Presentation on theme: "Heterotroph Nutrition"— Presentation transcript:
1Heterotroph Nutrition Slide #1All the activities by which an organism obtains and uses food from the environment for growth and repair of cellsIngestion-take inDigestion-breakdownEgestion-removal of wasteHonors quiz: give meal, list enzymes that digest through tract through absorption
3Pseudo= false and Pod = foot Types of Ingestion or Endocytosis:Pinocytosis (cell drinking)Process where cell membrane “pinches in” drawing molecules into the cell forming a pinocytic vesiclePhagocytosis (cell eating)Process where pseudopods of a cell flow around matter and engulf it forming a food vacuole.Vesicle/vacuole can fuse with lysosomePhagocytosis: ameba, white blood cellPseudo= false and Pod = footPseudopod = false foot
6Lysosome enzymes in food vacuole ParameciumSlide #4Cilia beat food into oral grooveand gullet forms food vacuoleIngestion:Digestion:Lysosome enzymes in food vacuoleEgestion:Waste out anal pore
7NutrientsSlide #5The substances in food that an organism needs and uses for its life functions
8How do we get the nutrients we need to maintain life activities????? Slide #6Function of NutrientsThey act as a fuel to provide energy for the life activities of cellsThey supply chemicals needed for growth and repair of cellsThey regulate proper functioning of the cellHow do we get the nutrients we need to maintain life activities?????
9Human Digestive System Slide #7Human Digestive SystemAlimentary Canal:(Extra-cellular Digestion)Tube within a tube body constructionMouthAccessory OrgansPharynxSalivary GlandsEsophagusPancreasStomachLiverSmall IntestineLarge IntestineRectumAnus
10Human Digestive system Slide #8PharynxSalivary GlandsMouthEsophagusTeeth/TongueLiverStomachGall BladderPancreasColonLarge IntestineSmall IntestineAppendixRectumAnus
11Mechanical Digestion: breaks foods into smaller pieces Slide #9Mouth & Pharynx:Click to enlargeMechanical Digestion:breaks foods into smallerpieces- increases surface area- chewing, grinding, crushing (tongue)Chemical Digestion:Saltine cracker demonstration/mini lab. Starch maltose (enzyme amylase)- salivary glands release amylase(starch maltose)(works best at pH 8)Note: Epiglottis covers opening of trachea
12Which type of digestion is the following? Slide #10Chewing a saltine? -2. Saliva breaking the saltine down into molecules of glucose? -3. Your tongue breaking pieces of a hamburger apart?4. Pepsin (an enzyme) in your stomach breaking the hamburger into amino acids?MechanicalChemicalChemical---hydrolysisMechanicalChemical
13- connects pharynx to stomach - peristalsis Slide #11Esophagus:- connects pharynx to stomach- peristalsis(wave of muscular contractions ofalimentary canal)
15Stomach Factoids What stimulates gastric juice flow? 1) thought, Slide #13What stimulates gastric juice flow?1) thought,smell,sight,and taste2) food entering the stomach3) food touching stomach liningStomach Factoidsliquids pass through stomach in 20 minutesStill, the epithelium is continually eroded, and the epithelium iscompletely replaced by mitosis every three days.solids pass through in 2-6 hoursHunger pains are churning of empty stomachUlcer caused by excess gastric juice digestingpart of stomach wall
19Pancreatic juices from pancreas (*enzymes*) Slide #17LiverGallbladderFood mixes with:Bile from liverPancreatic juices from pancreas (*enzymes*)Intestinal juices from intestinal glands (*enzymes*)Bile:- produced by liver- stored in gallbadder- released into upper small intestineBreak down fat: inc. surface area for lipasesBile: acts like a soap to break down fat, no enzymesFunction:Emulsification of fats(break into droplets)Neutralizes acidic contents from stomach
21Circulatory System uses (CAPILLARIES) to absorb:: Absorption:Slide #18Circulatory System uses (CAPILLARIES) to absorb::simple sugars (glucose)amino acidsvitaminsminerals
22Adaptations that increase surface area of intestine: Length Slide #19Adaptations that increase surface area of intestine:Length(6.5 meters or 21 feet)Lining has foldsVilli (finger-like projections on folded lining)Surface area sponge demoAbsorption involves diffusion and active transport
23Slide #20Regent’s PracticeThe pancreas is an organ connected to the digestive tract of humans by a duct through which digestive enzymes flow. These enzymes are important to the digestive system because they:Form proteins needed in the stomachForm the acids that break down foodChange food substances into molecules that can pass into the bloodstream and cellsChange food materials into wastes that can be passed out of the body.
24No digestion occurs here Function: Absorption of water Large Intestine:ColonSlide #21Length = 1.5 metersDiameter = 6 cmNo digestion occurs hereFunction:Absorption of water- Diarrhea (too little absorption)- Constipation (too much absorption)Bacteria produce vitamin K and various vitamin BNote: Appendix is attached between small and largeintestine (vestigial organ)
26Large Intestine ( Colon Polyps_) Slide #23Large Intestine ( Colon Polyps_)Polyps are small growths on the inner colon lining that look like warts.
27Removal Colon Polyps_) Slide #24Removal Colon Polyps_)You may be more likely to get colon polyps if you:eat a lot of fatty foodssmokedrink alcoholdon’t exerciseweigh too much
28temporary storage of feces (stool) Rectum:Slide #25temporary storage of feces (stool)feces is primarily undigested materialAnus:(anal sphincter)releases waste into environment (egestion/defecate)
29End Products of Digestion (Hydrolysis) Slide #26End Products of Digestion (Hydrolysis)Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids amino acidsglucosefatty acids + glycerol
30Slide #27Regent’s PracticeOrganic compounds, such as proteins and starches, are too A to diffuse into cells. Proteins are digested to B and starches are digested to C.A. A- large, B-simple sugars, C- amino acidsB. A- small, B-simple sugars, C-amino acidsC. A-large, B-amino acids, C-simple sugarsD. A-small, B-amino acids, C-simple sugars
31Disorders of the Digestive Tract Slide #283 minute video on digestive disordersBody Atlas: Digestive Problems
32Heartburn ACID from the stomach backs up into the esophagus. Slide #29 Cardiac sphincter
33Constipation To much water is absorbed by the large intestine. Slide #30ConstipationTo much water is absorbed by the large intestine.Also can exist due to lack of roughage.Results in solid/hardened stool
34Diarrhea Results in an increased watery feces. Slide #31DiarrheaDecreased water absorption and increased peristaltic activity of large intestine.Results in an increased watery feces.
35Gallstones An accumulation of hardened cholesterol deposits in the Slide #32An accumulation of hardened cholesterol deposits in thegall bladder.Can either be “passed” (OUCH!!) or surgically removed
36Nutritional Requirements Slide #33Nutritional RequirementsRDA- recommended daily allowanceintake level of a nutrient considered sufficient
37Slide #34Nutritional requirements vary with individuals: age sex height weight activities37
38Recommended Daily Calories For Men Middle Age Group With Moderate Activity : Slide #355'42,5485'52,5965'62,6445'72,6925'82,7405'92,7885'102,8365'112,8846'02,9326'12,9806'23,0286'33,0766'43,1246'53,1726'63,22038
39Recommended Daily Calories For Women Middle Age Group With Moderate Activity : Slide #364'1190-1202,1005'093-1242,1335'197-1282,1775'22,2105'32,2545'42,2875'52,3315'62,3645'72,4085'82,4415'92,4855'102,5185'102,5185'112,5626'02,5956'12,6396'22,67239
40Fast Food Nutritional Info Slide #37Whopper w.Cheese CAL. Vanilla Shake – small 360 CALSuper Size Fries CALDiet Coke CALSupposed to be: CAL40