Presentation on theme: "Characteristics of Protists mostly unicellular, some are multicellular (algae) can be heterotrophic or autotrophic most live in water (though some live."— Presentation transcript:
Characteristics of Protists mostly unicellular, some are multicellular (algae) can be heterotrophic or autotrophic most live in water (though some live in moist soil or even the human body) ALL are eukaryotic (have a nucleus) A protist is any organism that is not a plant, animal or fungus Means- the very first
Four Phyla of Animallike Protists Classified by how they move 1. Zooflagellates - flagella 2. Sarcodines - extensions of cytoplasm (pseudopodia) 3. Ciliates - cilia 4. Sporozoans - do not move
Protist: Giardia Transmission: Drinking contaminated water (usually outdoor streams and other untreated water) Symptoms: Severe diarrhea and vomitting, the protist takes up residence in the digestive tract.
Trichomonas vaginalis, an anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoananaerobic parasiticflagellatedprotozoan It is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries.trichomoniasispathogenic The WHO has estimated that 180 million cases of infection are acquired annually worldwide. The estimates for North America alone are between 5 and 8 million new infections each year, with an estimated rate of asymptomatic cases as high as 50%.WHONorth Americaasymptomatic Treatment with antibiotics.
Ameba moves using pseudopodia ( "false feet" ), which are like extensions of the cytoplasm --ameboid movement ingests food by surrounding and engulfing food (endocytosis), creating a food vacuole **reproducing by binary fission (mitosis) **contractile vacuole - removes excess water **Can cause amebic dysentery in humans - diarrhea and stomach upset from drinking contaminated water **Other sarcodines: Foraminferans, Heliozoans
Example- Paramecium move using cilia -has two nuclei: macronucleus, micronucleus -food is gathered through the :mouth pore, moved into a gullet, forms a food vacuole -anal pore is used for removing waste -contractile vacuole removes excess water -exhibits avoidance behavior -reproduces asexually (binary fission) or sexually (conjugation) -outer membrane -pellicle- is rigid and -paramecia are always the same shape, like a shoe
Sporozoans do not move on their own parasitic =Malaria is a sporozoan, infects the liver and blood
Vector - an organism that can carry a parasite, and is responsible for infecting other organisms (host) with that parasite. Vectors themselves are not harmful, but in the battle against human disease, controlling the vector can control the transmission of parasites. The anopheles mosquito is the vector for malaria.
Protist: Plasmodium Vector: Anopholes Mosquito Statistics: According to the World Health Organization, 300-500 million cases of malaria occur each yearWorld Health Organization Malaria results in 1.5-2.7 million deaths per year (much more than AIDS) Most cases occur in Africa and South America Symptoms include fever, headache, vomiting and other flu-like symptoms The protist lives inside the bloodstream, eventually clogging capillaries and destroying blood cells, which will lead to death if not treated
1. Sporozoite- stage inside the mosquito. Spores are injected when the mosquito bites. The spores then travel to the liver. 2. Merozoite- the Plasmodium lives in the liver and multiplies. It leaves the liver and enters the blood.
3. Gametocyte- sexual reproductive stage in the mosquito only.
Questions for Thought 1. Does the United States have a responsibility toward treating and containing parasitic infections found in other parts of the world? 2. Why is controlling the vector important to control the disease? 3. One of the best ways to prevent many parasitic infections is to have a source of clean water. Why do you think many third world countries have more incidence of parasitic infection that other countries?