Presentation on theme: " Is the execution of the planting plan and installation of hardscape features. Hardscaping- describes installing non-plant landscape features, such."— Presentation transcript:
Is the execution of the planting plan and installation of hardscape features. Hardscaping- describes installing non-plant landscape features, such as fences, patios, walks, pools, and walls.
Is a plan that shows exact location for plant materials, includes a plant materials list, and shows the location for any hardscape features. Contours and spot elevation may also be on the plan Contour Lines- Show how the terrain changes elevation (the vertical rise and fall of the land). Nurseries- Grow many different varieties of trees, shrubs, and bedding plants used by the landscape contractor.
The landscape site is rarely flat. Terrain- describes the rise and fall of the land (hills and valleys.) Topography- is a record of an area’s terrain. Topography map shows the property’s features. Slope- is a percent relating the vertical rise of the land to the flat horizontal surface. Example:
Landscape Component Ideal Slope PercentMaximum Slope Percent Decks and Patios½ to 13 Lawns2 to 1030 Walks1 to 48 Driveways1 to 1011 Slopes with plants20 to 3050 Wheelchair Ramps3 to 58 Steps33 to 5066
Utility locating service should be called before starting a landscape job. Marking paint and flag colors indicate: Red- Electric Yellow- Gas, steam, oil Orange- Telephone, communication, cable TV Blue- Water Green- Sewer
Grading- Involves the moving of soil and the reshaping of the land. Fill- adding soil to the landscape. Cut- removing soil from the site. All grading should be done when soil is dry. Soil structure can be destroyed when equipment is put on wet soil. Soil structure allows soil to dry, sustain life, and to be useable.
Rough Grade- is the approximate grade or slope of the terrain. The rough grade should closely parallel the proposed final, or finish, grade but is usually 3 to 6 inches below final grade. Drainage patterns during the rough grade process should be the number one priority. Surface water should drain away from buildings BUT cannot be diverted onto neighboring properties.
Rough grade can be done with a skid steer loader. Final Grade- is the elevation of the soil surface after completing all grading operations. Use a rototiller to break up the soil clumps into marble-sized particles and remove all rock and debris before smoothing the surface. Small areas can be hand raked, large areas a tractor with a landscape rake or box scraper.
Berm- a mound of soil. Berms give a flat landscape an added dimension of height and change the ordinary into the unusual.
Soil- is the outerpart of the earth’s crust in which plant root systems grow. Soil supplies mineral elements, water, and a means of support for plants throughout the world. Pore Space- holes in the soil Plant roots need not only water but also air for good growth. The best soil for plants is half water and half air.
Infiltration- is the process of the water soaking into the soil. A soil with good texture and structure will absorb a great deal of rainfall. Percolation- is the downward movement of water through the soil. In heavy rainfall, the pore spaces of soil fill up more quickly than water can drain through the soil.
When this occurs and all pore spaces are filled with water, the soil is considered saturated. Permeable- the soils ability to allow water movement by infiltration and percolation.
Water found in soil falls into one of three categories: gravitational, capillary, and hygroscopic. Gravitational water- water that is pulled down through the soil by gravity. It flows quickly through sandy soils. This water often ends up in ground water. As gravitational water goes through the soil it brings dissolved minerals, chemicals, and salts with it, this is known as leaching.
Capillary Water- is the water held between soil particles against the force of gravity. It is the most desirable water for the plants to use. Hygroscopic Water- is water that forms a thin film around the individual soil particles. Plants are unable to absorb this type of water.
Silt, sand, clay, and organic matter combine in a soil to form larger particles and shapes. Soil Structure- is the way in which soil aggregates (comes together). There are 8 categories of soil structure: Blocky, columnar, crumb, granular, platy, prismatic, single grain, and massive.
Soil structure affects water and air movement in a soil, nutrient availability for plants, root growth, and microorganism activity. Soil structure can be destroyed. A major cause of damage is driving heavy equipment over wet soil. Damage can also be caused when working soil that is too wet or too dry. Damaged soil is very compacted and is very hard when dry. Soil structure can be improved when organic matter is added
Soil Texture- Is the proportion of sand, silt, and clay particles. Clay- the smallest soil particle Sand- the largest soil particle Silt- the medium sized soil particle
Planting Bed- describes the area in the landscape where the shrubs and flowers are planted. Soil Amendments- are materials added to the soil to improve drainage, moisture holding ability, and aeration.
Nutrients- are chemical substances that support the life processes. Plants require 17 elements for good growth. Plants use large quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (Primary nutrients) Plants need smaller amounts of the three secondary nutrients: Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur. The other needed nutrients are minor- since they are needed in a small amount.
Minor nutrients- Iron, Manganese, Copper, Boron, Zinc, Chlorine, Molybdenum, and Nickel. Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen are also required and obtained from air and water. All the other nutrients are obtained from the soil. Soil testing allows you to see which nutrients are in the soil and which ones are lacking in presence.