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BIOMETRICS IN ABC: COUNTER-SPOOFING RESEARCH Hong Wei, Lulu Chen and James Ferryman Computational Vision Group School of Systems Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOMETRICS IN ABC: COUNTER-SPOOFING RESEARCH Hong Wei, Lulu Chen and James Ferryman Computational Vision Group School of Systems Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOMETRICS IN ABC: COUNTER-SPOOFING RESEARCH Hong Wei, Lulu Chen and James Ferryman Computational Vision Group School of Systems Engineering University of Reading, UK 11th October 2013 FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

2 Outline of the presentation
Introduction Research on counter spoofing attacks for face for fingerprint for iris Challenges and future research FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

3 Introduction ABC requires: fast, secure identity verification.
EU FastPass project (www.fastpass-project.eu): harmonised, modular reference system for future European ABC. Biometrics: face, fingerprint and iris – important for ABC. Potential vulnerability: sensor-level attacks – “spoofing”. Counter-spoofing measure: crucial for FastPass. FastPass ABC requires fast and secure processing for intelligence-led identity verification. FastPass (www.fastpass-project.eu) aims to build a harmonised, modular reference system for future European ABC. Biometrics are used for identity checks in ABC and machine intelligence is challenged by spoofing attacks. It is important to equip ABC with counter spoofing measures in the biometric systems. Heavy traffic and pressure at current border control – how to ease these? FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

4 Face FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

5 Face counter spoofing approaches
Three categories in developing face anti-spoofing algorithms Motion analysis: make use of significant difference between motions of planar objects and real face (3D) in optical flow fields. Texture analysis: extract image texture features which reflects difference between real face and printed or replayed faces. Liveness detection: detection of life signs such as eye blinking, lip movement, etc. FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

6 Relevant competitions
Competitions on counter measures to 2D facial spoofing attacks First with IJCB 2011: 6 teams [Chakka, et al 2011] . Second with ICB 2013: 8 teams [Chingovska, et al 2013] Participants: academic teams Replay-Attack face spoofing database: Printed photographs Photographs on a mobile device (iPhone / iPad) Videos replayed on a mobile device FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

7 Summary of the 2013 competition
Methods used in algorithms development Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Texture based Yes No Motion based Liveness based Fusion Feature Score Three types of attacks in the database: printed photographs, photographs displayed on the screen of a device, and videos replayed on the screen of a device Database: Replay-Attack Face Spoofing Database Teams 1&4 achieved 100% accuracy in both development and test. All 8 teams developed highly sophisticated methods, and some introduced methods beyond the three categories, such as human pulse. FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

8 Open issues and challenges
Facial features: Change over time Similarity between family members: e.g. twins, father and son. Capture: Moving subject Efficient sensor-level fusion (VR+NIR, stereo vision) 2D face only: 3D attacks should be added, e.g. 3D face masks. FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

9 Fingerprint FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

10 Fingerprint sensing technologies
Optical sensors Relatively big in size In border control, biometric enrolment Solid state fingerprint sensors Different types, most common: capacitive Can be compact Sensitive to electrostatic discharges Multiple spectral imaging sensor 3D scanner Can be touchless FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

11 Fingerprint counter-spoofing methods
Solutions: Hardware and Software based Hardware: Pulse oximetry, smell, temperature, blood pressure, heart beat etc. Requires additional hardware Software: Perspiration pattern Skin distortion Pores Image quality measure FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

12 Software based Pore distribution Perspiration patterns Skin distortion
Image quality measure Real Fake FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

13 Fingerprint counter-spoofing competitions
LivDet: Fingerprint Liveness Detection Competition Since 2009, every two years Software based methods Multiple sensors: Optical and swipe Various reproduction materials: Gelatin Silicon Play-doh Latex FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

14 Fingerprint LivDet Participants Submissions
Best results (avg. across datasets) LivDet 2009 4 Dermalog: Ferrfake: 5.4% Anonymous 2: Ferrlive: 20.1% LivDet 2011 3 Part I: algorithms 3 Federico: 26.60% Ferrfake Dermalog: 17.60% Ferrlive 2 Part II: system 2 Dermalog: 0.8% Ferrfake Greenbi: 38.8% Ferrlive LivDet 2013 9 Part I: algorithms 11 Dermalog: 1.10% Ferrfake Federico: 11.96% Ferrlive Morpho: 0.0% Ferrfake Morpho: 1.4% Ferrlive Ferrfake: a false acceptance of a spoof image. Ferrlive: a false rejection of a live subject. FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

15 Open issues and challenges
Various spoofing materials Recent approaches: Handles certain types well Poor performance on other materials New methods should: Detect and handle all types of spoofing materials Combine successful algorithms Enable more balanced ferrfake and ferrlive rates Touchless fingerprint scan FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

16 Iris FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

17 Iris counter-spoofing approaches
Spectrographics based: optical properties Purkinje reflection Retina light reflection: ‘Red eye’ effect Image quality measure Behaviour based: dynamic properties Eye hippus Pupil and iris constriction and dilation Eyelid blinking Other: 3D structure FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

18 Iris counter spoofing competitions
LivDet-Iris: First Liveness Detection-Iris Competition 2013 Held by IEEE BTAS Conference (September 29 – October 2, 2013) BTAS Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

19 Open issues and challenges
FastPass: Data capturing: involves additional noise Small target Long-distance On-the move Illumination, focus Research: Data collection: lack of data for training Lack of standardisation on spoofing experimental datasets FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

20 Challenges Current biometric systems:
Have counter-spoofing mechanism integrated. However, research show vulnerability from spoofing attacks (e.g. TABULA RASA Spoofing Challenge 2013). Arms race: between spoofing and counter-spoofing. Spoofing using new technologies, e.g. Hand-held mobile devices. Increased throughput and intuitive user-friendly devices. Lack of training data. Data interchange format. E-Passport storage capacity. FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

21 Future of counter spoofing
Multimodal: Increase difficulty to spoof multiple traits. Not every person has all biometric features. Multi-sensor system: Visible range and Near IR 2D and 3D Combined approaches: Handle different types of materials. Tackle continuously updated and practised spoofing attacks. Increase difficulty for replication process. FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

22 Future research Explore and develop new algorithms on counter spoofing measures and attacks in ABC applications. Assemble ABC-specific databases with more realistic spoofing attacks. Create a framework for counter spoofing measures. Analyse data fusion effects at a quantitative level: At the feature level for a single trait; At the decision (score) level for multiple traits; Combination of feature fusion and trait fusion; Adaptive fusion schemes taking additional information (quality, thresholds) into account. FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

23 Summary ABC demands harmonized capturing devices adopting international standards non intrusive and enable remote biometric capture faster, more secure, efficient, seamless robust counter spoofing detection Subject to appropriate legal and ethical controls FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland

24 Thank you. & Questions www.fastpass-project.eu
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland


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