Presentation on theme: "ONLINE SELF-STUDY The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout Tagout) OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147."— Presentation transcript:
ONLINE SELF-STUDY The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout Tagout) OSHA 29 CFR
Objectives The need for energy control procedures; Methods of lockout/tagout; Employer’s responsibilities; Employee training needs; and Inspection requirements. This presentation will cover the following topics:
What is Lockout/Tagout? Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) refers to the control of energy sources to prevent the energizing, startup, or release of stored energy in machinery or equipment which could cause injury to employees during servicing or maintenance activities. LOTO is technically known as the Control of Hazardous Energy.
LOTO involves the control of energy sources such as: Mechanical Hydraulic Chemical Pneumatic Electrical Thermal What is Lockout/Tagout?
Why is LOTO Important? Approximately 3 million workers service equipment and face the risk of injury if LOTO is not performed. An estimated 120 fatalities and 50,000 injuries occur each year from exposure to hazardous energy. LOTO procedures implemented properly will prevent employee injury from hazardous energy. Source: Washington State Department of Labor & Industries
When is LOTO Required? LOTO is required during activities necessary to prepare or maintain a machine or piece of equipment. LOTO is also required during the installation of new equipment or machinery.
What Activities are Included? Servicing/maintenance activities may include: Construction Installation and set-up Adjustment or maintenance Inspection Modification Routine service Lubrication Cleaning
Servicing and/or maintenance which takes place during normal production operations is covered only if employees are required to: Remove or bypass a guard or other safety device; or Place any part of their body in or near a machine’s moving parts; or Place any part of their bodies in a danger zone associated with machine operation. What Activities are Included?
An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. Lockout or tagout shall be performed only by authorized employees. Lockout or tagout is used by these employees for their own protection. Employees Involved in LOTO Authorized Employee
Employees Involved in LOTO Authorized employees include employees who : 1) Perform energy source isolation; 2) Implement LOTO on machines or equipment; 3) Dissipate potential (stored) energy; 4) Verify energy isolation; 5) Implement actions to release LOTO; or 6) Test or position machines or equipment.
Employees Involved in LOTO An employee whose job duties require him/her to operate equipment or work in an area in which the energy control procedure is implemented and servicing or maintenance operations are performed. Affected employees may disable, shut down, or turn off machines or equipment. Affected employee
Energy Control Program OSHA requires employers to establish a program consisting of: Written energy control procedures Employee training Periodic inspections EHS maintains the general campus LOTO program.LOTO program Departments must develop specific LOTO procedures for their equipment and machines. Lockout Procedures
Equipment Specific Procedures Departments shall develop and document equipment specific lockout/tagout procedures. Procedures must contain enough detail for authorized employees to have a clear understanding of the energy control measures. The energy control procedures must clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, authorization, rules, and techniques that will be used to control hazardous energy sources.
Equipment Specific Procedures At a minimum, these procedures must also include the following elements: The specific intended use of the procedures; The specific steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy; The specific steps for the placement, removal and transfer of lockout or tagout devices and the responsibility for them; and The specific requirements for testing a machine to verify equipment isolation.
Equipment Specific Procedures Similar machines/equipment with the same or similar types of controls, and which can be isolated using the same sequential steps, can be covered by a single procedure. For example, a single procedure may be used for a group of woodworking machines, as long as the procedure has sufficient details to allow effective isolation of the energy sources and safely return each of the machines to service. To assist with the development of equipment specific procedures, fill out the Equipment Specific LOTO Procedure Development Form.Equipment Specific LOTO Procedure Development Form
LOTO Devices The preferred method of isolation is lockout/tagout, using department issued locks and tags. The physical protection offered by the use of a lock, when supported by the information on a tag, provides the greatest assurance of employee protection from the release of hazardous energy. Designated devices must be used for controlling energy only and not for other purposes.
LOTO Devices Devices must meet the following criteria: Durable Standardized Substantial Identifiable
LOTO Devices LOTO devices must be durable enough to withstand conditions in the workplace environment. LOTO devices must be standardized within a department according to color, shape, or size. Tagout devices also must be standardized according to print and format. Tags must warn against hazardous conditions if the machine is energized, and offer employees clear instruction such as: “Do Not Start,” “Do Not Open,” “Do Not Close,” “Do Not Energize,” or “Do Not Operate.”
LOTO Devices LOTO devices must be substantial enough to minimize the likelihood of early or accidental removal. Other than using a key or combination, employees must be able to remove locks only by using excessive force such as using bolt cutters. Tagout devices must be labeled to identify the specific employees who are authorized to apply and remove them. The label must contain the name, date, and contact information for the person performing the LOTO.
Tagout Devices Tags are warning devices that do not provide the physical restraint on energy-isolating devices as offered by lockout devices. Tagout alone is only permitted when an energy-isolating device is not capable of being locked. Use of tagout alone instead of the preferred lockout/tagout method requires written supervisor approval documented on the Tagout System Justification Form.Tagout System Justification Form
Tagout Devices The use of tagout alone requires at lease one added safety measure such as: Closure of a second in-line valve; Removal of a valve handle; Removal of an additional isolating circuit element (e.g., fuse); Opening of an extra disconnecting device (e.g., disconnecting switch; circuit breaker);or Opening and then racking out a circuit breaker switch.
Types of Devices
LOTO Sequence LOTO procedures shall include the following sequence: Preparation for shutdown Machine or equipment shutdown Machine or equipment isolation LOTO device application Release of stored energy Verification of isolation Release from LOTO Inspection of machine or equipment work area Location of employees
Preparation for LOTO LOTO shall be performed only by authorized employees who are performing the servicing or maintenance. Authorized employees must know: The types and magnitudes (amounts) of energy involved The hazards of the energy to be controlled The methods or means to control energy Before performing LOTO, employees shall discuss any questionable identification of energy sources with their supervisors.
Notification of Employees A supervisor or authorized employee must notify the affected employees before LOTO devices are applied and after they are removed.
Machine/Equipment Shutdown The machine or equipment shall be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine or equipment. An orderly shutdown must be utilized to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of equipment de-energization.
Machine/Equipment Isolation All energy isolating devices needed to control energy shall be physically located to isolate the machine or equipment from the energy source(s). The use of push buttons, selector switches, and other control circuit type devices as energy isolating devices is prohibited.
Machine/Equipment Isolation Stored energy such as capacitors, springs, elevator machine members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems and air, gas, steam or water pressure, etc. must also be dissipated or restrained by methods such as grounding, blocking, repositioning, bleeding down, etc. Compressed air, hydraulic or steam lines must be bled, drained, and cleaned out.
Power Circuit Vs Control Circuit Only power circuit devices are approved as energy- isolating devices. The power circuit distributes power from the source (main disconnect) to the motor (connected load). The control circuit controls the distribution of power through the use of a motor controller, system interlock device, on/off switch, or start/stop push button.
Power Circuit Vs Control Circuit The use of a control circuit device as the primary means of hazardous energy control does not adequately protect employees. Control circuit devices are vulnerable to hazards such as component failure, program errors, magnetic field interference, electrical surges, and improper use or maintenance. The next slide contains a diagram that illustrates why locking out control circuit devices will not prevent a motor from starting if voltage is present in the power circuit.
Power Circuit Vs Control Circuit Locking out the start/stop button or using the on- off key (control circuit) will not prevent power from getting to the motor. Only shutting off the main disconnect (power circuit) will ensure power does not get to the motor. Figure : Diagram of power and control circuits. Source: OSHA Directive CPL
Lockout/Tagout Application Lockout devices shall be affixed in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe" or "off“ position. Tagout devices shall be affixed in a manner indicating that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited. Employees must not attempt to operate any switch, valve, or other energy isolating device when it is locked or tagged out. Each employee must apply his/her own personal Lockout/Tagout device on the energy isolating device.
Stored Energy After application of device, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy shall be relieved, disconnected, restrained, and otherwise rendered safe.
Verification of Isolation Prior to starting work, authorized employees shall verify that: The machines or equipment have been shutdown properly; All of the energy-isolating devices were identified, located, and operated appropriately; The lockout/tagout devices have been attached to the energy-isolating devices correctly; and The stored energy has been rendered safe.
Verification of Isolation A combination of visual inspections and physical tests are required for proper verification of isolation. Visual inspections verify that the correct devices have been locked out in the correct position. Use physical tests such as a deliberate attempt to start a machine for further verification and/or the use of a voltage test instrument. If local control cannot be obtained for physical tests, additional steps must be taken. Contact EHS for assistance ( ). Note: Verification by computerized control is not acceptable.
Voltage Testing Voltage testing is required to verify that electrical equipment has been de-energized when working on or near de- energized electrical components or systems. Until the absence of voltage is verified, opening an electrical panel for testing is considered working on or near exposed live parts. Voltage testing is covered by the OSHA Electrical Standard , Selection and Use of Work Practices, and the PPE requirements of NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. Only authorized and qualified employees as defined by OSHA and NFPA are allowed to perform voltage testing.
Release from Lockout/Tagout Before LOTO devices are removed and energy restored: Each LOTO device must be removed by the employee who applied the device. Inspect machine/equipment system components to ensure that: 1) non-essential tools and materials have been removed; and 2) machine or equipment components are operationally intact. Check the work area to ensure all employees have been safely positioned or removed. Inform affected employees that the lockout or tagout devices have been removed.
LOTO Device Removal When the individual who applied the energy control device is not available to remove it, that device may be removed under the direction of a supervisor. Removal may not be based on convenience and may not be done simply because the employee is not available at the LOTO location, but is still at the workplace.
LOTO Device Removal The removal procedure shall include the following elements: 1. Verification by a supervisor that the authorized individual who applied the device is not at the facility. 2. The supervisor will make all reasonable efforts to contact the individual. 3. The supervisor will assure that the affected individual has knowledge of the removal before resuming work at the facility. 4. The supervisor shall document the removal on the Absentee Lockout Tagout Removal Form. Absentee Lockout Tagout Removal Form
Testing or Positioning of Machines When LOTO devices must temporarily be removed for testing/positioning: Clear machine or equipment of tools and materials Remove employees from area Remove lockout/tagout device Energize and proceed with testing or positioning De-energize and reapply energy control measures
Shift/Personnel Changes During shift/personnel changes there must a transition period so that individuals may exchange their assigned energy control devices. The orderly transfer of devices between off-going and on- coming employees must ensure that there is no gap in coverage. Individuals shall be fully briefed in the scope and strategy of the work by those who are being relieved.
Outside Personnel The on-site employer (UNC) and the contractor must inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures. Contractor is permitted to use either: UNC's energy control procedure; its own procedures; or a combination of the two procedures, provided the resulting procedure meets the requirements of the LOTO standard.
Outside Personnel The UNC employer and the contractor also must ensure that its respective employees understand and comply with all requirements of the energy control procedures that will be used by the contractor. Document the coordination of LOTO procedures on the Contractor Notification Form. Contractor Notification Form If the contractor has no documented energy control procedures, or if their procedure allows tagout in lieu of lockout/tagout, they shall ensure that their personnel understand and comply with the procedures established in the UNC program.
Group Lockout/Tagout When servicing and/or maintenance is performed by a group, a procedure must be utilized that provides employee protection equivalent to a personal LOTO device.
Group Lockout/Tagout One primary authorized employee performs LOTO on the equipment for the group and attaches his/her LOTO device to a multi-lock accepting device. Each authorized employee must verify that all required equipment has been locked out. Each authorized employee must apply his/her personal LOTO device to the multi-lock accepting device. Each affected employee shall remove the personal LOTO device when stopping work on the machine/equipment.
Group Lockout/Tagout After the work is completed, the primary authorized employee shall remove his/her LOTO device and multi- lock accepting device after all other authorized employees remove their devices. Only the employee who attached the LOTO may remove the device, unless the “LOTO Removal When an Individual is not Available” procedure is followed.
Group Lockout/Tagout: Lock box If multiple pieces of equipment are being locked out, a group lock box or cabinet can be used. The keys from the locks placed on the equipment are placed in the box or cabinet. A multi-lock accepting device is placed on the outside of the box or cabinet. Each employee will use a personal LOTO device to secure the box or cabinet. Each employee must verify that all required equipment has been locked out. As each person completes work, that person will remove his/her device from the box or cabinet.
Group Lockout/Tagout: Lock box Note: No one can get to the keys in the Lockbox unless all authorized persons’ locks are removed
Periodic Inspection Periodic inspections must be performed at least annually to verify that LOTO procedures and requirements are followed. The inspections are performed by authorized employee other than the one(s) using the procedure. This process is designed to correct identified deficiencies or inadequacies. The inspections must contain at least two components: 1) a review of the LOTO procedure and 2) a review of each employee’s responsibilities under the procedure being inspected.
Periodic Inspection The inspector must certify on the Periodic Inspection Form that periodic inspection has been performed by documenting:Periodic Inspection Form The machine or equipment on which the LOTO procedure was used; The date of the inspection; The names of the employees included in the inspection; The names of the person who performed the inspection.
Training and Communication Employers must provide initial training for new hires before they begin any servicing and maintenance activities. LOTO training must address, at a minimum: The purpose and function of the LOTO program; The elements of LOTO procedures relevant to employee duties; and The pertinent requirements and prohibitions of the LOTO standard.
Training and Communication Authorized employees must be trained on: Recognition of hazardous energy sources Type and magnitude of energy in workplace Methods and means for energy isolation and control
Training and Communication Affected employees must be trained on: Purpose and use of LOTO procedures Prohibition of restarting or reenergizing machines that are locked or tagged out
For Tagout alone systems, all employees must receive training regarding the inherent limitations of tags: Are warning devices only Do not provide physical restraint Must not be removed/bypassed/ignored May evoke false sense of security Must be securely attached Training and Communication Do not start
Retraining for authorized and affected employees must be provided annually or when the following occurs: There is a change in job assignments, equipment, processes, or LOTO procedures; or Periodic inspections reveal, or employer has reason to believe, there are deviations in employee knowledge or use of procedures. The scope and content of the retraining must be based on the identified changes or deviations and a elimination of the concerns. Training and Communication
UNC-CH EHS would like to acknowledge the North Carolina Department of Labor (DOL) for providing portions of the training content.