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Weathering and Soil Formation CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE Natural forces break rocks apart and form soil, which supports life. Mechanical and.

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Presentation on theme: "Weathering and Soil Formation CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE Natural forces break rocks apart and form soil, which supports life. Mechanical and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weathering and Soil Formation CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE Natural forces break rocks apart and form soil, which supports life. Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. 4.1 Weathering and organic processes form soil. 4.2 Human activities affect soil. 4.3 NEW CHAPTER CHAPTER RESOURCES

2 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 4.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. mechanical weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering Over time, mechanical weathering breaks a rock into smaller pieces. CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

3 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 4.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. mechanical weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering Chemical weathering affects exposed rock surfaces CLASSZONE.COM VISUALIZATION Watch chemical weathering in action. CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

4 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The process by which natural forces break down rocks. weathering 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. mechanical weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

5 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The breakdown of rock into smaller pieces of the same material without any change in its composition. mechanical weathering 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. mechanical weathering weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

6 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME In geology, the process in which layers or sheets of rock gradually break off. exfoliation 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. mechanical weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

7 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The process of wearing something down by friction. abrasion 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. mechanical weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

8 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The breakdown or decomposition of rock that takes place when minerals change through chemical processes. chemical weathering 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. mechanical weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

9 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Weathering and organic processes form soil. 4.2 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE soil horizon humus soil profile Soil has measurable properties, such as color, texture, pore space, and chemistry. Plants, microorganisms, and animals affect soil characteristics. Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, organic matter, water, and air. CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

10 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Weathering and organic processes form soil. 4.2 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE soil horizon humus soil profile Soil has measurable properties, such as color, texture, pore space, and chemistry. VISUALIZATION Learn how materials break down and contribute to soil buildup over time. CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

11 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The decayed organic matter in soil. humus 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Weathering and organic processes form soil. soil horizon humus soil profile CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

12 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A soil layer with physical and chemical properties that differ from those of soil layers above or below it. soil horizon 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Weathering and organic processes form soil. soil horizon humus soil profile CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

13 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The soil horizons in a specific location; a cross section of soil layers that displays all soil horizons. soil profile 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Weathering and organic processes form soil. soil horizon humus soil profile CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

14 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 4.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Human activities affect soil. desertification Soil is essential to life and takes a long time to form. It is difficult or impossible to replace soil that has been lost. Farming, construction and development, and mining are three human activities that affect soil. Soil Loss CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

15 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 4.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Human activities affect soil. desertification Soil is essential to life and takes a long time to form. It is difficult or impossible to replace soil that has been lost. Soil conservation practices help keep soil from blowing or washing away. Soil Conservation CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

16 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The expansion of desert conditions in areas where the natural plant cover has been destroyed. desertification 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Human activities affect soil. desertification CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

17 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME I. Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. A. Weathering breaks rocks into smaller pieces. B. Mechanical weathering produces physical changes in rocks. 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Mechanical and chemical forces break down rocks. 1. Dissolving C. Chemical weathering changes the mineral composition of rocks. 2. Rusting D. Weathering occurs at different rates. mechanical weathering exfoliation abrasion chemical weathering CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

18 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME II. Weathering and organic processes form soil. B. Climate and landforms affect soil. 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY A. Soil is a mixture of weathered rock particles and other materials. Weathering and organic processes form soil. soil horizon humus soil profile C. The activities of organisms affect soil. D. Properties of soil can be observed and measured. 1. Soil Composition 2. Soil Horizons 1. Texture 2. Color 3. Pore Space 4. Chemistry CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

19 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME III. Human activities affect soil. A. Soil is a necessary resource. 1. Farming B. Land-use practices can harm soil. 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Human activities affect soil. 2. Construction and Development C. Soil can be protected and conserved. desertification 3. Mining CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

20 CHAPTER HOME Image Gallery Click on the icons to see a larger image or animation. CLASSZONE.COM VISUALIZATION Watch chemical weathering in action. VISUALIZATION Learn how materials break down and contribute to soil buildup over time.

21 CHAPTER HOME Image Gallery BACK TO IMAGE GALLERY

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28 BACK TO CHAPTER Click on the items below to access resources on Standardized Test Practice Practice state standardized tests Math Tutorial Review math concepts Resource Centers Get more information on select science topics Content Review Review key concepts and vocabulary Audio Readings Hear chapter audio readings Image Gallery Click here to view chapter images and animations CLASSZONE.COM Chapter Resources CHAPTER HOME


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