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By Albert Chen and Anne Ning

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1 By Albert Chen and Anne Ning
Porifera a.k.a. “Pore bearers,” or sponges By Albert Chen and Anne Ning Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. 7th ed. San Francisco: Pearson, Benjamin Cummings, 2005. (textbook used on all slides)

2 Sponges Albert Chen Anne Ning

3 Body Cavity One central cavity called a spongocoel
Water enters the spongocoel through porocytes Albert Chen Anne Ning

4 Body Symmetry Nervous System Gas Exchange None None
Individual cells respond to the environment Gas Exchange Individual cells obtain the oxygen they need from their surroundings Albert Chen Anne Ning (left) (right)

5 Circulatory System Water is circulated by the movement of choanocyte flagella Nutrients from the water are circulated by amoebocytes Albert Chen Anne Ning

6 Digestive System Suspension feeders
Choanocytes move water, catch suspended food with their collars, and ingest it through phagocytosis. Food is then transferred to amoebocytes (with pseudopodia) that digest it and transport its nutrients to other cells. Albert Chen Anne Ning

7 Excretory System Possess large openings called oscula from which water (and waste) leave Albert Chen Anne Ning

8 Locomotion/Musculature
No muscles Flagellated choanocytes create water currents that bring water in to the spongocoel Osculum can be closed Sponges do not move They are so stationary that the ancient Greeks mistook them for plants Albert Chen Anne Ning

9 Skeletal Type Amoebocytes produce skeletal fibers within the mesohyl
Spicules (sharp) are made from calcium carbonate or silica Fibers produced from spongin are more flexible Albert Chen Anne Ning Invertebrate biology [ ] Calcinai year: 2006 vol: 125 issue: 3 pg:

10 Reproduction Sponges are hermaphrodites— produce both sperm and eggs (one gender at a time) Gametes are produced by choanocytes or amoebocytes Eggs stay in mesohyl while sperm leave through osculum. (no self-fertilization) Larvae swim (or crawl) somewhere, stick, and develop into sessile adults. They can also reproduce asexually by releasing fragments of adult sponge (gemmules) that can become individual sponges Albert Chen Anne Ning "The Sponges (Phylum Porifera)." The Earth Life Web. Web. 10 Mar <http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/porifera.html>.

11 Additional Information
Sponges are involved in symbiosis with algae. In some examples, the “alga represents the main skeleton of the sponge.” Size—wide range from 1cm to 2m. 9000 species in this phylum, most live in the ocean. Sponges can produce antibiotics to defend against pathogens Few predators because of toxins Albert Chen Anne Ning Invertebrate biology [ ] Calcinai year: 2006 vol: 125 issue: 3 page:

12 Taxonomy One taxonomic scheme: Phylum Porifera Class Calcarea
Order Calcinia Order Calcaronia Class Hexactinellida Order Amphidiscophora Order Hexasterophora Class Demospongiae Order Homoscleromorpha Order Tetractinomorpha Order Ceractinomorpha Albert Chen Anne Ning "The Sponges (Phylum Porifera)." The Earth Life Web. Web. 10 Mar <http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/porifera.html>.

13 QUIZ – Question 1 Which of the animal phyla has no true tissues?
Porifera Cnidaria Rotifera Annelida Albert Chen Anne Ning

14 ANSWER: a) Porifera Albert Chen Anne Ning

15 QUIZ – Question 2 Which invertebrate has no true symmetry? Porifera
Mollusca Echinodermata Rotifera Albert Chen Anne Ning

16 ANSWER: a) Porifera Albert Chen Anne Ning

17 QUIZ – Question 3 Are Porifera protostomes or deuterostomes?
Both Neither Albert Chen Anne Ning

18 ANSWER: d) Neither Albert Chen Anne Ning

19 QUIZ – Question 4 Which cells in sponges help to circulate water?
Osculum Spicules Amoebocytes Choanocytes Albert Chen Anne Ning

20 ANSWER: d) Choanocytes
Albert Chen Anne Ning


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