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IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Intelligent Fashion All Weather Clothing Dr. Sanjay Gupta, C Text FTI Professor, Fashion & Textiles National Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Intelligent Fashion All Weather Clothing Dr. Sanjay Gupta, C Text FTI Professor, Fashion & Textiles National Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Intelligent Fashion All Weather Clothing Dr. Sanjay Gupta, C Text FTI Professor, Fashion & Textiles National Institute of Fashion Technology, India

2 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 What exactly is All Weather Clothing? Temperature-regulating or thermo-regulating clothing Maintain both the core body temperature and the wearer comfort to the level that will maximize performance and protect the user

3 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Body regulates its own temperature At rest human body regulate body heat within an optimum temperature range called the thermo- neutral zone (~ 37+1 o C) using internal chemical reactions

4 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Human Thermo-regulation When body temperature extends beyond these limits, bodily systems operate less efficiently, and at extremes can even result in death

5 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Fabrics are not inherently Thermo-regulating Fabrics support the thermo-regulation efforts of the body Combinations of fabric construction, chemical finishes and garment construction can keep the body warmer or cooler Challenge is to adjust to wide range of external temperatures and activities

6 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Many Innovative Materials have been developed Most of them targets Thermo-regulation by addressing three main characteristics: Breath ability & Moisture Management Good Insulation Value Light Weight with Good Bulk

7 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Gore-Tex Constructed by laminating a waterproof bi-component membrane to a range of substrates Membrane is highly porous, and the 100 nm pores allow perspiration to escape but still confer protection from rain. Moisture Management

8 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Stomatex – Breathable Neoprene Maintains an elevated temperature to keep perspiration trapped in vapor form Trapped vapors are removed by the action of tiny pumps present in the material. Pumps are deformable chambers with an exit pore that work by virtue of the flexing of the fabric. The performance of the material is thus controlled to match the rate at which the wearer is perspiring. Moisture Management

9 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Stomatex.. In dry condition, the pumps efficiently evacuates sweat as it evaporates from the skin surface. In wet conditions in thermal vests, shorts, under dry suits and wet suits, Stomatex traps air in the chambers, which acting as an insulator, makes the garment warmer As Stomatex has the ability to remove excess heat and sweat, the suit does not allow the inside temperature to rise in or out of the water. Moisture Management

10 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Multi Layer Composite Yarns These yarns absorb sweat released from the human skin by an internal sweat absorbent layer. Moisture Management

11 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Multi Layer Composite Yarns The fine fibers in the middle have higher porosity & capillary action to move absorbed sweat to the yarn surface. The coarse polyester filament yarn in the yarn interior has a Y-shaped cross section in order to increase moisture absorption capacity. Moisture Management

12 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Phase change materials (PCM) When a material changes phase with increasing temperature, from solid to liquid state a large quantity of latent heat is absorbed. This heat is stored in the material in its liquid state and is released when the liquid is cooled back to the solid. PCMs like paraffin are microencapsulated and applied to materials INSULATION

13 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Phase change materials Outlast Technologies PCMs ‘thermocules’ absorb and release heat for increased comfort without compromising the fabric's inherent characteristics. INSULATION

14 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Shape memory materials These types of materials are those that can revert from the current shape to a previously held shape, usually due to the action of heat. When these materials are activated in garments, the air gaps between adjacent layers of clothing increases, giving better insulation. INSULATION

15 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Shape memory materials Thermal Shape Memory metals used as a fabric in a shirt with a long sleeve, which shorten immediately as the room temperature became a few degree hotter. The fabric can be screwed up into a hard ball, pleated and creased then just by a flux of hot air (even a hairdryer) pop back automatically to its former shape By Grado Zero Espace

16 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Shape memory materials For clothing applications, PU films made of SM polymers are enclosed between layers of clothing. When cold the film expands making the air gap between the layers broader, thereby improving insulation. The deformation reverses if the outer layer of clothing subsequently becomes warmer. Mitsubishi’s Diaplex is such a material INSULATION

17 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Aerogels Aerogels are produced through creation of gelatinous structures and then removal of all liquid without allowing any shrinkage. They are packed with microscopic insulative air pockets of silica, alumina, carbon etc of diameters < 100 nm so that no gas molecules or air can pass through, resulting in zero heat loss. Aspen Aerogels of US produce aerogel lining for extreme winter clothing, that is three times more effective than 3M's Thinsulate and 39 times more insulating than the best fiberglass insulation INSULATION

18 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Hollow Fibers Fibers of stinging nettle are hollow They can accumulate air inside thus creating a natural insulation. For summer, the yarn lengths are highly twisted closing the hollow core and reducing insulation. For winters yarns with a low twist are used. The hollow core of the fibers remains open maintaining a constant temperature. INSULATION

19 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Conductive Materials ECT (Electric Conductive Textile) is a carbonized glass fiber textile. Each filament of which is coated with a few nm of carbon. The carbon provides electrical conductivity and therefore electrical resistance. The textile can thus be used as an electric heating medium. Heat is distributed evenly over the entire surface of the textile with resistance varying between 10 and 3000 Ohm per square of surface area.

20 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Conductive Materials Gorix created by Robert Rix from South Yorkshire, is a high conductivity carbonised-fibre material. The material regulate its own temperature without a thermostat by sensing the voltage it is taking from a power source. With Gorix, an entire expanse of cloth is regulated, preventing "hot spots"

21 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Conductive Materials Fabroc by EXO² is a textile and polymer-based heating system that uses a combination of conductive yarn, braiding and carbon loaded silicon elements It can be applied to textiles, footwear, dry suits, back supports, custom heated gloves etc. Fabroc operates at very low voltages (typically volts), and is "intrinsically safe and totally adaptable"

22 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Innovative Materials: Conductive Materials The BMW Heated Vest plugs into a BMW power socket or the battery of any motorcycle. Its maximum heating performance requires 3.5 amps at 12 volts..less than that needed by most headlight bulbs. The carbon fiber fabric ensures a uniform distribution of heat Exceptional thermal insulation is achieved by vapor-depositing aluminum onto the waistcoat’s outer material.

23 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 In Conclusion There is enormous wealth of opportunities for Intelligent textiles in the clothing and fashion sector

24 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 In Conclusion Future developments will arise from active collaboration between people representing a whole variety of backgrounds and disciplines, including engineering, science, process development, design, commerce and marketing.

25 IFFTI Conference, Tokyo November’05 Thank you


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