SMELL/TASTE NAME: REGGIE, BHAVIN, KELSEY, SABREEN, & CHRIS
INTRO-DUCK-TION Why do we study smell and taste? Sensory Interaction: The Principle that one’s sense may influence another. (Specifically the linkage between the two sense of smell and taste.)
INTRO-DUCK-TION CONT. *Smell and taste are senses that react to small traces of chemical molecules that foods and many other substances emit. These two senses are closely linked. *If you've ever had a bad cold that made it difficult to smell, you may have noticed that your sense of taste was suppressed as well.
SMELL YOU LATER Smell (olfaction): The stimuli for smell that catch chemical substances suspended in the air. These molecules stimulate the olfactory receptors, which are in the upper parts of the nasal passages. Neurons from these receptors bundle together to form the olfactory nerve, which travels to the olfactory bulb at the base of the brain. *In humans, the is an estimate of 10 million olfactory receptors in the nasal cavities that respond to specific odorants or combinations of them.
SMELL YOU LATER (CONT.) In a psychological sense, Olfaction has many traits that can help further evolution. However, the theory of smell is not well understood. Olfaction has been known for: -Invoking emotion-laden memories based on certain smells, which are mainly contained in the hippocampus. (For example, how an odor of apple pie can evoked pleasant childhood memories). -Used for detecting and locating food -A unique use for smell is how to avoid potential sources of danger Sense of smell can also be used for communication: -Pheromones: Odorous signals used to communication (Examples include signal sexual receptivity, danger, territorial indications, food source, etc.) -Humans use the sense of smell with taste to sample and seek food. -Another unique usage is to identify other family members.
CAN YOU SMELL THE DIFFERENCE?!
I CAN SMELL YOUR FEELINGS? Aromatherapy can be defined as “The use of plant oils, including essential oils, that induce physical and psychological well-being.” People most often practice aromatherapy to induce certain moods or feelings or to reduce physical ailments depending on the type of essential oils used. Benefits: Physical: -Helps faster healing of skins disorders -Enhance blood circulation which boosts the disposal of residual toxins in the body. -Aches and pains of muscles and joints can be treated. * This can also improve energy and stamina and fatigue is relieved. Psychological: -Boosts state of well-being, often soothing and calming the mind. -Mental disorders such as Alzheimer's and dementia are known the react in a positive way to treatments
TASTEEEEE Taste(Gustation): The stimuli for taste are chemical substances dissolved in water or other fluids. Taste can be described as four basic sensations, sweet, sour, salty, and bitter, which can be combined in various ways to make all other taste sensations. Taste receptors (called taste buds) are these sensations located primarily on various areas of the tongue: front, sweet; sides, sour; sides and front, salty; and back, bitter (Check the figure). There are about 10,000 taste buds, which are situated primarily in or around the bumps (papillae) on the tongue. Each papilla contains several taste buds, from which information is sent by afferent nerves to the thalamus and, ultimately, to areas in the cortex.
HOW TASTING WORKS The taste receptor cells within a bud are arranged such that their tips form a small taste pore, and through this pore extend microvilli from the taste cells. The microvilli of the taste cells bear taste receptors. Interwoven among the taste cells in a taste bud is a network of dendrites of sensory nerves called "taste nerves". When taste cells are stimulated by binding of chemicals to their receptors,
PAPILLAE They are those bumps on your tongue. Helps grip food while your teeth are chewing. They also have another special job- which is containing taste-buds. More taste-buds for the bitter sense is considered a super-taster -Cause a distaste for certain foods -Considered survival advantage (most poisons are bitter)
TRANS-DUCK-TION!! Taste transduction is a specialized form of signal transduction by which taste receptor cells (TRCs) encode at the cellular level information about chemical substances encountered in the oral environment (so-called tastants). Bitter and sweet taste transduction pathways convert chemical information into a cellular second messenger code. *A specific gene encodes each receptor, so a person lacking a gene would also be missing the receptor needed to bind that unique odor and would not be able to detect the smell.
TAAAAASSSTEEEE (CONT.) There are special nerves called “hotline” carries message to the brain. -They carry nothing but taste messages. -Taste is located on the parietal lobes. (Somatosensory-cortex) -It is also next to the cortex that contain sensory with the face. Infants are considered to have a heightened taste sensitivity -This means it decreases within age Damage can be cause by alcohol, smoke, acids, or hot foods. -Gustatory receptors are frequently replaced such as to smell -Taste system is most resistant to permanent damage
DISORDERS OF BOTH Hypogeusia, the most common taste disorder, is a decreased sense of taste while ageusia is a disorder where the person has a total lack of taste reception. Hyposmia is a reduced sense of smell and anosmia involves a complete lack of smell. Loss of taste is rare and what is perceived by a loss of taste is often actually a loss of smell. Smell and taste disorders can make a person more susceptible to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease because of the malfunctioning chemosensory functions.
WHAT IS THEIR RELATIONSHIP?! What we refer to as taste is actually a combination of taste, smell, touch and other factors such as temperature. All together these sensations create flavor. As we eat, our taste buds' receptions also react to a food's odor and both the taste and smell combined allow us to identify what we are eating. Lacking a sense of smell, we would be able to tell sweet from bitter, but we would not be able to recognize flavors. We therefore wouldn't be able to tell the difference between foods.