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Geology and Earth Resources

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1 Geology and Earth Resources

2 Outline Basic Stats Geologic Time Tectonic Processes
Rocks and Minerals Rock Cycle Economic Geology and Mineralogy Environmental Effects of Resource Extraction Mining Reclamation Conserving Geologic Resources Geologic Hazards

3 Basic Earth Statistics
Orbit Diameter Mass How did we get the name Earth? Go to to help you!

4 Just How Old is the Earth?
Start with the activity Geologic Time Scale to a. determine number of years between the various eons and periods b. Review the fossil record c. Create a “calendar” for geologic time. Go to to view the timescale presented by e. Watch the video segment on the geologic calender from “Cosmos” (ask Ms. P!)

5 Use the info on the next slide to help you!
Do you remember when…? Go to AND PDF page 63 (article page 59) Create a “concept map” based on the eras/periods and the important occurences in each era or period. Use the info on the next slide to help you!

6 Great idea for complex concepts!
Concept Mapping Great idea for complex concepts! Helps you to remember information better! VERY helpful for APES! – download to your computer and get mapping – at HOME!

7 ONE MORE TIME! Let’s “rock around the clock” by looking at yet ANOTHER way to see the relationship between geologic time and important events in the evolution of organisms on earth. Go to PDF page 64 (article page 60)

8 Closure Question In the 4 billion plus years of the Earth’s existence, there have been periodic “blooms” of life, often following massive extinctions. Name these periods of earths history ( within eras) and state what life “bloomed” during each period. If extinction is typical and natural for Earth’s history, why then is there so much concern for the rapid disappearance ( up to 1 species/day) the Earth currently experiences?

9 It’s a little hot in here, isn’t it?

10 A DYNAMIC PLANET A Layered Sphere
Core - Interior composed of dense, intensely hot metal. Generates magnetic field enveloping the earth. Mantle - Hot, pliable layer surrounding the core. Less dense than core. Crust - Cool, lightweight, brittle outermost layer. Floats on top of mantle. Go to for more info, especially on core and mantle convection effects on plate tectonics.

11 Earth’s Cross Section What are the depths of the various layers of earth? What is the function of the Mohorovicic boundary? How do the lithosphere and athenosphere differ?

12 What elements make up the different layers of the Earth?
At right is a breakdown of some of the materials the earth is made up of. For more info, go to

13 Closure Question Name the layers of the earth in cross section.
Where is the location of the lithosphere, asthenosphere and the Milhorovicic discontinuity? Explain the organization of the planet in cross section using a simple property discussed in several webpages you viewed yesterday.

14 Tectonics

15 Tectonic Processes Upper layer of mantle contains convection currents that break overlaying crust into a mosaic of tectonic plates. Slide slowly across earth’s surface. Ocean basins form where continents crack and pull apart. Magma forced up through cracks in oceanic crust form mid-oceanic ridges.

16 What forces are behind Plate Tectonics?
Go to and take notes on Mid-ocean ridges Geomagnetic anomalies Deep Sea Trenches Island Arcs

17 Activity! Investigation 2 Plate Tectonics Plot key geologic events and correlate them to tectonic plate boundaries! Also look at for help. This animation runs fast! To help you, also open for the same animation that can be controlled by you.

18 Pangea Geologists suggest that several times in earth’s history most, or all, of the continents gathered to form a single super-continent, Pangea, surrounded by a single global ocean. This was only possible because of Plate Tectonics


20 What will Earth look like in the future?
Go to and write down the expected changes that should occur over the next several million years!

21 Earthquake!

22 Tectonic Processes Cause Earthquakes
Earthquakes are caused by grinding and jerking as plates slide past each other. Mountain ranges pushed up at the margins of colliding plates. When an oceanic plate collides with a continental landmass, the continental plate will ride up over the seafloor and the oceanic plate will subduct down into the mantle. Deep ocean trenches mark subduction zones.

23 Demo folding and faulting!
Take the bag of cornstarch and water and POUR it into a clean petri dish Using your fingers, experiment with the mixture. What happens if you push the mixture very fast or hard? Gently push? Slowly push? Relate this to the movement of particles of soil/rock as folding or faulting occurs over geologic time.

24 Know Your Plate Boundaries!
Go to and click on any picture to see the animation of all four types.

25 Tectonic Plate Movement

26 Mid-Atlantic Ridge Plate
Is the best studied plate of all Iceland and Surtsey Island are both formed from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Plate Are evidence of divergent plate action

27 Divergent Plate Action

28 Divergent Plate Action and Formation of Magnetic Zones in the crust

29 Thingvellir fissure zone is a ground level portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Active volcanoes are frequent on Iceland and Surtsey Island along the fissures

30 Check it Out! Go to to see how a subduction zone boundary plate will cause continent building between two exposed plates. This is the way the Himalayan Mountain Range was formed from the subduction of the Indian-Australian plate to the Eurasian plate.

31 GEOLOGIC HAZARDS Earthquakes - Sudden movements of the earth’s crust that occur along faults where one rock mass slides past another. Gradual movement - creep. When friction prevents creep, stress builds up until eventually released with a sudden jerk. Frequently occur along subduction zones.

32 I fell in to a burning ring of fire…
Go to to learn more about the Pacific Rim’s “Ring of Fire” What problems are seen in this region that are not seen in the Atlantic Rim?

33 Earthquake Epicenters
Epi-wha? Earthquake Epicenters Go to and click on “Earthquake Epicenters” at the bottom for the animation. Where are the majority of epicenters located?

34 It’s the Mud? Go to and read about how sediments in subduction zones may help trigger earthquakes.

35 How are they different from wind-driven ocean waves?
TSUNAMI!!! Or Seismic sea swells. How do they form? How are they different from wind-driven ocean waves? Go to and to Click on the animation in the second website to see a tsunami from earthquake to land fall.

36 Not all earthquakes create tsunamis
Why is this? To answer, go to and find out what it takes to make an earthquake-driven tsumani form.

37 Charles Richter and his scale
Charles Richter developed a logarithmic scale by which to determine earthquake magnitude. Go to and follow the directions to see how earthquake shaking changes as magnitude increases. Then go to and see the effects of an earthquake based on it’s Richter magnitude

38 Seismicity and Seismographs
Developed by Richter in 1935 Measures seismic activity and records onto paper as the paper is rolled out Check out Seismograph history by going to Shake yer booty! Compare and contrast seismicity by going to and comparing the East and West Coasts of the Lower 48 states. Now look at for the world. What do the areas encircled by active seismic areas represent? (Think Johnny Cash song)

39 Volcanoes Volcanoes and undersea magma vents are the sources of most of the earth’s crust. Many of world’s fertile soils are weathered volcanic material. Human / Environmental Dangers Volcanic Ash Mudslides Sulfur Emissions

40 Volcanoes Go to and complete the activity! NOTE – the link for the active volcanoes in the Lower 48 states doesn’t work. Go to to see the interactive map!

41 Type Me! There are three different types of active volcanoes! Go to each website to view how these volcanoes form. Take or review notes. Rift volcanoes - Which island nation and it’s tiny neighbor island was formed from a Mid-Atlantic Rift volcano? Subduction volcanoes – Which famous volcano on the West Coast is formed by subduction? It’s making noises again! Hot Spot Volcanoes – Which chain of islands was formed by hot spot volcanoes? and scroll down to 2.11

42 Peeee Uw! Volcanoes give off gases when they erupt, along with the lava, etc. Go to to determine the climatic implications of major volcanic eruptions. Go to and make sure you know the types of major and minor gases given off by volcanoes

43 Destruction! Go to and watch how a town is destroyed by volcanic lava flows.

44 Take/review notes as you watch.
DVD –Forces of Nature Pop the DVD into the computer and watch the segment on “Island of Fire” and “A Living Lab” (Scenes 2 & 3) Take/review notes as you watch.

45 Let’s Rock!

46 ROCKS AND MINERALS A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid element or compound with a definite chemical composition and regular internal crystal structure. A rock is a solid, cohesive, aggregate of one or more minerals. Each rock has a characteristic mixture of minerals, grain sizes, and ways in which the grains are held together.

47 Rock Types Rock Cycle - Cycle of creation, destruction, and metamorphosis. Three major rock classifications: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Go to to see the rock cycle in action!

48 Create your own concept map to help you remember!
Rock Cycle Create your own concept map to help you remember!

49 Igneous Rocks Most common type of rock in earth’s crust. Solidified from magma extruded onto the surface from volcanic vents. Quick cooling of magma produces fine-grained rocks. Basalt Slow cooling of magma produces coarse-grained rocks. Granite

50 Sedimentary Rock Deposited materials that remain in place long enough, or are covered with enough material for compaction, may again become rock. Go to terc/navigation/visualization.cfm (open Explorer and copy/paste address) and watch Chapter 6 animation on the formation of sedimentary rock Formed from crystals that precipitate out of, or grow from, a solution. Shale Sandstone Tuff

51 Striated Sandstone Sits Sweetly
How do those stripes get into sandstone? To find out, go to to answer this question! Read more on an experiment that shows how this occurs and do the experiment virtually! Go to and git er done!

52 How Geologists “Read” Sedimentary Layers
Go to PDF page 59 (article page 55) to see how sediment layers form AND how fossils are formed.

53 Metamorphic Rock Pre-existing rocks modified by heat, pressure, and chemical agents. Chemical reactions can alter both the composition and structure of rocks as they are metamorphosed. Go to terc/navigation/visualization.cfm , Chapter 6 and watch the animation for Metamorphic rock formation. Marble (from limestone) Quartzite (from sandstone) Slate (from mudstone and shale)

54 Experiment! Click on Then click on “Digging Deeper” from the bottom box. In the pop-up box, scroll down and click on “Porosity” and run the experiment. Make sure to use your lab book to fill in tables and answer questions. Make sure to calculate the information requested! Go back and click on “The Absorbency of Rock” and run the experiment. Ditto on using lab book and calculations. All lab materials are located on the cart.

55 Rock Cycle and Weathering
For an in depth explanation of the Rock Cycle and Weathering go to:

56 Weathering and Sedimentation
Mechanical - Physical break-up of rocks into smaller particles without a change in chemical composition. Chemical - Selective removal or alteration of specific components that leads to weakening and disintegration of rock. Oxidation Sedimentation - Deposition of loosened material. Go to and to see how weathering occurs and factors that facilitate different types of weathering.

57 Mass Wasting Occurs when materials are moved downslope from one place to another. Many human activities such as forest clearing and building homes on unstable slopes increase both frequency and damage done by landslides. Can also occur when rains cause mass erosion of soils For more, go to

58 Complete the laboratory handout “The Rock Cycle, Rocks and Soil”
Rocky Road Complete the laboratory handout “The Rock Cycle, Rocks and Soil” Use the materials on the cart. Make sure to place this lab in your lab book when you are done.

Metals Metals consumed in greatest quantity by world industry (metric tons annually): Iron (740 million) Aluminum (40 million) Manganese (22.4 million) Copper and Chromium (8 million ea) Nickel (0.7 million)

60 Non-Metal Mineral Resources
Sand and Gravel Brick and concrete construction, paving, sandblasting and glass production. Limestone Concrete and building stone Evaporites Gypsum and Potash Sulfur Sulfuric Acid

Mining Placer Mining - Hydraulically washing out metals deposited in streambed gravel. Destroys streambeds and fills water with suspended solids. Research – What other problems does this cause in the streams? Go to for more info.

Strip-Mining or Open Pit Mining Large scars on land surface. Tailings Toxic runoff – go to and take notes/look at photos of acid mine drainage Also for lead/zinc mines

63 Mining Underground Mining
Three types of underground mines – go to and and take notes (you may also download the pics if needed) Extremely Dangerous Gas Inhaling Particulate Matter Tunnel Collapse Go to and take notes on problems and solutions in coal mining. Also go to and take notes on some of the worst of the mining disasters.

64 Be a Miner!! Pretend you are a miner. Your job is to remove the “precious chunks of chocolate” without removing any more surrounding “soil” then necessary. Use the handout “Cookie Mining” for the directions on how to run the lab. All materials are located on the lab cart. And yes, you may eat ONE cookie. Use the lab activity sheets located in the APES Private folder, Earth Systems and Resources. to record your info and answer lab questions. When the class is finished, open the MS Excel spreadsheet in the APES private folder and enter the class data on it. Once everyone has done this, run off a copy for you to use per lab directions. Make sure to wash the tools with soap and water before using (meoooow!) All papers must go in your lab notebook! Don’t forget your Internet research!!!!

65 Conduct the lab using the materials given
Copper Extraction Lab Okay, we’ve played at mining with cookies; now let’s really mine something important! Copper is an essential component for many different products, so essential that processing copper from old mine tailings has become a very profitable business. Conduct the lab using the materials given Remember to consider all safety precautions! Answer the questions when finished!

66 Just how much dirt is moved to make one 18K gold ring? Is it worth it?
Wasteful Mining “Dirty gold” is a problem in gold ore mining. Read the following to understand what all the noise is about. Just how much dirt is moved to make one 18K gold ring? Is it worth it?

67 For pictures, go to
Health and Mining Describe how “black lung disease” is caused by working in or on a coal mine. For pictures, go to

68 Restoration – know this law!!!
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977) requires better restoration of strip-mined lands, especially if land is classed as prime farmland. Difficult and expensive. Minimum reclamation costs about $1,000 / acre while complete restoration may cost $5,000 / acre. 50% of U.S. coal is strip mined.

69 For more information, go to
Land Reclamation For more information, go to If you had land that could be strip mined for coal, would you allow it? Here is one man’s story.

70 Processing Metals are extracted from ores by heating or treatment with chemical solvents. Smelting - Roasting ore to release metals. Major source of air pollution. Go to for a list of pollutants released. Heap-Leach Extraction - Crushed ore piled in large heaps and sprayed with a dilute alkaline cyanide solution which percolates through the pile to dissolve the gold. Effluent left behind in ponds.


72 Heap Leaching Kills! Go to and take notes on the ecological disasters that are occurring due to Heap Leached gold.

Recycling Aluminum must be extracted from bauxite by electrolysis. Recycling waste aluminum consumes one-twentieth the energy of extraction from raw ore. Nearly two-thirds of all aluminum beverage cans in U.S. are recycled. Other metals commonly recycled: Platinum, gold, copper, lead, iron, steel.

74 Substituting New Materials For Old
Reduce metal consumption by using new materials or new technologies. Plastic pipes in place of metal pipes. Fiber-optics in place of metal wires. Metal alloys in place of traditional steel.

75 What’s an Alloy? Metal Alloys contain more than one metallic element. Their properties can be changed by changing the elements present in the alloy. Examples of metal alloys include stainless steel which is an alloy of iron, nickel, and chromium; and gold jewelry which usually contains an alloy of gold and nickel.

76 Seasons and Djibouti After completing the Seasons handout, go to to see how a change in the earth’s axis, declination and procession can change the climate!

77 Summary Tectonic Processes Rocks and Minerals Economic Geology and Mineralogy Strategic Resources Environmental Effects of Resource Extraction Mining Reclamation Conserving Geologic Resources Geologic Hazards


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