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By Albert Chen and Anne Ning a.k.a. “Pore bearers,” or sponges Campbell, Neil A., and.

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Presentation on theme: "By Albert Chen and Anne Ning a.k.a. “Pore bearers,” or sponges Campbell, Neil A., and."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Albert Chen and Anne Ning a.k.a. “Pore bearers,” or sponges Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. 7th ed. San Francisco: Pearson, Benjamin Cummings, (textbook used on all slides)

2 Sponges Albert Chen Anne Ning

3 Body Cavity  One central cavity called a spongocoel  Water enters the spongocoel through porocytes Albert Chen Anne Ning

4 Body Symmetry None Nervous System None Individual cells respond to the environment (left) (right) Gas Exchange Individual cells obtain the oxygen they need from their surroundings Albert Chen Anne Ning

5 Circulatory System  Water is circulated by the movement of choanocyte flagella  Nutrients from the water are circulated by amoebocytes Albert Chen Anne Ning

6 Digestive System  Suspension feeders  Choanocytes move water, catch suspended food with their collars, and ingest it through phagocytosis.  Food is then transferred to amoebocytes (with pseudopodia) that digest it and transport its nutrients to other cells. Albert Chen Anne Ning

7 Excretory System  Possess large openings called oscula from which water (and waste) leave Albert Chen Anne Ning

8 Locomotion/Musculature  No muscles  Flagellated choanocytes create water currents that bring water in to the spongocoel  Osculum can be closed  Sponges do not move  They are so stationary that the ancient Greeks mistook them for plants Albert Chen Anne Ning

9 Skeletal Type  Amoebocytes produce skeletal fibers within the mesohyl  Spicules (sharp) are made from calcium carbonate or silica  Fibers produced from spongin are more flexible Invertebrate biology [ ] Calcinai year: 2006 vol: 125 issue: 3 pg: Albert Chen Anne Ning

10 Reproduction  Sponges are hermaphrodites — produce both sperm and eggs (one gender at a time) Gametes are produced by choanocytes or amoebocytes Eggs stay in mesohyl while sperm leave through osculum. (no self-fertilization) Larvae swim (or crawl) somewhere, stick, and develop into sessile adults.  They can also reproduce asexually by releasing fragments of adult sponge (gemmules) that can become individual sponges "The Sponges (Phylum Porifera)." The Earth Life Web. Web. 10 Mar Albert Chen Anne Ning

11 Additional Information  Sponges are involved in symbiosis with algae. In some examples, the “alga represents the main skeleton of the sponge.”  Size—wide range from 1cm to 2m.  9000 species in this phylum, most live in the ocean.  Sponges can produce antibiotics to defend against pathogens  Few predators because of toxins Invertebrate biology [ ] Calcinai year: 2006 vol: 125 issue: 3 page: Albert Chen Anne Ning

12 Taxonomy  One taxonomic scheme: Phylum Porifera Class Calcarea Order Calcinia Order Calcaronia Class Hexactinellida Order Amphidiscophora Order Hexasterophora Class Demospongiae Order Homoscleromorpha Order Tetractinomorpha Order Ceractinomorpha "The Sponges (Phylum Porifera)." The Earth Life Web. Web. 10 Mar Albert Chen Anne Ning

13 QUIZ – Question 1  Which of the animal phyla has no true tissues? a) Porifera b) Cnidaria c) Rotifera d) Annelida Albert Chen Anne Ning

14 ANSWER: a) Porifera Albert Chen Anne Ning

15 QUIZ – Question 2  Which invertebrate has no true symmetry? a) Porifera b) Mollusca c) Echinodermata d) Rotifera Albert Chen Anne Ning

16 ANSWER: a) Porifera Albert Chen Anne Ning

17 QUIZ – Question 3  Are Porifera protostomes or deuterostomes? a) Protostomes b) Deuterostomes c) Both d) Neither Albert Chen Anne Ning

18 ANSWER: d) Neither Albert Chen Anne Ning

19 QUIZ – Question 4  Which cells in sponges help to circulate water? a) Osculum b) Spicules c) Amoebocytes d) Choanocytes Albert Chen Anne Ning

20 ANSWER: d) Choanocytes Albert Chen Anne Ning


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