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Hazardous Environments resulting from Mass Movements
Mass movements take place when shear stress (the force trying to move the material) is greater than shear strength (the strength or resistance of the slope). Shear stress> shear strength
Causes of Mass Movement Movement is determined by: Gravity Slope angle Pore pressure
Hazardous mass movements Landslides Mudslides Avalanches
landslides Triggered by Seismic activity Heavy rainfall Human activity Case studies of the Caribbean Case study of Puerto Rico Case study of China
mudslides Triggered by Human causes – uncontrolled building, creation of impermeable surfaces, deforestation, burning. Heavy rainfall Tectonic activity Case studies – Italy 1998, Venezuela
avalanche Mass movement of ice and snow Triggered by: Newly fallen snow falling off older snow Partially thawed snow in spring Steep slopes North-facing slopes (NH)
Classification of avalanche: Type of breakaway Position of sliding surface Water content Form of avalanche – open or channelled. Case studies – Europe 1999.
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Earthquakes. Earthquakes are natural vibrations of the ground, caused by: Fractures in earths crust Volcanic eruptions.
Dr Stefan Krause, Keele University, C-Change in GEES: Human Pressures on the Environment – Mass Movement, Weathering and Erosion.
Changing Earths Surface Rapidly. Earthquakes Earthquakes Cause Cause –Occurs when huge slabs of rock move against each other deep below the Earths surface.
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Friction and Gravity. What is Friction? Friction is the resistance to the sliding, rolling, or flowing motion of an object due to its contact with another.
Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Tsunamis. Earthquakes Fault: a break in the Earths crust. Blocks of the crust slide past each other along fault lines. When.
Our Dynamic Earth. Earth as a System The Earth is an integrated system that consists of rock, air, water, and living things that all interact with each.
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Glaciers ! By: Jessica Chandler. What is a glacier? A glacier is a large mass of compacted snow and ice that moves under the force of gravity.
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Agents of Erosion. Erosion The process by which water, ice, wind or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil.
Chapter 9: Earthquakes 9.1: Earthquakes occur along faults 9.2: Earthquakes release energy 9.3: Earthquake damage can be reduced.
Mountains are parts of the landscape with steep slopes that rise 300 metres or more above their surroundings. Mountains are found all over the world.
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Earthquakes Nelsons Class Earthquakes An earthquake is the shaking and vibrating of the earth caused by large and sudden releases of energy that.
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