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Cell Unit – A review. Know the history…who and what Scientist Hans & Zacharias Janssen Macello Malpighi Robert Hooke Anton van Leeuwenhoek Robert Brown.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Unit – A review. Know the history…who and what Scientist Hans & Zacharias Janssen Macello Malpighi Robert Hooke Anton van Leeuwenhoek Robert Brown."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Unit – A review

2 Know the history…who and what Scientist Hans & Zacharias Janssen Macello Malpighi Robert Hooke Anton van Leeuwenhoek Robert Brown Felix Dujardin Matthais Schleiden Theodor Schwann Rudolph Virchow A. used a compound microscope to look at slivers of cork; coined the term “cells” B. ground lenses to precise focal points; viewed living organisms in a drop of water; called them “animalcules” C. identified the cytoplasm in cells D. made first compound microscope E. discovered that plants are made of living cells F. discovered that animals are made of living cells G. first scientific use of microscope; viewed red blood cells flowing H. identified the nucleus in cells I. discovered that cells divide to form new cells DGABHCEFIDGABHCEFI

3 Know Modern cell theory 1. All known living things are made up of 1 or more cells. 2. The cell is structural & functional unit of all living things 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur). 4. Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. 6. All energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.

4 Know scope types and parts… Stereomicroscope (dissecting scope) Compound light microscope


6 Electron microscopes: SEM TEM Scanning/Tunneling, Ion Electron microscopes are MUCH more powerful and have much higher magnification ability and much better/clearer resolution (but no color…)

7 Total Magnification? Eyepiece power X Objective lens power = Ex. 10X eyepiece, 45X high Power? Total : 450X mag What are the 3 objective lenses on your light scopes? scanning, low, high

8 Know the organelles Cell WallCentriolesChloroplasts CiliaCytoplasmEndoplasmic VacuolesReticulum FlagellaGolgi BodiesLysosomes MitochondriaNucleolusNucleus Cell MembraneRibosomes

9 And what the organelles do… A. Small, hair-like projections on the surface of some cells that beat rhythmically to provide locomotion for protists and move liquids along internal tissues for animals B. Involved in energy conversion for the cell; a series of chemical reactions occurs within its folded membranes C. Involved in cell division; forms the spindle fibers D. Jelly-like substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks as well as organelles in some cells E. Contains the DNA of the cell F. Surrounds the cell membrane in many cells; provides support, protection and gives the cell its shape G. Flexible boundary between the cell and its outside environment H. Long, slender appendage that serves as a an organ of locomotion for some cells I. Packages proteins and transports them to other organelles J. Network of folded membranes; protein and lipid production occurs inside this network (called the lumen). K. Fluid filled sac that stores materials L. Within the nucleus, this is the site where ribosomes are produced M. Converts solar energy to chemical energy; contains chlorophyll N. Links amino acids together to form proteins O. Contains enzymes; breaks down substances for the cell; defends the cell by breaking down invading bacteria Cilia Mitochondria Centrioles Cytosol (cytoplasm) Nucleus Cell Wall Cell membrane Flagellum Golgi bodies Endoplasmic reticulum Vacuole Nucleolus Chloroplasts Ribosomes Lysosomes

10 Fluid Mosaic Model Fluid mosaic and cell membrane

11 Cholesterol Carbohydrate chains Gated Channel Protein Channel Protein Filaments of cytoskeleton Cytosol Receptor protein Marker protein

12 Fig. 7-7 Fibers of extracellular matrix (ECM) Glyco- protein Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Cholesterol Peripheral proteins Integral protein CYTOPLASMIC SIDE OF MEMBRANE Glycolipid EXTRACELLULAR SIDE OF MEMBRANE Carbohydrate Channel protein Gated channel protein Receptor protein



15 Carb of marker protein Receptor protein Cholesterol cytoskeleton Channel protein Phospholipid molecule Marker protein






21 DiffusionOsmosisActive TransportFacilitated Diffusion Flows from high to low concentration Water movement across a cell membrane Helped by membrane transport proteins Builds up a concentration gradient Selective transport Flows in one direction Requires energy Sodium-potassium pumps in nerve cells


23 Active or Passive?

24 2 2


26 Fig. 7-17 _______________ A review... _____ ___________ ____________ _________________________ __________ – 3 types __________ ______________

27 Fig. 7-17 Passive transport A review... Pump Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Receptor-Mediated endocytosis Endocytosis – 3 types Exocytosis Active Transport

28 UGA labs Website to access: To log in: Password: millcreek

29 Graniteville – Chlorine gas spill Example of simple Diffusion Spill caused by a ____________________ Train wreck Anita -- having difficulty breathing, low alveolar oxygen levels. diagnosed with _________________ Hypoxemia Treatment options: diuretic injection, corticosteroids by nebulizer, oxygen by nasal prongs Which gave first and why? oxygen: quickest, fewest side effects


31 Should look like this… Anita’s original tests indicated swelling…. Hypoxemia, or low blood oxygen, describes a lower than normal level of oxygen in your blood.


33 Clark the calf Example of Osmosis Symptoms: ____________ and ________ seizures and diarrhea Caused by _______________ cerebral edema (too much water in brain) Could give 1 of the following: Hypotonic saline, Isotonic saline, Hypertonic saline Which one was correct and why? Hypertonic saline, pulled water out of brain into bloodstream




37 Filtration -- Anthony Example of dialysis – movement of particles Symptoms: high levels of urea and potassium normal levels of albumin higher than normal body mass. Diagnosed with: ______________________ Choices:kidney failure, liver failure, or heart failure – Kidney failure was it! You changed ____________and _________________ pore sizes in the filter and different types of flow: countercurrent and parallel (next to the largest pore was best) (countercurrent was best)






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