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Plant Tissues Tissue – group of vegetative cells with one or more specific functions. Two kinds based on state of development: Meristematic tissues or.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Tissues Tissue – group of vegetative cells with one or more specific functions. Two kinds based on state of development: Meristematic tissues or."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Plant Tissues Tissue – group of vegetative cells with one or more specific functions. Two kinds based on state of development: Meristematic tissues or Meristems Actively engaged in cell division (production of new cells) Enlarge and differentiate to become permanent tissues Remain meristematic or repeatedly divide (initials) Permanent tissues Attained mature form and perform their specific functions No longer divide and give rise to new cells All are derived from meristematic tissues

3 Kinds of Meristems Based on position or location within the plant body: Apical meristems (promeristems) Found at the tips or apices of stems and roots Responsible for the increase in length of stems and roots 3 meristematic zones: Protoderm, Ground meristem, Procambium Lateral meristems (or cambia) Found along the sides of certain roots and stems Responsible for the increase in width or diameter Dicots have cambia whereas monocots have no cambia Types: vascular cambium and cork cambium (phellogen) Intercalary meristems Found at the bases of young leaves and internodes Considered temporary (short-lived) meristems

4 Kinds of Meristems Based on origin, meristems may be classified as: Primary meristems Originate in the embryo and persist throughout the lifetime Apical meristems or their meristematic zones Intercalary and the vascular cambium Secondary meristems Derived from permanent tissues Cork cambium Living permanent tissues lining injured or wounded portions of plants become meristematic to heal the injured portions resulting in formation of “callus” or scar tissue.

5 Kinds of Permanent Tissues Based on the number of cell types/kinds of cells: Simple permanent tissues for the most part consist of only one kind of cell Composed of similar in structure and function Complex permanent tissues Consist of several kinds of cells working together as a unit in carrying out one or more specific functions

6 Different Kinds of Simple Permanent Tissues Epidermis External tissue consists of single layer of living cells Serves as outermost tissue of leaves, young roots and young stems; also in old roots and old stems of monocot plants and herbaceous dicot plants Appear cubical or rectangular in shape In terms of function, a protective tissue In leaves and stems: 2 kinds of cells: Ordinary epidermal cells Guard cells (kidney-shaped) which occur in pairs and bound by tiny openings or pores called stomata

7 epidermis cortex pith vascular bundle

8 Different Kinds of Simple Permanent Tissues Epidermis In leaves and stems: 2 kinds of cells: Ordinary epidermal cells Guard cells (kidney-shaped) which occur in pairs and bound by tiny openings or pores called stomata. Outer wall is coated with a heavy waxy substance (cutin or cuticle) that prevents excessive transpiration or evaporation of water from the leaves and stems; roots not cutinized Epidermal hairs (trichomes) for protective function

9 Different Kinds of Simple Permanent Tissues Parenchyma Internal tissue Consists of living cells with uniformly thin cell walls Large intercellular spaces In cross section, appear rounded Chlorenchyma – parenchyma with chloroplastids Involved in food manufacturing and in food storage

10 Parenchyma Cells - Parenchyma cells are living cells with uniformly thin walls. They comprise the photosynthetic tissue of a leaf, the soft flesh of fruits, and the storage tissue of roots and seeds. - A widely distributed tissue located beneath the collenchyma between the vascular bundles (consisting of vascular tissues and at the center of the section. epidermis collenchyma parenchyma

11 Different Kinds of Simple Permanent Tissues Collenchyma Also an internal tissue Consists of living cells with unevenly thickened walls– thin on the sides but thickened at the angles where two or more cells meet Appear cubical or slightly rectangular and are more or less compactly arranged A strengthening or support tissue; storage of food

12 Collenchyma Cells Collenchyma cells have unevenly thickened cell walls, which are their distinguishing characteristic. They form strands along veins in leaves and beneath the epidermis in stems to provide support and strength against the onslaught of strong winds and rains.

13 Different Kinds of Simple Permanent Tissues Sclerenchyma Also an internal tissue Consists of dead cells when mature, with heavily thickened cell walls mainly due to the deposition of lignin It may appear in the form of fibers or sclerids Fibers –elongated cells with tapering ends occurring in groups; appear as cells with tiny empty cell cavities or cell lumina with heavy and uniformly thickened cell walls in cross section Sclerids –irregularly-shaped cells and typically not elongated; various forms but the most common are stone cells (isodiametric and like sand particles occur singly or in groups) Found in fruits: coconut shell is sclerids, coconut husk is fibers gritty texture of sugar apple (atis) and chico due to stone cells Strengthening or supportive tissue

14 Sclerenchyma Cells - Sclerenchyma cells have thick and rigid cell walls. They serve as strengthening elements to support mature plant parts. - Found in groups of cluster among the parenchyma cells around the vascular tissues

15 Different Kinds of Simple Permanent Tissues Cork External tissue serving as outermost tissue or covering of old stems/roots of woody dicot plants Consists of several layers of dead cells when mature Cell walls are impregnated with waxy substance (suberin) – impermeable to substances, resulting to the death of cells upon reaching maturity Rectangular in shape and arranged in layers in cross- section Protective tissue

16 epidermis phellem (cork) cortical parenchyma phellogen (cork cambium) phelloderm phellem phellogenphelloderm BARK periderm

17 Plant Cell Types PLANT CELL TYPE PROTOPLASM +/-, CELL LIVING OR DEAD CELL WALL CHARACTERSFUNCTION CELL THICKNESSCHEMICAL COMPOSITION Parenchyma+, livingUniformly thinCellulose, hemicellulose may have cutin Food storage, food manufacture Collenchyma+, livingIrregularly thickCellulose, hemicellulose Food storage, strengthening Sclerenchyma 1. sclereid 2. fiber -, deadUniformly thickCellulose, hemicellulose added suberin or lignin Strengthening and support CELL SHAPE Polyhedral to much branched sclerenchyma cells Long and slender sclerenchyma cells

18 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Phloem Function: mainly conductive or vascular tissue Conducts dissolved organic food materials Consists of the following cell types: Phloem fibers Phloem parenchyma Sieve tube elements Companion cells

19 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Phloem: cell types Phloem fibers appear like ordinary schlerenchyma fibers Phloem parenchyma appear like ordinary parenchyma cells

20 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Phloem: cell types Sieve tube elements conducting cells of the phloem living, non-nucleated cell when mature elongated in form and uniformly thin-walled with the end walls perforated to form sieve plates that are attached end-to- end forming long conducting tubes (sieve tubes) consists of protoplasmic connections between adjacent cells - plasmodesmata

21 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Phloem: cell types Companion cells parenchymatous cells which are always found beside the sieve tubes small, elongated and nucleated living cells when mature plasmodesmata have also been observed to occur between the companion cells and the sieve tubes

22 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Xylem or Wood Function: mainly conductive or vascular tissue Conducts water and mineral salts The main strengthening tissue of the plant Consists of the following cell types: Xylem fibers Xylem parenchyma Vessel elements Tracheids

23 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Xylem: cell types Xylem fibers appear like ordinary schlerenchyma fibers Xylem parenchyma structurally similar but much smaller than the ordinary parenchyma cells

24 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Xylem: cell types Vessel elements main conducting cells of the xylem Elongated in shape and dead when mature Heavily thickened cell walls Have relatively large cavities or lumina which generally appear rounded in cross section Vessel elements are attached end-to-end with their end walls perforated to form long conducting tubes (xylem vessels) Perforation plate – perforated wall having one or more openings

25 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Xylem: cell types Tracheids simplest conducting cells of the xylem dead cell when mature elongated in shape and square-like in cross section with heavily thickened cell walls Tracheary elements – consists of the vessel elements and the traceheids; have different types depending on how lignin is deposited on their cell walls

26 xylem phloemvessel vessel air space companion cell sieve tube bundle sheath Cross section of a monocot stem vascular bundle

27 phloem fiber sieve tube companion cell xylem parenchyma xylem fiber phloem parenchyma vascular cambium vessel Tracheid (schlerenchyma)

28 Kinds of Complex Permanent Tissues Main types of tracheary elements: Annular type – thickening of the cell wall is in the form of rings Spiral type – the thickening is in the form of a spiralling or helical structure Scalariform – the thickening is ladder-like Reticulate – the thickening is net-like Pitted type – the uniformly thickened cell walls show the presence of more or less rounded depressions or pore-like structure (pitts) representing the non-lignifed portions of a wall

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30 reticulate

31 Plant Trichomes Trichomes or epidermal hairs appendages of the epidermal cells may be unicellular or multicellular glandular and non-glandular structures Glandular trichomes – consist of living cells and produce secretions Types: glandular and stinging trichomes Non-glandular trichomes – consist of dead cells and non-secretory Kinds: bristles, scales, stellate, and branched (dendroid)

32 Plant Trichomes Glandular Trichomes Glandular trichomes produce secretions in enlarged terminal portions Examples: ratilis, oregano and malvarosa Stinging trichomes Consist of enlarged base containing secretion from which projects a stiff, slender structure that ends in a sharp point Example: lipang kalabaw

33 Plant Trichomes Non-glandular Trichomes Bristles - stiff, sharp pointed hairs which may be barb- like protuberances along the sides as in lipa Scales - flattened structure as in alingaro Stellate trichomes – star-like structure as in ratilis and Mallotus Branched trichomes (dendroid) – as in the velvet dock

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35 Glandular trichomes

36 Glandular trichomes - Enlarge terminal portions

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38 Non-gladular


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