What are we going to cover? Puberty - What Is It? Common Teenage Challenges Acne Hormonal Disturbance The Toxins! Dietary Support
So What is Puberty? It all starts when the brain releases a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone, otherwise known as GnRH for short. This hormone causes the pituitary gland to release two more hormones, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
The age at which puberty occurs continues to drop Between 1840 to 1950 there was an average drop of 4 months per decade in age of female puberty In 1840 the UK the average age for start of menstruation was 16.5 years now 11.5 years – Puberty usually begins between the ages of 9 -13 years in girls, and 10 -15 years in boys
Is there a link with Obesity and Early Puberty? Yes, Phil McKenna (2007) linked obesity with puberty onset - breast development before 9 years and menarche before 12 years Later onset of puberty associated with: Lower protein and higher fibre intake (typical vegetarian diet) Calcium deficiency High levels of exercise
Menstruation: Mood swings Painful periods Common in teenagers and young adults Linked to build-up of prostaglandins in the lining of the uterus. Prostaglandins help the uterus to contract to shed the lining.Too many prostaglandins = too strong contractions = PAIN
Menstruation Irregular Heavy Anaemia Spots PMS PCOS Ovulation pain
Skin Health/Acne: Sebaceous glands produce oil to lubricate the skin Oil can become trapped, propiounus acne bacteria multiply and skin becomes inflamed Blackheads – sebum combines with skin pigments to plug the pores Whiteheads – scales below the surface of the skin become filled with sebum
Causes Hormones Lifestyle and Junk Food Hygiene
Hormonal Imbalances Androgens stimulate production of keratin and sebum: imbalance may lead to overproduction This overproduction has to be balanced by the correct rate of cell growth and shedding Artificial skin exfoliation scrubs may worsen the condition and trigger pore congestion, inflammation and bacterial challenge
Hormonal Oestrogen dominance can trigger monthly skin outbreaks, also links with acne and PCOS Prescription Drugs to rectify symptoms include antibiotics, steroids and oral contraceptives Oral contraceptive – could be used either ways to correct acne or generate it. Acne generated by the rebound of coming off could last up to 1 year.
Lifestyle: Eating Habits Hurried and irregular eating habits Too many refined carbohydrates and “ junk food ” Not enough fluid (of the right kind!)
Nutrient Robbers Two thirds of the average Western diet is made up of “ anti-nutrients ” or “ nutrient robbers ”. NRs can be defined as any foods or drinks that require more nutrients for the body to make use of it than the food itself provides.
Teenage Diet High in highly processed and refined foods – (i.e. “ starchy carbohydrates and white foods ” ) SugarAlcohol CaffeineSalt WheatCarbonated drinks Social poisonsEnvironmental toxins
THE TEENAGE DIET leads to reduced detoxification, poor gut health, a leaky gut and often comes hand in hand with symptoms including mental and physical health issues (depression, attention disorders, co-ordination issues, acne, hormonal and menstruation issues and sleep disorders to name a few)
Lets Talk Hygiene Can be too much or too little! Over- washing or repeated rubbing of skin causes irritant to the skin Too little leads to poor detoxification Body pH too high – fosters breeding of acne causing bacteria
Skin Care Skin Care: Often high in chemicals, especially phthalates, which are used in many cosmetics, toys, and plastic food containers. They can bind and trigger oestrogen receptors – mimicking role of oestrogen (Diana Zuckerman, 2001)
Additives to Products Other namesUsed as….Research Indicates Phthalates Dibutyl phthalate Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Butyl benzyl phthalate Plasticisers in moisturisers & skin penetration enhancers. Growing evidence that phthalates can contribute to allergic disease - linked to asthma. Interfere with reproductive development BHT Butylated hydroxytoluene An antioxidant preservative Possible allergen Linked to behavioural & reproductive problems Propylene glycol Propan-1,2-diolA moisture retention agentCan cause contact dermatitis Sodium lauryl sulphate Sodium lauryl sulfateA degreaser, emulsifying & soaping agent Skin, eye & respiratory tract irritant
Skin Care Alternatives: Hair removal: epilate, wax or suggest threading, rather than hair removal creams. Epsom salts in baths to cleanse and detoxify Natural Skin and shower product brand names: Jason, Oy! Lavera, A ’ kin, Simple, Liz Earle, Organic Pharmacy, Neal’s Yard to name but a few! Haircare: Naturetint Makeup: Inica, Alva, mypure.co.uk
Dentistry Teenagers often suffer from cavities and undergo cosmetic treatment i.e. “ braces ” cause heavy metal and mercury issues together with pain and poor food choices. To support this naturopathically Cranial McTimoney treatments and regular visit to the hygienist are ideal
More Lifestyle Issues Stress and peer pressure - exams and “ want, want,want, try, try, try! ” Body image issues – false nails, crazy dieting, anorexia, bulimia, obesity Recreational Drug and Smoking: High toxicity and poisons. Addiction can present itself – together with physical and mental poor health. Pharmaceutical drugs - antidepressants, paracetamol, contraceptives, steroids, antihistamines, antibiotics Alcohol: experimenting and binge drinking – affects blood sugar control
Sleep According to the American Sleep Disorders Association, the average teenager needs around 9.5 hours of sleep per night because hormones that are critical to growth and sexual maturation are released mostly during sleeping. However, most teenagers do not receive this amount and their circidian rhythm is affected.
Sleep Some teenagers experience a delay in the circadian timing system that results in a tendency for them to stay up later and sleep in later. Loss of sleep creates an overwhelming and uncontrollable need to sleep and affects virtually all physiological functions.
Sleep Sleep loss causes problems with memory and attention, complex thought, motor responses to stimuli, performance in school, and controlling emotions. Sleep loss may also alter thermoregulation and increase the risk for various physical and mental disorders.
Organs Systems Linked to Sleep Endocrine system. Most hormone secretion is controlled by the circadian clock or in response to physical events. Sleep is one of the events that modify the timing of secretion for certain hormones. Many hormones are secreted into the blood during sleep. For example, scientists believe that the release of growth hormone is related in part to repair processes that occur during sleep.
Endocrine System Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which are involved in maturational and reproductive processes, are among the hormones released during sleep. In fact, the sleep-dependent release of luteinizing hormone is thought to be the event that initiates puberty. Other hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone, are released prior to sleep.
Other systems CW WC WW CW WC WW CW WC WW · Renal system. Kidney filtration, plasma flow, and the excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium all are reduced during both NREM and REM sleep. These changes cause urine to be more concentrated during sleep. · Alimentary activity. Gastric acid secretion is reduced during sleep. In those with an active ulcer, gastric acid secretion is actually increased and swallowing occurs less frequently. Circadian Rhythm is our internal ‘ clock ’ It drives rhythms of behaviour and physiology Controlled by ‘ clock genes ’ Has a strong impact on energy metabolism (Landgraf D et al, 2011)
Sex and Contraceptives STDs Unexpected pregnancies and terminations Condoms The birth control pill, patch, implant,injection, intra-uterine devices (the coil), the cap/diaphragm
Contraceptive Implant Small flexible rod that is placed just under skin in upper arm. It releases a progestogen hormone and works for up to three years by stopping the ovaries from releasing an egg each month
Contraceptive Patch The contraceptive patch is approximately 5cm x 5cm in size. It releases two hormones – oestrogen and progestogen. You apply a new patch once a week, every week for three weeks (21 days). You then stop using the patch for seven days (patch-free week). Increases risk of venous thrombosis Increases risk of arterial thrombosis is teenager smokes or is diabetic or has hypertension, overweight, or suffer from migraines with aura.
Oral Contraceptives Not only given as a contraceptive but often for skin issues – especially acne.
Naturopathic Disadvantages: Side effects - weight gain, headaches, breast tenderness, mood changes, skin issues including acne. Does not protect against sexually transmitted infections All hormonal contraception appears to increase the risk of developing cancer. (breast, cervical, liver, pancreatic) Affects hormonal cycle - menstruation may change (stop, irregular or spotting, some heavier than before). If there is an underlying hormonal issues this will remain undetected - Increases risk of devleoping venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, heart attacks and strokes
Tattoos and piercings Very popular! Increases risk of Hepatitis, infection etc
Vaccines: These vaccinations are routinely available on the NHS for teenagers: The information below should not be construed as my opinion or recommendation.
Vaccines Teenage booster (Td/IPV) T etanus, diptheria and polio. Given at: between ages 13 and 18. C ervical cancer vaccination (HPV, or human papillomavirus vaccination) human papillomavirus which has been shown to cause cervical cancer in women. Given to girls aged 12-13 and presently 13 -18 as part of a catch-up programme
Non Routine Vaccines Meningitis (MenC) vaccine (meningococcal group C). Given: before going to university, or as soon as possible after starting. MMR vaccine Teenagers leaving home to go to college or university should be vaccinated with MMR if they missed out on this vaccination or didn ’ t complete the full course (two doses of MMR)
Non Routine Vaccinations Flu vaccine : I f one of the 'at-risk' categories. (diabetes, asthma that requires inhaled steroids, any serious long-term condition, kidney, liver or heart disease. Recommended for teenagers who take medication that affects their immune system) Given: every year starting from October/November. Hepatitis B vaccine : Teenagers who are injecting drug users, using crack cocaine, smoking heroin or likely to progress to injecting drug use; those living with injecting drug users; the sexual partners of injecting drug users; teenagers who change sexual partner frequently; teenagers travelling for extended periods to places where the disease is more common.Also recommended for teenagers with long-term kidney or liver conditions, or those receiving blood products. Given: before going to university or as soon as possible after starting (three doses of vaccine are given initially over a short period, then a fourth dose after 12 months).
Support Mechanisms : Vaccination is controversial. Become informed about its benefits and side effects so you can act wisely. Consider food choices – it does affect mind and mood! Recommend condoms and educate your children on natural methods of contraception Choose a holistic dentist and utilise hygenists and chiropractors Encourage children to exercise moderately and regularly Encourage regular sleep patterns Have a period of silence daily
Encourage A Balanced Diet Low Gi diet high in fibre, probiotics, Vit C and Zinc. Regular portions of protein based from nuts, seeds, pulses and beans, fish, seafood, lean meat and poultry (organic) with some wholegrains. Include a variety of fresh seasonal vegetables – raw or lightly cooked.Include fresh fruit – ideally seasonal and locally sourced Regular eating habits – eat together as a family Sit at a table and chew food properly. Encourage filtered water and herb teas.
A Balanced Diet Reduce junk food as much as possible. Recommend they consider before eating or drinking: does this eat, drink, move, breathe or grow? Keep a variety of fresh, healthy “ snacks ” in the house at all times and filtered water Maintain a home low in xeno-oestrogens/synthetic hormones and social poisons
Skin Foods Flaxseeds, alfafa and other fresh sprouted seeds, pumpkin, sunflower and seed snacks Water, herbal teas, beetroot juice, carrot and apple juice Almonds, Hazlenuts, Brazils and Pecans, Walnuts, Macademia Brown rice, chickpeas, lentils, beans, Olive oil and coconut oil or coconut butter Unsalted popcorn Tofu – silken or firm Seaweeds and sea vegetables, Wheatgrass, barley grass, spirulina etc Eggs
Acne and Skin Issues Detoxify - Toxins are eliminated via the skin Sluggish bowels – made worse through dehydration, low fibre, high inflammatory meat diets, imbalanced veggie diets … Poor gut health – bad bacteria overgrowth A study on male volunteers with acne showed a greater improvement in total lesion count with a low GI diet (Danby FW, 2008) “ Nutrition, particularly hyperglycaemic food and milk products, are directly involved in the pathogenesis of acne ” (Plewig G, 2010)
PMS and Hormonal issues– Hormone regulation through naturopathic methods Dietary - Balance blood sugar with balance of proteins and fresh vegetables with wholegrains Exercise – 1 hour daily moderate exercise Regular sleep patterns Good intake of fish or essential fatty acids B vits, zinc, magnesium, calcium
The Essentials Diet high in B complex (important for healthy skin tone and nerves), chromium to support blood sugar levels, vitamin A, beta carotene, E ( Strengthens membranes & improves capillary integrity, Anti oxidants - help prevent scarring, magnesium as to calm and hormonal regulation, and zinc (Required for synthesis of new DNA – new generation of cells, bacterial suppressor, helps regulate oil glands) *Essential fatty acids - Allow fluidity of cell membranes, Anti- inflammatory, *After 2 months supplementation with fish oils there was a marked reduction in “ period pains. ” Fish oil supplemented contained 1080mg EPA and 720mg DHA, (Harel Z et al, 1996). Include EPO or GLA oil – hormonal balance and helps keep skin soft
The Essentials Probiotic : Essential for immunity and should contain lacto acidophilus and bifido bacterium. 100,000 salmonella cells needed to cause illness with good flora but only 10 salmonella cells can cause the same result if this protection is lost!! Vitamin C plays an important role in collagen manufacture, is an antibacterial, antioxidant and anti inflammatory Vitamin D ideally from sunshine and daylight
The Naturopathic Approach Educating all with a balanced approach which includes Dietary health - natural foods and health remedies Lifestyle Exercise Sleep The importance of reflection and silence Laughter, love and happiness
Finally References; www.nhs.co.uk http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/sleep/guide/info- sleep.htmhttp://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/sleep/guide/info- sleep.htm mypure.co.uk, organicpharmacy.co.uk http://www.mercurymadness.org/viewdata.aspx?sectionid=14&dataid=48 Justine Evans BSs.N Med is a Naturopathic Nutritional Therapist who is available at The Conscious Health Centre. www.justineevans.co.uk