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Oregon Department of Agriculture Fertilizer Research Grant Natural Resources Conservation Service Benton Soil & Water Conservation Dist. Soil & Water Conservation.

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Presentation on theme: "Oregon Department of Agriculture Fertilizer Research Grant Natural Resources Conservation Service Benton Soil & Water Conservation Dist. Soil & Water Conservation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oregon Department of Agriculture Fertilizer Research Grant Natural Resources Conservation Service Benton Soil & Water Conservation Dist. Soil & Water Conservation Society Oregon Branch WELCOME & THANKS

2 Soil Quality Assessments Teresa Matteson

3 The capacity of a soil to: Sustain plant and animal productivity. Maintain or enhance water and air quality. Support human health and habitation. Define Soil Quality

4 Why Soil Quality?

5 1. Land management impacts Soil Quality - for better or for worse. 2. Field & Lab assessments encourage informed management decisions that: Lower production costs Reduce environmental impacts Build soil capital Take Home Messages

6 Management and Soil Quality Soil Organisms Soil Structure Organic Matter Water Infiltration Vegetation Soil Quality

7 Soil Quality Assessment Field Observations Laboratory Tests

8 WV Soil Quality Card Willamette Valley Soil Quality Card (EM 8711) Willamette Valley Soil Quality Card Guide (EM 8710) Online at OSU Extension publications Do this at HOME!!!

9 NRCS SQ Test Kit

10 Do this at HOME!!! A simple set of tools to measure infiltration.

11 Infiltration = Pore Space = Compaction

12 Water Infiltration 1.Reduces erosion 2.Minimizes water pollution 3.Increases irrigation efficiency 4.Prevents flooding 5.Is cost effective

13 Field Observations Laboratory Tests Get to know your soil better!

14 Sample Collection 10 shovels of soil = composite sample 10 compaction readings

15 Lab Assessments Answer is in the BAG!

16 SQP Report $100/sample Weeds Bare soil Hx: Intensive till No OM inputs

17 SQP Report Row crop rotation 20 yr OM Cultivation

18 Compaction SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Dickey-john compaction tester Maximum pressure in two depth ranges: 0-6 inches 6-18 inches

19 Compaction Decrease in pore spaces are where plants get air, water, and nutrients. Adapted from Sulzman and Frey, 2003 Field Assessment

20 Less Greater Compaction Field Observations

21 Try this at home! Test your compaction! Use what you have: Fingers Shovel Pin flag Rod

22 Why Compaction? EROSION!  500 yrs = 1 in. top soil INFILTRATION! CO$T!!!!  Production  Environment

23 Three steps of water erosion Most erosion is initiated by the impact of raindrops, NOT by the flow of running water

24 USA 1930’s Dust Bowl Wikipedia… “The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops or other techniques to prevent wind erosion. [1] Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds.”droughtcrop rotationcover cropswind erosion [1]topsoilGreat Plainsgrassesdrought

25 Ways to Improve Soil Reduce disturbance Work soil when dry Avoid compaction Add organic materials  Mulch soil surface  Cover crops

26

27 The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes. ~Marcel Proust Betsiboka River, Madagascar Via Space Shuttle

28 Teresa Matteson Benton SWCD Thanks for attending this Soil Health Workshop!


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