Presentation on theme: "Towards Zero Death: A National Strategy on Highway Safety White Papers Hugh McGee, VHB Inc Stakeholder Workshop August 25-26, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Towards Zero Death: A National Strategy on Highway Safety White Papers Hugh McGee, VHB Inc Stakeholder Workshop August 25-26, 2010
White Papers I.Future View of Transportation: Implications for Safety II.Safety Culture III.Safer Drivers* IV.Safer Vehicles* V.Safer Vulnerable Users* VI.Safer Infrastructure* VII.Emergency Medical Systems* VIII.Data Systems & Analysis Tools* IX.Lessons Learned from Safety Programs In Other Countries * Included in this presentation.
White Paper Objectives Identify strategies for reducing fatalities through: Safer Drivers Safer Vehicles Safer Infrastructure Safer Vulnerable Users Improved EMS Improved Data Systems and Analysis Tools Provide: Estimates of fatality reduction Costs – how much and who pays Challenges for implementation Opportunities
White Paper Objectives WPs not meant to be comprehensive—FOCUS ON KEY STRATEGIES Challenged to be ‘thought-provoking’ & think outside the box How can known strategies be implemented more widely. These WPs along with 3 others provide input to discussions that will lead to a National Strategic Safety Plan THESE WPS ARE EXPERT OPINIONS!
General Summary For Each White Paper Magnitude of Problem Major Topics Areas Key Strategies and Programs Challenges and Obstacles Areas for Opportunity
Safer Drivers Neil Lerner Jeremiah Singer James Jenness Westat
Safer Drivers – Driver Behavior Problem Crash causation: Driver behavior contributes to >90% of crashes Crash outcome: about 50% of occupant fatalities are unrestrained Driver behavior may not be sole cause of crash, and countermeasure does not necessarily have to be behavioral But problems of behavior are key component for major reduction in fatalities
Safer Drivers – Major Topic Areas Historically the “big three”: Speeding, Restraint system use, Impairment (alcohol, illegal drugs, medication, and fatigue) Additional relevant topics: Driver groups with high fatality rates Older drivers (dealt with in “Vulnerable Users” white paper) Teen drivers Driver distraction Including technology use and multi-tasking
Safer Drivers – Noteworthy Trends Technology in the vehicle and on the road Shift in how people view the driving task Powerful new study methods to understand and correct driver behavior
Safer Drivers – Areas of Opportunity Traditional strategies still important, but there is opportunity in some new approaches in: Increase restraint use Speeding Driver distraction Teen drivers
Increase Restraint Use Initiatives Effective nighttime enforcement Enhanced seat belt reminder systems & other vehicle interventions Detect and alert for unbelted rear seat passengers Devise teen-oriented vehicle systems Improve system design for child safety seats
Reduce Speeding Initiatives Expand use of in-vehicle speed monitoring technologies Use automated speed enforcement technologies to achieve broad area enforcement
Reduce Driver Distraction Promote effective enforcement of distracted driving laws Foster change in driver attitudes about multitasking risks & responsibilities Support technology developers Target teen drivers Develop adaptive driver interface systems Develop criteria for design of digital outdoor commercial signage.
Increase Safety of Young Drivers Implement & strengthen GDL laws & enact primary seatbelt laws. Promote enforcement of GDL restrictions and community support of GDL Encourage high level parental supervision during intermediate stage of GDL Promote safer vehicles for teen drivers
Safer Vehicles Richard Retting Sam Schwartz Engineering Ron Knipling safetyforthelonghaul.com
Safer Vehicles Decades of improvements in motor vehicle safety technology Improving safety requires moving beyond past accomplishments Specific vehicle design features and technologies offer substantial promise/evidence for reducing traffic fatalities
Safer Vehicles - Strategies For most major crash types there are potential vehicle countermeasures Source: Adapted from Sayer and Flanigan (2010); statistics from NHTSA.
Safer Vehicles – Strategies Strategies can be categorized as applicable to: Passenger vehicles Large trucks Cross-cutting and highly applicable to both
Safer Vehicles - Strategies 20 Large Trucks Improved Brakes/Shorter Stopping Distances Roll Stability Onboard Safety Monitoring Electronic Onboard Recorders Side Object Detection Systems Vehicle Condition Monitoring Automated Transmissions Truck-Specific Navigation Aids Enhanced Trailer Conspicuity Enhanced Trailer Rear Lighting/Warnings Video Side Mirrors Collision Aggressivity Reductions
Safer Vehicles – Strategies 21 Electronic Stability Control Forward Collision Warning Systems Lane Departure Warning Systems Backing Collision Warnings Driver Alertness Warnings Automatic Speed Control Electronic Drivers License Intelligent Lighting Systems Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Road Condition Warning Systems Electronic Data Recorders Cross-Cutting Applicable to Cars and Trucks
Safer Vehicles - Strategies Alcohol Detection & Interlock Automatic Speed Control Electronic Stability Control Emergency Brake Assist Lane Departure Warning Systems 22 Driver Attention Monitoring Ejection Mitigation Improved Side Impact Protection Side Object Detection Systems Daytime Running Lights High Priority Vehicle Strategies
Safer Vehicles -Barriers to Implementation Need to achieve extremely high levels of accuracy for crash-avoidance technologies Many important R&D issues remain Lack of consumer demand/willingness to pay Need for initial/ongoing driver training For vehicle-to-infrastructure technologies, sheer size of roadway system (4 million miles of public roads) Concerns about legal liability Privacy, public opinion (e.g. automatic speed control) 23
Safer Vulnerable Road Users: Pedestrians, Bicyclists, Motorcyclists, and Older Users Charlie Zegeer and William Hunter University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center Loren Staplin TransAnalytics, LLC Fran Bents and Richard Huey Westat Janet Barlow Accessible Design for the Blind
Safer Vulnerable Users – Magnitude of Problem Pedestrians 4,654 fatalities - 11 percent of all traffic fatalities (2007) Pedestrian crash trends continue to show greater problems for children and older adult pedestrians Bicyclists 716 fatalities - 2 percent of all traffic fatalities (2008) An additional 52,000 pedalcyclists were injured
Safer Vulnerable Users – Magnitude of Problem Motorcycles Approximately 5,200 fatalities per year Fatalities have more than doubled in the past decade. Infrastructure may present unique hazards to motorcyclist. Older Users 25% of drivers will be age 65 or older by Drivers 85 and older are themselves 8X higher risk of death per mile traveled than safest group (ages 30-60). Approximately 5,000 drivers aged 70 and above are killed each year
Safer Vulnerable Users – Strategies for Pedestrians Complete and market a revised AASHTO pedestrian guide to local and State officials Further refine the MUTCD to address pedestrian safety problems Expend funding and implementation of a National Safe Routes to School Program with National Safety Education Program Promote and advance the use of photo enforcement
Safer Vulnerable Users – Strategies for Pedestrians Develop and implement specific national guidelines for safer bus stop design and placement Expand pedestrian safety training to engineers, planners, and other professionals nationwide (supported by pedestrian safety research) Improve the reflectorization/conspicuity of pedestrians Develop and implement pedestrian-friendly ITS vehicle and roadway features
Safer Vulnerable Users – Strategies for Bicyclists Reduce motor vehicle speed in urban and suburban areas Reduce distracted driving by motorists and distracted riding by bicyclists Educate motorists about how to share the road with bicyclists Educate bicyclists about how to ride in traffic and the use of proper equipment Reduce intersection conflicts
Safer Vulnerable Users – Strategies for Motorcyclists Advisory Councils for the Federal and State Governments AASHTO Highway Design Handbook for Motorcyclists National motorcycle helmet law Rider to driver communication Standard motorcycle lighting displays More rider training and certification
Safer Vulnerable Users – Strategies for Older Users Incorporate national standards into State-level design manuals. Mandatory “refresher” driving course to retain unrestricted license. Required screening for visual, mental, and physical capability regardless of age for license renewal Immunity for health professionals for voluntary reporting older patients to DMV they are concerned might have driving impairments. A national system for labeling prescription and over-the-counter medications better indicating the risk for impairment of driving.
Safer Infrastructure Paul Jovanis Eric Donnell The Thomas D. Larson Pennsylvania Transportation Institute
Safer Infrastructure: Speeding
Safer Infrastructure: Roadway Departure
Safer Infrastructure: Intersections
Safer Infrastructure- Strategies Automated speed enforcement Safety center of excellence Performance-based design
Automated Speed Enforcement Oct 1971 Compulsory Seat belts Dec 1962 Random Breath Testing Early 1990s Automated Enforcement
Opportunities and Challenges Opportunities Possible 25% reduction in fatalities and injuries Benefits = $16 million/year in Scottsdale, AZ Challenges Reliable & accurate equipment Speed exceedance limits Covert/overt decision Rational speed limits
Regional Safety Centers of Excellence Implement state-of-art safety management processes Education and training needs Technical assistance to local and state programs Safety coordination
Opportunities and Challenges Opportunities Effective allocation of resources Consistent national implementation of Strategic Highway Safety Plans Supported by state-of-art methods and tools Certification of safety professionals Challenges Demand for education programs Regional collaboration among stakeholders
Performance-based Design Paradigm
Opportunities and Challenges Opportunities Explicitly consider safety in planning and design (may include construction and maintenance) Mandate use of existing tools to support safety decision-making Systematic road safety management Challenges Research needed to develop revised design policies Cultural change required
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) The National Association of State Emergency Medical Services Officials
EMS – Some Background Trauma to motor vehicle occupants is 4 th leading cause of non- fatal injuries treated in Emergency Departments Less than half of all fatal crash victims die at the scene– those who die later are potentially preventable. EMS providers are at greater risk of death on the job compared to police & firefighters- 74% of EMS fatalities are transportation related. Crash rates of ambulances are 7 to 10 times greater than heavy trucks. FARS >> 2 out of 3 fatalities associated with ambulance collisions were either occupants of other vehicles or pedestrians. CDC claims that severely injured victim who received care at a Level 1 trauma center within 1hr had 25% reduction in risk of death
EMS – Some Issues EMS is a complex system and organized differently across jurisdictions--both private and public; about 15K local EMS agencies. Leadership of comprehensive EMS system nationwide under NHTSA Office of EMS; but no direct authority over the provision of EMS. State and territorial EMS offices do not have ‘roadmap’ for how best to move towards unified and effective practices for safety of EMS personnel and to critical difference that can be made in patient outcomes when EMS functions in optimal manner. National plan affords opportunity to partner within and between states and nationally across disciplines in unprecedented way.
EMS - Strategies The six phases of EMS represented by NHTSA’s ‘Star of Life’ provides framework for organizing strategies to reduce fatalities.
Detection Systems Need standard dictionary and.xml schema for Telematics Data Definitions and Transmisson Standards (OnStar) Develop national Advanced Automatic Collision Notification algorithms, protocols & training. AACN predictors for need for vehicle extrication.
9-1-1 Access & Capabilities Enhanced 9-1-1and Phase II Compliance– to identify caller address/location Next Generation 9-1-1—data transmission across wireless and internet-based systems
EMS Response & Capacity Widespread adoption of National EMS Scope of Practice Model & National EMS Education Standards. Vehicle extrication education and competency standards Integrated ambulance-based safety systems— regulate ambulances like large trucks? IntelliDrive SM for EMS vehicles– V2V and V2I Evidence-based E Vehicle Operations Standards
On-Scene Medical Care Adopt National Trauma Triage Protocol National unified goal for traffic incident management embracing law enforcement, fire, EMS, rescue, roadway maintenance, towing and traffic control.
Patient Transportation Paradigms Engineering and design standards for ambulances– none exist for patient care compartment Helicopter EMS utilization criteria Ground ambulance access to ITS infrastructure sources– road hazards, weather
Hospital & Specialty Care Infrastructure Comprehensive and state regulated trauma systems Pre-hospital & interfacility telemedicine applications
Crosscutting Strategies National EMS information system based on National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) Trauma registries as source for severe injury data– allows for data-driven decision making for trauma system performance Records linkage to crash data– cross over to Data Systems WP.
Data Systems and Analysis Tools Barbara Hilger DeLucia Data Nexus, Inc. Geni Bahar NAVIGATS Inc.
Imagine the day …. …when a crash occurs, the location is known by its geographic position immediately, the driver, passengers, and other road users are issued an incident number that will allow us to follow up on the impact of the crash using data from other systems, facilitating adjudication, medical care, training, licensing, vehicle use, and other key safety aspects of transportation. …when crash data are transmitted from the vehicle, accurately located by GPS to link with roadway and traffic conditions. The event data recorder from the vehicle transfers information about the moments before the crash to a data warehouse or knowledge base of analysts, thereby providing linkage to further data sources for safety analysis …when traffic movements are continuously assessed at real time and these data are analyzed for instant response and prevention of collisions. …when data systems and analysis tools are available to evaluate the strategies and initiatives discussed in the white papers for the other key areas, as well as, for assessing progress in the implementation of the national strategy for highway safety Toward Zero Deaths and significant decreases in seriously injured persons. …when a crash occurs, the location is known by its geographic position immediately, the driver, passengers, and other road users are issued an incident number that will allow us to follow up on the impact of the crash using data from other systems, facilitating adjudication, medical care, training, licensing, vehicle use, and other key safety aspects of transportation. …when crash data are transmitted from the vehicle, accurately located by GPS to link with roadway and traffic conditions. The event data recorder from the vehicle transfers information about the moments before the crash to a data warehouse or knowledge base of analysts, thereby providing linkage to further data sources for safety analysis …when traffic movements are continuously assessed at real time and these data are analyzed for instant response and prevention of collisions. …when data systems and analysis tools are available to evaluate the strategies and initiatives discussed in the white papers for the other key areas, as well as, for assessing progress in the implementation of the national strategy for highway safety Toward Zero Deaths and significant decreases in seriously injured persons.
Data Systems and Analysis Overview National, State and Local data used for different levels of analysis: Problem Identification Countermeasure Selection Program and Project Evaluation Fourteen data resources (national and state) described
Data Systems and Analysis State-of-the-Art and –Practice 10 resources and 12 analytical tools presented. Classified as: On-going - data or information are entered periodically. Single timeframe - data entered for a single time period. Web link address. Short description and capabilities. Brief suggestions for future modifications/expansions to meet current or likely future needs.
Data Systems and Analysis Recommended Enhancements Inclusion of all injury crashes in national databases Use of technology to automate and minimize redundancy and errors Development of a data warehouse and provide online access Development of state, regional and local Safety Perform Functions
Data Systems and Analysis - Recommended Enhancements Continued Increase accessibility online Create an on-going mechanism to keep the knowledge base updated with new research and evaluation of treatments and online access Expand analytical tools to other road types and facilities; and road users
Data Systems and Analysis – Strategies Strategy 1 Implement state-of-the-art tools (1-5 years) Strategy 2 Expand on methods and application tools (1-10 years) Strategy 3 Develop and implement new methods and tools (1-15 years)
“ If decision-makers are provided safety analysis tools that output better safety decisions or make the decision-making process easier, these tools will be used. If these tools require improved safety data, then these same decision-makers will find ways to generate these improved data. ” Source: Traffic Safety Information Systems International Scan: Strategy Implementation White Paper, Publication No. FHWA-HRT , September 2006
TOP 10 STRATEGIES TO REDUCE FATALITIES (McGee’s Opinion) 10. Comprehensive & integrated safety data system 9. Highway design standards that consider vulnerable users—aging, bicycle, motorcycle 8. Implement low-cost proven highway safety improvements 7. Increase safety of young drivers 6. Curtail distracted driving
TOP 10 STRATEGIES TO REDUCE FATALITIES (McGee’s Opinion) 5. Develop affordable safety devices/technology for all vehicles 4. Reduce number of impaired drivers 3. Increase restraint use 2. Reduce ‘speeding’ 1. Adopt culture of safety That’s my opinion. What do you think?
LASTLY --THANK YOU AUTHORS White PaperExpert/Author Future View: Implications for Safety Alan Pisarski Forrest Council Safety Culture Nicholas Ward Jeff Linkenbach Sarah Keller Jay Otto Safer Drivers Neil Lerner Jeremiah Singer James Jenness Safer Vehicles Richard Retting Ron Knipling
White PaperAuthor Safer Vulnerable Users Charlie Zeeger William Hunter Loren Staplin Fran Bents Richard Huey Janet Barlow Safer Infrastructure Paul Jovanis Eric Donnell Emergency Medical Systems Nadine Levick Data Systems & Analysis Tools Barbara DeLucia Geni Bahar Lessons Learned from European Experiences Ezra Hauer