2Outline Basic Stats Geologic Time Tectonic Processes Rocks and MineralsRock CycleEconomic Geology and MineralogyEnvironmental Effects of Resource ExtractionMiningReclamationConserving Geologic ResourcesGeologic Hazards
3Basic Earth Statistics OrbitDiameterMassHow did we get the name Earth?Go to to help you!
4Just How Old is the Earth? Start with the activity Geologic Time Scale toa. determine number of years between the various eons and periodsb. Review the fossil recordc. Create a “calendar” for geologic time.Go to to view the timescale presented by PaleoBio.orge. Watch the video segment on the geologic calender from “Cosmos” (ask Ms. P!)
5Use the info on the next slide to help you! Do you remember when…?Go to AND PDF page 63 (article page 59)Create a “concept map” based on the eras/periods and the important occurences in each era or period.Use the info on the next slide to help you!
6Great idea for complex concepts! Concept MappingGreat idea for complex concepts!Helps you to remember information better!VERY helpful for APES!– download to your computer and get mapping – at HOME!
7ONE MORE TIME!Let’s “rock around the clock” by looking at yet ANOTHER way to see the relationship between geologic time and important events in the evolution of organisms on earth. Go toPDF page 64 (article page 60)
8Closure QuestionIn the 4 billion plus years of the Earth’s existence, there have been periodic “blooms” of life, often following massive extinctions. Name these periods of earths history ( within eras) and state what life “bloomed” during each period.If extinction is typical and natural for Earth’s history, why then is there so much concern for the rapid disappearance ( up to 1 species/day) the Earth currently experiences?
10A DYNAMIC PLANET A Layered Sphere Core - Interior composed of dense, intensely hot metal. Generates magnetic field enveloping the earth.Mantle - Hot, pliable layer surrounding the core. Less dense than core.Crust - Cool, lightweight, brittle outermost layer. Floats on top of mantle.Go to for more info, especially on core and mantle convection effects on plate tectonics.
11Earth’s Cross SectionWhat are the depths of the various layers of earth?What is the function of the Mohorovicic boundary?How do the lithosphere and athenosphere differ?
12What elements make up the different layers of the Earth? At right is a breakdown of some of the materials the earth is made up of. For more info, go to
13Closure Question Name the layers of the earth in cross section. Where is the location of the lithosphere, asthenosphere and the Milhorovicic discontinuity?Explain the organization of the planet in cross section using a simple property discussed in several webpages you viewed yesterday.
15Tectonic ProcessesUpper layer of mantle contains convection currents that break overlaying crust into a mosaic of tectonic plates.Slide slowly across earth’s surface.Ocean basins form where continents crack and pull apart.Magma forced up through cracks in oceanic crust form mid-oceanic ridges.
16What forces are behind Plate Tectonics? Go to and take notes onMid-ocean ridgesGeomagnetic anomaliesDeep Sea TrenchesIsland Arcs
17Activity!Investigation 2 Plate TectonicsPlot key geologic events and correlate them to tectonic plate boundaries!Also look at for help. This animation runs fast! To help you, also open for the same animation that can be controlled by you.
18PangeaGeologists suggest that several times in earth’s history most, or all, of the continents gathered to form a single super-continent, Pangea, surrounded by a single global ocean. This was only possible because of Plate Tectonics
22Tectonic Processes Cause Earthquakes Earthquakes are caused by grinding and jerking as plates slide past each other.Mountain ranges pushed up at the margins of colliding plates.When an oceanic plate collides with a continental landmass, the continental plate will ride up over the seafloor and the oceanic plate will subduct down into the mantle.Deep ocean trenches mark subduction zones.
23Demo folding and faulting! Take the bag of cornstarch and water and POUR it into a clean petri dishUsing your fingers, experiment with the mixture.What happens if you push the mixture very fast or hard? Gently push? Slowly push?Relate this to the movement of particles of soil/rock as folding or faulting occurs over geologic time.
24Know Your Plate Boundaries! Go to and click on any picture to see the animation of all four types.
28Divergent Plate Action and Formation of Magnetic Zones in the crust
29Thingvellir fissure zone is a ground level portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Active volcanoes are frequent on Iceland and Surtsey Island along the fissures
30Check it Out!Go to to see how a subduction zone boundary plate will cause continent building between two exposed plates.This is the way the Himalayan Mountain Range was formed from the subduction of the Indian-Australian plate to the Eurasian plate.
31GEOLOGIC HAZARDSEarthquakes - Sudden movements of the earth’s crust that occur along faults where one rock mass slides past another.Gradual movement - creep.When friction prevents creep, stress builds up until eventually released with a sudden jerk.Frequently occur along subduction zones.
32I fell in to a burning ring of fire… Go to to learn more about the Pacific Rim’s “Ring of Fire”What problems are seen in this region that are not seen in the Atlantic Rim?
33Earthquake Epicenters Epi-wha?Earthquake EpicentersGo to and click on “Earthquake Epicenters” at the bottom for the animation.Where are the majority of epicenters located?
34It’s the Mud?Go to and read about how sediments in subduction zones may help trigger earthquakes.
35How are they different from wind-driven ocean waves? TSUNAMI!!!Or Seismic sea swells.How do they form?How are they different from wind-driven ocean waves?Go to and toClick on the animation in the second website to see a tsunami from earthquake to land fall.
36Not all earthquakes create tsunamis Why is this? To answer, go to and find out what it takes to make an earthquake-driven tsumani form.
37Charles Richter and his scale Charles Richter developed a logarithmic scale by which to determine earthquake magnitude.Go to and follow the directions to see how earthquake shaking changes as magnitude increases.Then go to and see the effects of an earthquake based on it’s Richter magnitude
38Seismicity and Seismographs Developed by Richter in 1935Measures seismic activity and records onto paper as the paper is rolled outCheck out Seismograph history by going toShake yer booty! Compare and contrast seismicity by going to and comparing the East and West Coasts of the Lower 48 states.Now look at for the world.What do the areas encircled by active seismic areas represent? (Think Johnny Cash song)
39VolcanoesVolcanoes and undersea magma vents are the sources of most of the earth’s crust.Many of world’s fertile soils are weathered volcanic material.Human / Environmental DangersVolcanic AshMudslidesSulfur Emissions
40VolcanoesGo to and complete the activity!NOTE – the link for the active volcanoes in the Lower 48 states doesn’t work. Go to to see the interactive map!
41Type Me!There are three different types of active volcanoes! Go to each website to view how these volcanoes form. Take or review notes.Rift volcanoes - Which island nation and it’s tiny neighbor island was formed from a Mid-Atlantic Rift volcano?Subduction volcanoes – Which famous volcano on the West Coast is formed by subduction? It’s making noises again!Hot Spot Volcanoes – Which chain of islands was formed by hot spot volcanoes? and scroll down to 2.11
42Peeee Uw!Volcanoes give off gases when they erupt, along with the lava, etc. Go toto determine the climatic implications of major volcanic eruptions.Go to and make sure you know the types of major and minor gases given off by volcanoes
43Destruction!Go to and watch how a town is destroyed by volcanic lava flows.
44Take/review notes as you watch. DVD –Forces of NaturePop the DVD into the computer and watch the segment on “Island of Fire” and “A Living Lab” (Scenes 2 & 3)Take/review notes as you watch.
46ROCKS AND MINERALSA mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid element or compound with a definite chemical composition and regular internal crystal structure.A rock is a solid, cohesive, aggregate of one or more minerals.Each rock has a characteristic mixture of minerals, grain sizes, and ways in which the grains are held together.
47Rock TypesRock Cycle - Cycle of creation, destruction, and metamorphosis.Three major rock classifications:IgneousSedimentaryMetamorphicGo to to see the rock cycle in action!
48Create your own concept map to help you remember! Rock CycleCreate your own concept map to help you remember!
49Igneous RocksMost common type of rock in earth’s crust.Solidified from magma extruded onto the surface from volcanic vents.Quick cooling of magma produces fine-grained rocks.BasaltSlow cooling of magma produces coarse-grained rocks.Granite
50Sedimentary RockDeposited materials that remain in place long enough, or are covered with enough material for compaction, may again become rock.Go to terc/navigation/visualization.cfm (open Explorer and copy/paste address) and watch Chapter 6 animation on the formation of sedimentary rockFormed from crystals that precipitate out of, or grow from, a solution.ShaleSandstoneTuff
51Striated Sandstone Sits Sweetly How do those stripes get into sandstone? To find out, go to to answer this question!Read more on an experiment that shows how this occurs and do the experiment virtually! Go to and git er done!
52How Geologists “Read” Sedimentary Layers Go to PDF page 59 (article page 55) to see how sediment layers form AND how fossils are formed.
53Metamorphic RockPre-existing rocks modified by heat, pressure, and chemical agents.Chemical reactions can alter both the composition and structure of rocks as they are metamorphosed.Go to terc/navigation/visualization.cfm , Chapter 6 and watch the animation for Metamorphic rock formation.Marble (from limestone)Quartzite (from sandstone)Slate (from mudstone and shale)
54Experiment!Click onThen click on “Digging Deeper” from the bottom box.In the pop-up box, scroll down and click on “Porosity” and run the experiment. Make sure to use your lab book to fill in tables and answer questions.Make sure to calculate the information requested!Go back and click on “The Absorbency of Rock” and run the experiment. Ditto on using lab book and calculations.All lab materials are located on the cart.
55Rock Cycle and Weathering For an in depth explanation of the Rock Cycle and Weathering go to:
56Weathering and Sedimentation Mechanical - Physical break-up of rocks into smaller particles without a change in chemical composition.Chemical - Selective removal or alteration of specific components that leads to weakening and disintegration of rock.OxidationSedimentation - Deposition of loosened material.Go toand to see how weathering occurs and factors that facilitate different types of weathering.
57Mass WastingOccurs when materials are moved downslope from one place to another.Many human activities such as forest clearing and building homes on unstable slopes increase both frequency and damage done by landslides.Can also occur when rains cause mass erosion of soilsFor more, go to
58Complete the laboratory handout “The Rock Cycle, Rocks and Soil” Rocky RoadComplete the laboratory handout “The Rock Cycle, Rocks and Soil”Use the materials on the cart.Make sure to place this lab in your lab book when you are done.
59ECONOMIC GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY MetalsMetals consumed in greatest quantity by world industry (metric tons annually):Iron (740 million)Aluminum (40 million)Manganese (22.4 million)Copper and Chromium (8 million ea)Nickel (0.7 million)
60Non-Metal Mineral Resources Sand and GravelBrick and concrete construction, paving, sandblasting and glass production.LimestoneConcrete and building stoneEvaporitesGypsum and PotashSulfurSulfuric Acid
61ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF RESOURCE EXTRACTION MiningPlacer Mining - Hydraulically washing out metals deposited in streambed gravel.Destroys streambeds and fills water with suspended solids.Research – What other problems does this cause in the streams? Go to for more info.
62ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF RESOURCE EXTRACTION Strip-Mining or Open Pit MiningLarge scars on land surface.TailingsToxic runoff – go to and take notes/look at photos of acid mine drainageAlso for lead/zinc mines
63Mining Underground Mining Three types of underground mines – go to and and take notes (you may also download the pics if needed)Extremely DangerousGasInhaling Particulate MatterTunnel CollapseGo to and take notes on problems and solutions in coal mining.Also go to and take notes on some of the worst of the mining disasters.
64Be a Miner!!Pretend you are a miner. Your job is to remove the “precious chunks of chocolate” without removing any more surrounding “soil” then necessary.Use the handout “Cookie Mining” for the directions on how to run the lab.All materials are located on the lab cart. And yes, you may eat ONE cookie.Use the lab activity sheets located in the APES Private folder, Earth Systems and Resources. to record your info and answer lab questions.When the class is finished, open the MS Excel spreadsheet in the APES private folder and enter the class data on it. Once everyone has done this, run off a copy for you to use per lab directions.Make sure to wash the tools with soap and water before using (meoooow!)All papers must go in your lab notebook!Don’t forget your Internet research!!!!
65Conduct the lab using the materials given Copper Extraction LabOkay, we’ve played at mining with cookies; now let’s really mine something important!Copper is an essential component for many different products, so essential that processing copper from old mine tailings has become a very profitable business.Conduct the lab using the materials givenRemember to consider all safety precautions!Answer the questions when finished!
66Just how much dirt is moved to make one 18K gold ring? Is it worth it? Wasteful Mining“Dirty gold” is a problem in gold ore mining. Read the following to understand what all the noise is about.Just how much dirt is moved to make one 18K gold ring? Is it worth it?
67For pictures, go to http://www.umwa.org/blacklung/intro.shtml Health and MiningDescribe how “black lung disease” is caused by working in or on a coal mine.For pictures, go to
68Restoration – know this law!!! Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977) requires better restoration of strip-mined lands, especially if land is classed as prime farmland.Difficult and expensive.Minimum reclamation costs about $1,000 / acre while complete restoration may cost $5,000 / acre.50% of U.S. coal is strip mined.
69For more information, go to http://www.mii.org/coal/coal.html Land ReclamationFor more information, go toIf you had land that could be strip mined for coal, would you allow it? Here is one man’s story.
70ProcessingMetals are extracted from ores by heating or treatment with chemical solvents.Smelting - Roasting ore to release metals.Major source of air pollution. Go to for a list of pollutants released.Heap-Leach Extraction - Crushed ore piled in large heaps and sprayed with a dilute alkaline cyanide solution which percolates through the pile to dissolve the gold.Effluent left behind in ponds.
72Heap Leaching Kills!Go to and take notes on the ecological disasters that are occurring due to Heap Leached gold.
73CONSERVING GEOLOGIC RESOURCES RecyclingAluminum must be extracted from bauxite by electrolysis.Recycling waste aluminum consumes one-twentieth the energy of extraction from raw ore.Nearly two-thirds of all aluminum beverage cans in U.S. are recycled.Other metals commonly recycled:Platinum, gold, copper, lead, iron, steel.
74Substituting New Materials For Old Reduce metal consumption by using new materials or new technologies.Plastic pipes in place of metal pipes.Fiber-optics in place of metal wires.Metal alloys in place of traditional steel.
75What’s an Alloy?Metal Alloys contain more than one metallic element. Their properties can be changed by changing the elements present in the alloy.Examples of metal alloys include stainless steel which is an alloy of iron, nickel, and chromium; and gold jewelry which usually contains an alloy of gold and nickel.
76Seasons and DjiboutiAfter completing the Seasons handout, go tohttp://www.teachersdomain.org/9-12/sci/ess/watcyc/naturalchange/index.html to see how a change in the earth’s axis, declination and procession can change the climate!
77SummaryTectonic ProcessesRocks and MineralsEconomic Geology and MineralogyStrategic ResourcesEnvironmental Effects of Resource ExtractionMiningReclamationConserving Geologic ResourcesGeologic Hazards