means it behaves as a push-push switch, push once for the first position, push again for the second position etc.

47 Priyatmadi Multi-way Switch Multi-way switches have 3 or more conducting positions. They may have several poles (contact sets). A popular type has a rotary action and it is available with a range of contact arrangements from 1-pole 12- way to 4-pole 3 way. The number of ways (switch positions) may be reduced by adjusting a stop under the fixing nut. For example if you need a 2-pole 5-way switch you can buy the 2-pole 6-way version and adjust the stop.

48 Priyatmadi Process Operated Switches These switches is constructed using one of the above switches. A process variable will initiate a displacement to switch the switch Limit switch Proximity switch Pressure switch Level switch Temperature switch Flow switch etc

49 Priyatmadi SWITCH CAPACITY On a switch usually there is a label informing the voltage and current capacity, e.g.: 250 V 5 A It means that: the maximum current allowed to pass the switch is 5 A. The maximum voltage across its terminal allowed is 250 volt ~ I<5 A ~ V<250 V

50 Priyatmadi RELAY

51 Priyatmadi Relay Picture is downloaded from

52 Priyatmadi Relay A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relay consist of coil and contact Usually a relay has 1 coil and many contacts both NO and NC RELAY coil NO contact NC contact

53 Priyatmadi Relay In electrical diagram relay is symbolized as shown A relay can have many contacts both NO and NC The coil of a relay typically passes 30mA for a 12V relay, The contacts can drive 5A or more depending on the size of relay RELAY SYMBOL WITH 8 CONTACTS coil contacts NO NC

54 Priyatmadi Relay Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 220V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and mechanical. N 12 V R1 30 mA 5 A R11 R12 ~ 220V

55 Priyatmadi Ladder diagram

56 Priyatmadi Ladder Diagram To make such as previous diagram easier to read a ladder diagram is used R1 + - R11 S

57 Priyatmadi Basic logic AND LOGIC L + - s1s2 Lamp L will light if switch s1 and s2 are on. In logic on usually symbolized as 1 and off as 0. s1s2L Mathematically written as L = S1 AND S2

58 Priyatmadi Basic logic OR LOGIC L + - s1 s2 Lamp L will light if switch s1 OR s2 are on. s1s2L Mathematically written as L = S1 OR S2

59 Priyatmadi Basic logic NOT LOGIC + - s1 Lamp L will light if not R1 is on R1L L R11 Mathematically written as L = NOT(R1)

60 Priyatmadi Combinational logic Suppose you want to design a safe car with the following criteria: The gear box (GB) will not engage unless: 1.The safety belt (SB) is fastened and the doors (D1-D4) are locked or 2.The safety system is disable by switching on override switch (OS) for maintenance purpose Mathematically the above logic is written as GB = (SB AND D1 AND D2 AND D3 AND D4) OR OS SBD1 GB D2 D3D4 OS

61 Priyatmadi Motor Start Stop (sequential logic) The following ladder diagram is used to switch a motor on and off R1 motor R11 R12 R13 R14 S1 S2 startstop Latching action

62 Priyatmadi Auto start of water pump Suppose that the motor is used to drive water pump and we want that the pump can run or stop automatically depending on the water level In addition we also want to override the automatic control using manual start and sop control LS

63 Priyatmadi Auto start of water pump Off, manual and auto motor control R1 R11 motor S1 S2 startstop O M A LS

64 Priyatmadi Permissive circuits Often it is desired that a piece of equipment is allowed to start if several conditions are met. For example overload switch and over temperature switch must be closed in order the motor can be started Each process condition is called a permissive, and each permissive switch contact is wired in series, so that if any one of them detects an unsafe condition, the circuit will be opened.

65 Priyatmadi Auto start of water pump with protection Suppose we want to protect the motor against over load and over temperature R11 S1 S2 startstop O M A LS OLOT R1 motor S0 Permissive circuits

66 Priyatmadi Interlock circuits Often it is desired that only one piece of equipment is allowed to start if all other equipments are in off condition. For example push button circuit used in Quiz show program where several contestant have to answer a question. The first one who pushes the push button will disable the other’s push button switch This circuit is called interlock since acting one circuit will lock the others to function

67 Priyatmadi Push Button In Quiz Show program R1 R11 A B R2 R21 LA R12 R22 R13 R23 LB

68 Priyatmadi Push Button In Quiz Show program R1 R11 A B R2 R21 LB R22 R32 R13 R23 LC LA R12 R3 R14 C R31 R24 R31 R33

69 Priyatmadi Push Button In Quiz Show program R1 R11 A B R2 R21 LB R23 R14 R23 LA R13 R12 R22 Reset Instead of pushing the PB continually it is desired that just pushing once is enough for the contestant to claim that they are the first team pushing the button The presenter must push the reset button to reset the system back to original state

70 Priyatmadi Interlock Another example of interlock is the forward circuit of motor must prevent the reverse circuit, otherwise the motor will damage Note: Motor contactor (or "starter") coils are typically designated by the letter "M" in ladder logic diagrams.

71 Priyatmadi Time delay relay If the motor is carry a high inertia load it is dangerous to reverse the direction of the motor instantaneously. Time delay relay can be installed to prevent such occurrence to happen

72 Priyatmadi Fail safe design Consider an alarm system as shown. It can be design in 2 ways Both ways work exactly in the same manner The second design however gives fail save design. Murphy’s law is true. If something can go wrong it will.

73 Priyatmadi PLC

74 Priyatmadi Programmable logic controllers Before the advent of solid-state logic circuits, logical control systems were designed and built exclusively around electromechanical relays. Relays are far from obsolete in modern design, but have been replaced in many of their former roles as logic-level control devices, relegated most often to those applications demanding high current and/or high voltage switching. Systems and processes requiring "on/off" control abound in modern commerce and industry, but such control systems are rarely built from either electromechanical relays or discrete logic gates. Instead, digital computers fill the need, which may be programmed to do a variety of logical functions.

75 Priyatmadi Programmable logic controllers In the late 1960's an American company named Bedford Associates released a computing device they called the MODICON. As an acronym, it meant Modular Digital Controller, and later became the name of a company division devoted to the design, manufacture, and sale of these special-purpose control computers. Other engineering firms developed their own versions of this device, and it eventually came to be known in non- proprietary terms as a PLC, or Programmable Logic Controller. The purpose of a PLC was to directly replace electromechanical relays as logic elements with a solid- state digital computer with able to emulate the interconnection of many relays to perform certain logical tasks.

76 Priyatmadi Programmable logic controllers A PLC has many "input" terminals (X), many output terminals (Y). The input-output relation is programmable To make PLCs easy to program, their programming language was designed to resemble ladder logic diagrams. Thus, an industrial electrician or electrical engineer accustomed to reading ladder logic schematics would feel comfortable programming a PLC to perform the same control functions. ~220V AC

77 Priyatmadi Programmable logic controllers Suppose that the PLC is wired as shown and we want that : –Lamp A will light if S 1 AND S 2 is pushed –Lamp B will light if S 1 OR S 2 is pushed –Lamp C will light if S 1 EXOR S 2 is pushed + A B C S1S1 S2S2

78 Priyatmadi Programmable logic controllers A B C + S1S1 S2S2 X3X4 Y3 X3 X4 Y1 L A =X3 AND X4 L B =X3 OR X4

79 Priyatmadi Programmable logic controllers A B C + S1S1 S2S2 Y5 X3 X4 X3 L C =X3 EXOR X4

80 Priyatmadi Kendali Motor Putar Kanan/Kiri Kendali logik digunakan untuk proses yang bersifat logik seperti pengendalian lift. Dalam praktek kendali logic dan aritmatika digunakan dua-duanya.

81 Priyatmadi Milestone Teknologi Kendali 1900Amplifier tabung 1920Kendali otomatis menggunakan pneumatik & rele 1940Supervisory control di jaringan listrik dengan rele 1950Transistor, komputer, CNC, Electronic controller 1960DAS, SCADA, PLC, Robot Industri, AI 1970Distributed Control Systems, VLSI, µP 1980PC, LAN, Internet 1990Field bus, Wireless 2000MEM, Nanotech

82 Priyatmadi Milestone Teknologi Kendali Pneumatic controllers (1920) Electronic analog controllers (1950) Supervisory Control(1940) Computer (1950) CNC Machines (1952) SCADA (1960) Robotic & Artificial Intelligent (1960) Programmable Logic Controller (1960) Distributed Control Systems (1970) Personal Computer (1981) Internet (1980an) Fieldbus technology(1990an)

83 Priyatmadi Arsitektur Kendali Proses Gambar di download dari

84 Priyatmadi Automasi kedepan Tecnologi baru dalam pembuatan sensor MEM dan sensor nanotech akan mendorong automasi yang lebih kompleks Embeded system akan semakin banyak digunakan untuk aplikasi otomasi Sistem waktu nyata semakin mudah direalisasikan dengan pemroses yang semakin cepat dan paralel untuk implementasi pengendalian yang kompleks Automasi masa depan akan diperani oleh nanotech, wireless networking, dan sistem adaptif kompleks

85 Priyatmadi IMPIAN AUTOMATIONIST Full automation di semua bidang seperti Sopir Jurumasak Polisi Yang dilakukan oleh mesin otomatis Ini berarti bahwa Mesin harus secerdas manusia

86 Priyatmadi Perbandingan Kecerdasan Mesin dan Manusia BidangMesinManusia Perhitungan***** * Pengenalan, pemahaman****** Perasaan-***** Keinginan, kemauan-***** Kreativitas, inovasi-*****

87 Priyatmadi Apakah Automasi Mengakibatkan pengangguran?

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