Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 7 Marine Animals sans Backbone. Where are we in geologic time? So are, we’ve moved from bacteria to plankton, and through some alage (seeweed).

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Marine Animals sans Backbone. Where are we in geologic time? So are, we’ve moved from bacteria to plankton, and through some alage (seeweed)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Marine Animals sans Backbone

2 Where are we in geologic time? So are, we’ve moved from bacteria to plankton, and through some alage (seeweed). Now we’ll examine primative animals without vertebrae.

3 How are we related??

4 Introduction Most (97%) of the amazing life which is located within the oceans, or anywhere else, doesn’t have a backbone!Most (97%) of the amazing life which is located within the oceans, or anywhere else, doesn’t have a backbone! In every class of invertebrate we can find a marine example…convenient, eh?In every class of invertebrate we can find a marine example…convenient, eh?

5 Summary of Invertebrates Sponges-spongeSponges-sponge Cnidarians- “jellyfish”Cnidarians- “jellyfish” Comb Jellies- comb jelliesComb Jellies- comb jellies Symmetrical Worms-flat, round, segmented wormsSymmetrical Worms-flat, round, segmented worms Molluscs-snails, clams, oysters, scallops, octopusesMolluscs-snails, clams, oysters, scallops, octopuses Arthropods-copepods, shrimp, and lobsterArthropods-copepods, shrimp, and lobster Echinoderms- seastars, brittlestarsEchinoderms- seastars, brittlestars

6 1. Sponges Phylum – Poriferia “pore bearers”Phylum – Poriferia “pore bearers” Loose aggregation of specialized cells.Loose aggregation of specialized cells. Cells do not actually form organs or tissues, but do serve similar functions, keeping the animal(s) alive.Cells do not actually form organs or tissues, but do serve similar functions, keeping the animal(s) alive.

7 Porifera-Sponges (the pore bearers) Spicules are like calcium carbonate or silica re-bar for sponges, providing support for a larger congregation.

8 Sponges Of the 6,000 known nearly all are marine.Of the 6,000 known nearly all are marine. Do they “sits and thinks, or do they just sits??”Do they “sits and thinks, or do they just sits??” Sponges are sessile and remain permanently attached to the substrate they alight upon.Sponges are sessile and remain permanently attached to the substrate they alight upon.

9 Sponges: Composition Ostia (tiny pores) – allow water to enter and circulate through series of canals where plankton and organic particles are filtered and eaten Ostia (tiny pores) – allow water to enter and circulate through series of canals where plankton and organic particles are filtered and eaten If cells separated, can even regroup and form new sponge If cells separated, can even regroup and form new sponge Flexible skeletal frame (spicules) gives spongy texture Flexible skeletal frame (spicules) gives spongy texture

10 Porifera-Sponges (the pore bearers) Spicules are like calcium carbonate or silica re-bar for sponges, providing support for a larger congregation.

11 Sponges: Composition Spicules are transparent and made of siliceous or calcareous supporting structures of different shapes and sizes Spicules are transparent and made of siliceous or calcareous supporting structures of different shapes and sizes Skeleton made of protein sponging Skeleton made of protein sponging Spicules, spongin, or bothSpicules, spongin, or both

12 Sponges: Composition Wandering cells, amebocytes, secrete spicules and sponging, transport and store food particles, and transform into other types of cells to quickly repair damage Wandering cells, amebocytes, secrete spicules and sponging, transport and store food particles, and transform into other types of cells to quickly repair damage

13 Porifera-Sponges (the pore bearers) Spicules are like calcium carbonate or silica re-bar for sponges, providing support for a larger congregation.

14 Still, if you carve ‘em up, they come back for more!! It’s more amazing than that. If you mix groups of sponges together, they will usually reorganize into their original groups.

15 Sponges: Feeding Outer surface covered with flat cells called pinacocytes and pore cells (porocytes) which allows water to enter Outer surface covered with flat cells called pinacocytes and pore cells (porocytes) which allows water to enter Water pumped into larger feeding chamber lined with collar cells (choanocytes) Water pumped into larger feeding chamber lined with collar cells (choanocytes) Each choanocytes have flagellum that creates currents and a thin collar that traps food particles, which is ingested by body of cell Each choanocytes have flagellum that creates currents and a thin collar that traps food particles, which is ingested by body of cell

16 Suspension feeding: natural water purification

17 Sponges: Feeding Water leaves through osculum, large opening at top of sponge Water leaves through osculum, large opening at top of sponge

18 RmPTM965-1c

19 Sponges: Reproduction Asexually Asexually If piece breaks off, it can form new spongeIf piece breaks off, it can form new sponge Sexually Sexually Specialized collar cells or amebocytes can turn into gametesSpecialized collar cells or amebocytes can turn into gametes Large nutrient rich egg and smaller sperm with flagellumLarge nutrient rich egg and smaller sperm with flagellum

20 Sponges: Reproduction Most are hermaphrodites Most are hermaphrodites Some have separate male and female organisms Some have separate male and female organisms Typically utilize broadcast spawning Typically utilize broadcast spawning Egg retained inside body until fertilizationEgg retained inside body until fertilization

21 Sponges: Reproduction Early development takes place inside Early development takes place inside Flagellated sphere of cells (larva), parenchymula, is planktonic Flagellated sphere of cells (larva), parenchymula, is planktonic Settles and metamorphosis into juvenile Settles and metamorphosis into juvenile

22 Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual Damage to a sponge can actually promote asexual reproduction, as “parts” can land elsewhere and form new sponges.

23 General Sponge Types Sponges fall into several basic categories, mostly depending on Shape, ranging from tropics to poles: branchingtubularroundencrustingglass boring (destructive) Hawaiian encrusting sponge Sclerosponge (CaCO 3 ) Ceratoporella nicholsoni

24 Sponges: Diversity Branching and Tubular – volcano-like masses Branching and Tubular – volcano-like masses Encrusting – thin and brightly colored on rocks Encrusting – thin and brightly colored on rocks Glass – anchored in deep water sediments Glass – anchored in deep water sediments Siliceous spicules (lace like)Siliceous spicules (lace like) Boring – bore into calcium carbonate (oysters and corals) Boring – bore into calcium carbonate (oysters and corals) Sclerosponges (coraline) – calcium carbonate skeleton forms beneath body of sponge Sclerosponges (coraline) – calcium carbonate skeleton forms beneath body of sponge

25 Sponges: Diversity Bath sponges Bath sponges Harvested in Gulf of Mexico and MediterraneanHarvested in Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Spongin are the fibers that remain after the death of the spongeSpongin are the fibers that remain after the death of the sponge


Download ppt "Chapter 7 Marine Animals sans Backbone. Where are we in geologic time? So are, we’ve moved from bacteria to plankton, and through some alage (seeweed)."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google