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IGBT driving aspect Zhou Yizheng
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. IGBT driving Driving voltage level Effect of turn on/off ¬Rge, Cge, Lg ¬Driving capability Isolation Thermal Protection ¬Parasitic turn on ¬Over voltage ¬Short circuit/over current
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Driving voltage level Effect to Vcesat Vge ， Vcesat Tvj=125 C Effect to short cicuit Vge ， Isc （ tsc ） note ： max. allowed Vge is 20V Positive voltage
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Driving voltage level Miller capability effect Negative voltage ¬To guarantee safety off state, avoid parasitic miller turn on ¬Turn on delay increase (dead time) ¬Slightly reduce tf and Eoff ¬Increase driving power
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Effect of turn on/off Rgon Control of dv/dt and di/dt with gate resistor Turn-on with nominal gate resistor (datasheet value): dv/dt = 0.9kV/µs di/dt = 6.4kA/µs I Cpeak = 2.4kA E on = 816mWs Turn-on with smaller than nominal gate resistor: dv/dt = 1.4kV/µs di/dt = 8.7kA/µs I Cpeak = 2.7kA E on = 544mWs Turn-on with larger than nominal gate resistor: dv/dt = 0.3kV/µs di/dt = 3.0kA/µs I Cpeak = 1.8kA E on = 2558mWs
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Effect of turn on/off Rgoff Control of dv/dt and di/dt with gate resistor dv/dt is controllable with gate resistor. A larger resistor will result in a smaller dv/dt. di/dt is only controllable if the gate voltage doesn’t drop below the Miller Plateau level before IC starts to decrease. This is in general the case for a gate resistor value close to the datasheet value. With larger resistors a control of di/dt starts to work.
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Effect of turn on/off RangeDetermined byConditionInfluenced byInfluence on 1V GE < V GEth C iss = constR G, C GE t don 2V GEth < V GE < V GEM C iss = constR G, C GE di / dt 3V GE = V GEM V GE = constR G, C GC dv / dt Cge Independently control of dv/dt and di/dt
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. For similar Eon, we can: RgeCgeEonDi/dtIpeaktdonVge_p 4.6ohm0nf650mJ3283kA/ us 1.487kA1.76us13.6V 1.7ohm200nf635mJ2492kA/ us 1.386kA1.67us13.7V 4.6ohm0nF 1.7ohm200nF
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. For similar di/dt, we can: RgeCgeEonDi/dtIpeaktdonVge_p 2.6ohm0nf437mJ4270kA/ us 1.639kA1.29us14.0V 1.7ohm46nf386mJ4324kA/ us 1.635kA1.23us15.0V 2.6ohm0nF 1.7ohm46nF
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Rge vs. Cge Using Cge shows better Eon*di/dt coefficient Using Cge can significantly increase driving power P=∆U*(Qge+Cge*∆U)*f Using Cge can significantly increase driving peak current, require more powerful driver (output peak current capability) The tolerance of Cge should be taken care when used in IGBT paralleling application Using Cge may cause gate current oscillation, which leads to higher gate peak voltage.
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Cable length influence With short cable With long cable CalbeRgeCgeEonDi/dtIpeaktdonVge_p Short0.9ohm0nf196mJ6128kA /us 1.978k A 0.92us14.7V Long0.9ohm0nf87mJ6920kA /us 2.220k A 0.92us18.3V
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. For similar Eon, we can: With fixed Cge With fixed Rge CalbeRgeCgeEonDi/dtIpeaktdonVge_p Short0.9ohm22nf210mJ5882kA /us 1.908k A 0.92us17.0V Long1.7ohm22nf231mJ5587kA /us 1.874k A 1.21us17.5V CalbeRgeCgeEonDi/dtIpeaktdonVge_p Short1.7ohm22nf351mJ4717kA /us 1.711k A 1.17us15.8V Long1.7ohm91nf347mJ4065kA /us 1.673k A 1.39us15.6V
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Cable length influence Cable length (Lg) shows similar Eon*di/dt coefficient as Rge, This mainly due to Lg effect both during di/dt period and dv/dt period (same as Rge) Long cable significantly induce the turn on delay time Long cable is a EMI receiver, which can cause Vge spike and unstable. Loosing gate cable inductance will significantly increase Eon, which should especially paid attention in active adaptor design. Adaptor boardRgeCgeEonDi/dtIpeak Active1.0ohm0nf332mJ5650kA/us1.708kA Passive(8mm)1.0ohm0nf187mJ7700kA/us1.895kA Long cable should be avoid to be used. But loosing gate inductance should also be paid attention
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Effect of turn on/off Driving capability ¬Peak current capability ¬Power capability Maximum driver peak current U = 15V switching Driver power Slow down turn on/off speed Driver losses Vge goes down Power supply losses
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Effect of turn on/off Turn on/off criteria Redundant information on di/dt and dv/dt ! VR(t) [V] IR(t) [A] locus i R (t)*v R (t) ! 0 Diode SOA
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Isolation +- Optocoupler Optical Fiber High isolation capability Aging of electrical characteristic Reduced reliability due to aging No energy transmission Monolithic Level Shifter Cost effective Integration of logic suitable No galvanic isolation EMI sensitivity No energy transmission Discrete Transformer Very high isolation Capability Energy transmission possible Expensive Device Volume Coreless Transformer (CLT) High isolation capability Very cost effective Easy integration of logic function No energy transmission
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Isolation Isolation transformer ¬Isolation test ¬Partial discharge test ¬Parasitic capacitor (Primary - secondary)
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Thermal Influenced parameters Module case temperature Driving power (switching frequency, Qg) Driving peak current Sensitive parts Gate resistor Booster Power supply Fiber
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Thermal If system internal ambient temperature is known. From delt Tca, we can check temperature rise due to module itself heating Adding temperature rise due to driving signal, real driver board temperature can be gotten. System cooling can significant improve driver cooling condition
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection UVLO Interlock / generating deadtime Vge over voltage Parasitic turn on Short circuit protection Over voltage protection (for short circuit off) ¬Active Clamping ¬DVRC (Dynamik Voltage Raise Control) ¬di/dt-Feedback ¬Soft-Shut-Down ¬Two-Level Turn-off
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection UVLO ¬Avoid driving IGBT with low voltage causing thermal issue ¬Avoid series break down Interlock / generating deadtime ¬Avoid short through by software mistake ¬Hardware deadtime should be shorter than software deadtime
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection ¬ Limitation of increase of gate voltage due to positive feedback over C GC and due to di/dt ¬ Limitation of short circuit currents Methode 1 Gate-Supply Clamping Methode 2 Gate-Emitter Clamping Vge over voltage
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Parasitic turn on ¬minus voltage off ¬separate gate resistors, using small Rgoff and big Rgon ¬Additional gate emitter capacitor to shunt the Miller current ¬Active Miller clamping
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Short circuit protection Desaturation detect Ic Vce OC SC II Vce Ic SC I
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Short circuit protection Desaturation detect Based on fixed reference voltage Based on variable reference voltage
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Short circuit protection Desaturation detect Over current protection? – Noise immunity is poor – Blanking time hard to set for fixed reference voltage concept, especially for high voltage module – Current protect point hard to be accurate ¬Directly detect collector current ¬Digital controller to detect di/dt ¬By system current sensor
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Over voltage protection ¬Active clamping
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Over voltage protection ¬DVRC (Dynamic Voltage Raise Control) u GE (t) i C (t) u CE (t) di c T j =25°C R G =3.6 E OFF =0.9J u GE (t) i C (t) u CE (t) di c T j =25°C R G =13 E OFF =1.95J
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Over voltage protection ¬di/dt protection
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Over voltage protection ¬Soft shut down
Copyright © Infineon Technologies All rights reserved. Protection Over voltage protection ¬Two level turn off V GE Driver Out V CE ICIC V GE Driver Out V CE ICIC Without Two-Level Turn-Off V CE reaches 1000V With Two-Level Turn-Off V CE reduced to 640V
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