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WORLD MAP OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW ROALD DZHAMALOV and IGOR ZEKTSER head of Labs, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy Sciences,

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD MAP OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW ROALD DZHAMALOV and IGOR ZEKTSER head of Labs, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy Sciences,"— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD MAP OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW ROALD DZHAMALOV and IGOR ZEKTSER head of Labs, Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy Sciences, Moscow, Russia

2 World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and Groundwater Flow Digital World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and Groundwater Flow Version 2.0; Vertical Scale 1: Compiled by the Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Under UNESCO Supervision EDITORS-IN-CHIEF Roald G. Dzhamalov and Igor S. Zektser EDITORIAL BOARD A. Aureli (Italy), H. Bitesnik (Argentina), N. da Franca (Brazil), I. V. Diordiev (Russia), L. G. Everett (USA), V Gilbrich (UNESCO), J. Jacobson (Australia), R. A. Kanivetsky (USA), M. G. Khublaryan (Russia), V. A. Kiryukhin (Russia), J. Margat (France), N. A. Marinov (Russia), A. Mente (Brazil), L. P. Novoselova (Russia), V. Ramnarong (Thailand), T. I. Safronova (Russia), B. B. S. Singhal (India), S. Soekiban (Indonesia), W. Struckmeier (Germany), A. Valdes (Cuba), V. A. Vsevolozhsky (Russia), S. Wongsawat (Thailand) AUTHORS R. G. Dzhamalov, I. V. Diordiev, I. S. Zektser, V. A. Ivanov, N. A. Lebedeva, V I. Nikonova, Yu. L. Obyedkov, T. I. Safronova, T.N.Sorokina. CARTHOGRAPHERS Z. G. Golubeva and L. Ya. Gervits CONSULTANTS S. C. Csallany, B. Magyar, J. Stickel, T. Toth

3 Particularities of mapping and presentation of main hydrogeological information and groundwater flow parameters on the Map. World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and Groundwater Flow is a special, thematic hydrogeological map whose main content is information on the distribution of several quantitative characteristics of groundwater runoff as well as geological and hydrogeological conditions of groundwater generation. World Map of Hydrogeological Conditions and Groundwater Flow grants a possibility, on a quantitative basis, to solve important practical problems of integrated use and protection of water resources over all studied regions of the World.

4 In small-scale mapping of hydrogeological conditions and groundwater flow, distinguishing aquifers and aquifer systems is a severe problem. Therefore the authors of the Map, having extensive experience in mapping, have come to a conclusion that it is necessary to distinguish principal groundwater flow media-types of rocks with common conditions of generation and spatial distribution of water- conducting properties. A groundwater flow medium type is determined by the genesis of water-enclosing rocks or the genetic type of open space (pore, fracture, karst and other media); a groundwater flow medium subtype is determined by processes (generating conditions), controlling the character and extent of the non-uniformity of medium permeability. Four principal types of groundwater flow media are shown on the Map. a)sedimentogenic - pore, b)sedimentogenic - fracture, c)karst and d)magmatogenic – metamorphogenic

5 Groundwater flow or runoff is groundwater discharge provided by its replenishment (recharge) under natural conditions. In many cases for mean annual assessment groundwater flow (runoff) value equals so-called natural groundwater resources, namely that part of total groundwater resources which renews from year to year in result of natural recharge. Groundwater flow quantitatively may be expressed by several specific values or characteristics.  groundwater flow modules - average annual or minimal groundwater discharge in liters per second per square kilometer or in cubic meter per day per square kilometer, in /1/s km 2 or m/day km 2 ;  groundwater flow coefficient - ratio between groundwater flow and precipitation, in percentage;  coefficient of groundwater contribution to river runoff – ratio between groundwater flow to river to total river runoff, in percentage. It is important to emphasize that on the Map, represented special conditions of groundwater flow generation, affected by human activities, intensive karstification, sea water intrusion areas of surface runoff engulfing in river channels crossing rift zones and regional faults, occurrence of semipermeable rocks, etc.

6 Legend of World Map (part)

7 WORLD MAP OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW (fragment) 1:

8 The Map makes it possible to assess: a)Groundwater runoff and natural fresh groundwater resources for characterization of water availability in individual regions of the World; b)Groundwater discharge to rivers for determining the subsurface component of river runoff (base flow) and prediction of its possible variation under the effect of groundwater development; c)Groundwater recharge values for regional evaluation of the safe yield and making water-resources balances of economic regions and the so-called natural-and- territorial complexes; d)Groundwater discharge amount as an element of the water balance of the country areas and its separate regions; and e)Direct groundwater discharge to seas and oceans.

9 Present-day Water Resources Availability of Continents КонтинентПлощадь, млн. км 2 Водные ресурсы, км3/годВодообес- печенность, тыс. м 3 на 1 км 2 Средне многоле тняя величин а (речной сток) подзем ные воды Отношение ресурсов подземных вод к речному стоку, % Европа Сев. Америка Юж. Америка Азия Африка Австралия и Океания Вся суша

10 Present-day and Modeling Runoff of Main Rivers in the World, 10 3 cub.m/s А. Высокие широтыРасходы в ХХ веке Прогнозные расходы для середины ХХI века Изменения, в % 1. Юкон % 2.Макензи % 3. Енисей % 4. Лена % 5. Обь % Б. Средние широты 6. Рейн % 7. Волга % 8. Дунай/Днепр % 9. Колумбия % 10. Св. Лаврентия % 11. Миссисипи % 12.Амур % 13. Хуан Хе % 14. Чанг Джиган % 15. Замбези % 16. Парана/Уругвай % В. Низкие широты 17. Амазонка % 18. Ориноко % 19. Ганг/Брахмапутра % 20. Конго % 21. Нил % 22. Меконг %

11 Water Resources Changes in Different Russian Regions in Экономические районы Средние многолет ние значения, км 3 Среднее за гг., км 3 Отклонение от среднего многолетнего, % Северный_ ,5 Северо-западный90,2_96,1_+6,3 Центральный Волго-Вятский153_174+12,1 Центрально- Черноземный 20,9_20,2-3,5 Поволжский ,7 Северо- Кавказский 71,073,0+2,7 Уральский ,5 Западно- Сибирский ,0 Восточно- Сибирский ,7 Дальневосточный ,2 Калининградская обл. 23,122,6-2,3 Россия в целом ,4

12 Река, створСредние многолет ние значения, км 3 Среднее за гг., км 3 Отклонение от среднего многолетнего, % Нева - устье74,377,4+4,2 Днепр - Смоленск 3,03,2+6,0 Дон - Раздорская 25,322,7-10,1 Кубань - устье13,012,4-4,8 Волга - Лебяжье ,9 Урал - Кушум9,712,4+27,5 Северная Двина - устье ,4 Печора - устье ,5 Обь - Салехард ,5 Енисей - Игарка ,8 Лена - устье ,9 Амур - Комсомольск ,2 Changes in Runoff of Main Russian Rivers in


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