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Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin BCM 410A - lecture 1 The body works at the.

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Presentation on theme: "Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin BCM 410A - lecture 1 The body works at the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin BCM 410A - lecture 1 The body works at the molecular level Molecules are organized into cells Cells are organized into organs Small molecules in the body Biological macromolecules

2 Instructors: Michael J. Holland BCM 410A - vital statistics

3 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews Welcome to BCM 410A

4 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Welcome to BCM 410A

5 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Welcome to BCM 410A

6 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A

7 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm

8 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A

9 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A telephone:752-3570

10 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A telephone:752-3570 email:hrmatthews@ucdavis.edu

11 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A telephone:752-3570 email:hrmatthews@ucdavis.edu reviews:Tuesdays, 5:00 pm, 2428/30

12 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A telephone:752-3570 email:hrmatthews@ucdavis.edu reviews:Tuesdays, 5:00 pm, 2428/30 study aids:MoBy

13 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A telephone:752-3570 email:hrmatthews@ucdavis.edu reviews:Tuesdays, 5:00 pm, 2428/30 study aids:MoBy lecture “slides”

14 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A telephone:752-3570 email:hrmatthews@ucdavis.edu reviews:Tuesdays, 5:00 pm, 2428/30 study aids:MoBy lecture “slides” WWW sites:http://moby.ucdavis.edu

15 Instructors: Michael J. Holland Harry R. Matthews John W.B. Hershey Larry Hjelmeland Michael Hanley Welcome to BCM 410A office hours: noon - 12:45 pm and 4:30 - 5:30 pm office:room 4125 MS1A telephone:752-3570 email:hrmatthews@ucdavis.edu reviews:Tuesdays, 5:00 pm, 2428/30 study aids:MoBy lecture “slides” WWW sites:http://moby.ucdavis.edu http://medtstgo.ucdavis. edu/Resource.htm

16 Our food is broken down to small molecules before use by the body Organs and cells communicate through molecules circulating in the blood stream—hormones Molecules can have dramatic effects—drugs Energy is stored(glycogen, fat), transported (triglycerides, glucose) used (ATP) at the molecular level. Our food is broken down to small molecules before use by the body Organs and cells communicate through molecules circulating in the blood stream—hormones Molecules can have dramatic effects—drugs Energy is stored(glycogen, fat), transported (triglycerides, glucose) used (ATP) at the molecular level. The body works at the molecular level

17 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle

18 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Golgi complex: a structure where proteins are processed and sorted on their way to other organelles or to the exterior of the cell.

19 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Nucleus: a separate compartment containing the DNA and the processes of RNA and DNA synthesis

20 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Mitochondria: structures involved in the synthesis of ATP to provide energy for the cell

21 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Nuclear envelope: the membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm Cytoplasm: the solution between the plasma membrane and the other organelles

22 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Plasma membrane: the membrane that separates the interior of the cell from its exterior

23 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: cytoplasmic membrane structure

24 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Ribosomes: macromolecular complexes that synthesize proteins ribosomes

25 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Pore complex: pores in the nuclear membrane that allow small molecules to pass but regulate the passsage of large molecules pore complex

26 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicle Nucleolus: a structure inside the nucleus where specific RNA molecules are synthesized nucleolus

27 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus vesicle Rough endoplasmic reticulum: regions of the endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) that are coated with ribosomes rough endoplasmic reticulum

28 Molecules are organized into cells Golgi complex nucleus mitochondrion nuclear envelope plasma membrane smooth endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes pore complex nucleolus rough endoplasmic reticulum Vesicle: a variety of additional structures in the cytoplasm used for storage or transport or specialized enzyme reactions, e.g. lysozomes, peroxisomes vesicle

29 Molecules are organized into cells Note: plasma membrane Cell from the pancreas

30 Molecules are organized into cells Note: plasma membrane mitochondria Cell from the pancreas

31 Molecules are organized into cells Note: plasma membrane mitochondria nucleus Cell from the pancreas

32 Molecules are organized into cells Note: plasma membrane mitochondria nucleus nucleolus Cell from the pancreas

33 Molecules are organized into cells Note: plasma membrane mitochondria nucleus nucleolus endoplasmic reticulum Cell from the pancreas

34 Molecules are organized into cells Note: plasma membrane mitochondria nucleus nucleolus endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex Cell from the pancreas

35 human lymphocyte מיטוכונדריה גופיף גולג’י ממברנה פלסמטית גרעין רטיקולום אנדופלסמט י

36 Cells are organized into organs hormone molecules Cell of endocrine gland Target cells Capilliary network Note 3 organ systems in picture (a): i) endocrine gland ii) blood stream iii) target organ (a)

37 Cells are organized into organs hormone molecules Neurosecretory cells Target cells Capilliary network Note 3 organ systems in picture (b): i) neurosecretory cells ii) blood stream iii) target organ (b) Stimulus

38 Myocardial infarction Creatine kinase (CK) activity in the blood after a myocardial infarction days after infarction

39 Clinical correlate - dwarfism growth hormone A defect in the pituitary can lead to inadequate production of growth hormone. Children with this disease grow very slowly but injections of human growth hormone restore normal growth.

40 Aspirin - a clinically valuable small molecule acetyl salicylate acetyl group

41 Aspirin - a clinically valuable small molecule prostaglandin synthase inflammation

42 Aspirin - a clinically valuable small molecule acetyl salicylate + enzyme - NH 2 + enzyme - NH - CO - CH 3 salicylate prostaglandin synthase acetylated prostaglandin synthase

43 Aspirin - a clinically valuable small molecule + enzyme - NH - CO - CH 3 acetylated prostaglandin synthase inflammation prostaglandin synthase + enzyme - NH 2

44 Aspirin - a clinically valuable small molecule acetyl salicylate + enzyme - NH 2 + enzyme - NH - CO - CH 3 salicylate prostaglandin synthase acetylated prostaglandin synthase inflammation

45 methyl groups hydroxyl groups carbonyl groups carboxyl groups amino groups Small molecules in the body Common building blocks for small molecules :

46 Small molecules in the body Common building blocks for small molecules : methyl groups hydroxyl groups carbonyl groups carboxyl groups amino groups -CH 3 CH 3 -CH 2 -OH ethanol

47 Small molecules in the body Common building blocks for small molecules : methyl groups hydroxyl groups carbonyl groups carboxyl groups amino groups -OH CH 3 -CH 2 -OH ethanol

48 Small molecules in the body Common building blocks for small molecules : methyl groups hydroxyl groups carbonyl groups carboxyl groups amino groups -C=O H aldehyde -C=O ketone

49 Small molecules in the body Common building blocks for small molecules : methyl groups hydroxyl groups carbonyl groups carboxyl groups amino groups O -C-OH -C-O - O -COO - NH 3 -CH 2 -COO - + glycine

50 Small molecules in the body Common building blocks for small molecules : methyl groups hydroxyl groups carbonyl groups carboxyl groups amino groups -NH + 3 -NH 2 NH 3 -CH 2 -COO - + glycine

51 Small molecules in the body Four classes of small molecules : sugars fatty acids amino acids nucleotides

52 Small molecules in the body Four classes of small molecules : sugars fatty acids amino acids nucleotides glucose

53 Small molecules in the body Four classes of small molecules : sugars fatty acids amino acids nucleotides stearic acid A hydrocarbon chain with a distinct head group, in this case a carboxyl group.

54 Small molecules in the body Four classes of small molecules : sugars fatty acids amino acids nucleotides NH 3 -CH 2 -COO - + glycine

55 Small molecules in the body Four classes of small molecules : sugars fatty acids amino acids nucleotides adenosine-5’- triphosphate switch to MoBy

56 Biological Macromolecules main chain crosslink branch

57 Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin Drugs - ethanol Dwarfism Myocardial infarction Aspirin BCM 410A - lecture 1 The body works at the molecular level Molecules are organized into cells Cells are organized into organs Small molecules in the body Biological macromolecules


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