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Determining Pallet Maximum Working Loads From Nominal Load Measurements Marshall S. White Wilbur Dibling Ralph Rupert John McLeod.

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Presentation on theme: "Determining Pallet Maximum Working Loads From Nominal Load Measurements Marshall S. White Wilbur Dibling Ralph Rupert John McLeod."— Presentation transcript:

1 Determining Pallet Maximum Working Loads From Nominal Load Measurements Marshall S. White Wilbur Dibling Ralph Rupert John McLeod

2 Most Loads on Pallets do not act Like Airbags or Two Rigid Bars as in Draft ISO Tests 1 and 3

3 Certain Loads on Pallets will “Bridge” across the Pallet Deck. In Warehouse Racks, Some Loads will Shift Stresses from the Center of the Pallet to the Rack Supports

4 We Tested Different Load Configurations To Determine The Level Of Load Bridging In A Warehouse Rack

5 We Tested The Following Load Stabilizers Interlock Stacking Stretch Wrap Strapping (steel and poly) Breakaway Adhesive Pallet Tie Sheets Stretch tape

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7 We Used Plywood To Simulate Pallets And Used 4 Different Stiffness Levels of Pallets 5.3 kN per cm of deflection 3.6 kN per cm of deflection 2.3 kN per cm of deflection 1.6 kN per cm of deflection

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9 Each Load Was Lifted 5 Times To Simulate Typical Loosening Of Load After Palletization

10 Case Goods, Average Deflections at 4.5 kN Airbag Column Stretch Tape Adhesive Column,SW Tie Sheets Column,ST Interlock Interlock,SW Interlock, ST Airbag Column Stretch Tape Tie Sheets Column,SW Adhesive Column,ST Interlock Interlock,SW Interlock,ST Airbag Stretch Tape Tie Sheets Column Column,SW Adhesive Column,ST Interlock Interlock,SW Interlock,ST Airbag Tie Sheets Column Column,SW Column,ST Interlock Interlock,SW Interlock,ST Deflection (mm) Low Medium Medium-Low High

11 Case Goods, Average Deflections at 4.5 kN, Low Stiffness Panel Airbag Column Stretch Tape Adhesive Column,SW Tie Sheets Column,ST Interlock Interlock, SW Interlock, ST Deflection (mm)

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13 Sacks, Average Deflections at 4.5kN, Low Stiffness Panel Airbag Column Column, SW Column, ST Interlock, SW Int, Plas Strp Interlock, ST Interlock Deflection (mm)

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17 The Effect of Load Geometry on Load Bridging During Warehouse Rack Storage on Pallets

18 The Effect of Load Stabilizers on Load Bridging During Warehouse Rack Storage of Cased Goods on Pallets Average Pallet Deflection as a Percent of Column Stacked Deflection Column Stacked Stretch Tape Interlock Stacked Pallet Sheets Stretch Wrap AdhesiveStrapping Load Stabilizers Percent Deflection

19 The Effect of Load Stabilizers on Load Bridging During Warehouse Rack Storage of Sacked Products on Pallets

20 The Effect of Load Stabilizers on Load Bridging During Warehouse Rack Storage of Column Stacked 5 Gallon Pails on Pallets

21 The Effect of Load Stabilizers on Load Bridging During Warehouse Rack Storage of 55 Gallon Drums on Pallets

22 Implications of Load Bridging Tests on Estimates of Maximum Working Loads for pallets as described in Draft ISO TS Geometry and mechanical properties of the package or container on the pallet affect the maximum working load estimate 2.The types of load binders used affect the maximum working load estimates 3.The tension applied to the load binders affects the maximum working load estimates

23 Implications of Load Bridging Tests on Estimates of Maximum Working Loads for pallets as described in Draft ISO TS The package or container stacking patterns affect the maximum working load estimate 5.The stiffness of the pallet affects the maximum working load estimates 6.Normal movement of the unit load changes unit load stiffness and therefore affects the maximum working load estimates


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