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24/04/121 www.greenchemistry.net Starbons and their applications Dr. Vitaliy Budarin.

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1 24/04/121 www.greenchemistry.net Starbons and their applications Dr. Vitaliy Budarin

2 2 www.greenchemistry.net Contents 1.Introduction to mesoporous materials 2.Starbon technology 3.Starbon applications: Nanotechnology Catalysis Water treatment Chromatography 24/04/12

3 3 www.greenchemistry.net Porous materials Pore typePore Size Condensation mechanism Type of Adsorption Micropore< 2 nm Three- dimensional Non-specific Mesopore≥ 2 ≤ 50 nmCapillarySpecific Macropore> 50 nmNo condensation- 24/04/12

4 4 www.greenchemistry.net Potential applications of mesoporous materials Adsorption Filtration Chromatography Catalysis Electrochemistry Nanotechnology Sensors 24/04/12

5 Synthesis of Mesoporus materials Technologies Limitation: Costly Wasteful Complicated Time consuming Limited functionality Benefits: regular & well ordered 24/04/12

6 6 www.greenchemistry.net Native mesoporous materials Nature is adept at the self assembly of organic polymers in a wide range of structural and storage roles in higher plants Is porous structures of native materials accessible for chemistry? 24/04/12

7 7 www.greenchemistry.net Expanded starch formation Chem.Commun, 2002, 2632 Methodology utilises: Starch o inexpensive, biomass green solvents o water, ethanol and ScCO 2 24/04/12

8 8 www.greenchemistry.net Starbonisation 100 0 C 700 0 C Starch Mesoporous Carbon Starbons Starbon Properties :  Tuneable surface functionality  High mesoporosity (up to 2.0 cm 3 /g)  High surface areas (up to 500 m 2 /g)  Controllable electrical conductivity  Particulate / monolithic forms Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, 2006 45 3782 H+H+ 24/04/12

9 Mesopore Micropore 10 nm 1 nm Starbon. Texture properties

10 24/04/12

11 Starbon. Textural properties. Influence of the preparation temperature. 11 www.greenchemistry.net A)400 0 C Starbon B) 600 0 C Starbon SEM of Starbons 24/04/12

12 12 www.greenchemistry.net Nanotechnology Chromatography Applications Acid catalysis Organic adsorption Metal adsorption Starbons functionality 24/04/12

13 13 www.greenchemistry.net Starbon Surface modification Starbon surface can be modified with: Halogens Sulfuric acid Amines Chitosan Phosphates 24/04/12

14 14 www.greenchemistry.net Starbon application: Synthesis of nanoparticles Green Chemistry 10 (4), 382-387, 2008 The nanoparticle size distribution was controllable by pore structure of Starbon 24/04/12

15 15 www.greenchemistry.net Catalyst preparation: 1)Sulfonation: 40 0 C, 2 h. 2)Washing: water water-ethanol mixture, 80 0 C Succinic acid esterification.Starbon-350@SO 3 H Starbon application: Acid catalysis in water-organic mixture Chem.Eur.J., 2007, 13, 6914 14/03/11

16 16 www.greenchemistry.net Rationale for activity Esterification should be poor in water Selective adsorption / exclusion of water? Reaction in pore / on surface Product desorbed and stable in aqueous environment 24/04/12

17 17 www.greenchemistry.net Adsorption of acids. Starbon-400 0 C 400 o C Starbon the best for succinic acid Correlates with catalysis (?) 24/04/12

18 18 www.greenchemistry.net Peat based soils West coast of Scotland, Ireland Northern England Low Polarity favoured for silicas and Starbons Starbons better (high pore size ) Best adsorbs ca. 200mg/g Starbon application: Decolourisation of peat water 24/04/12

19 19 www.greenchemistry.net Adsorption kinetic Methylene blue High mesoporosity tend to increase rate of adsorption 24/04/12

20 20 www.greenchemistry.net Starbon application: Decolourisation of peat water Advanced Functional Materials, 20 (11), 1834-1841, 2010 No acid catalyst 95% mesoporosity Good sugar isomer separation 24/04/12

21 21 www.greenchemistry.net Conclusions Starbon technology is an overall more environmental friendly as compared to commercially available mesoporous materials Starbon technology is an overall more environmental friendly as compared to commercially available mesoporous materials Starbons are versatile mesoporous materials Starbons are versatile mesoporous materials – Functionality can be controlled by preparation method Starbons demonstrated great promise in: Starbons demonstrated great promise in: – Catalysis – Adsorption – Nano technology – Chromatography 24/04/12


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