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Cells The smallest unit of life. Discovering the Cell 1665 - Robert Hooke.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells The smallest unit of life. Discovering the Cell 1665 - Robert Hooke."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells The smallest unit of life

2 Discovering the Cell Robert Hooke

3 Anton van Leeuwenhoek - late 17th, early 18th centuries

4 1839 – Cell Theory is proposed independently by Theodore Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden.

5 Cell Theory: The cell is the fundamental structure of all living things. All living things are made of cells. Cells arise from pre-existing cells through cell division.

6 Ernst Ruska

7 Light micrograph Scanning electron micrograph Paramecium

8 Cell Membrane Transmission electron micrograph Scanning electron micrograph

9 Prokaryotic Cells


11 Prokaryotic Features No _______________ ___________, such as a nucleus. DNA in one large ring-shaped chromosome An enormous variety of metabolic pathways. Highly successful and adaptable.

12 External structure _______ (spherical) _________ (spiral)___________ (rod-shaped)

13 Internal Structure Figure 4-20a Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. ____________ (nucleoid region) ______________ cytosol ___________________ ______________ ________or slime layer prokaryotic flagellum food granule ribosomes pili

14 True or False: A virus is a kind of bacteria. 1.True 2.False

15 Viruses A virus is usually not considered living. A virus consists only of a protein coat (sometimes with a lipid outer layer) and a piece of genetic material (DNA or RNA).

16 Bacteria vs. Virus FeaturesBacteriaVirus Reproduces independently? Has genetic material? Has cell membrane? Has metabolism? Living?

17 Eukaryotic Cells

18 Eukaryotic Features Cells contain ________________ ________________. _________ holds multiple strands of _____, which condense into _______________ during cell division. May be single-celled or multi-cellular organisms.

19 Figure 4-3 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. ___________________ _________________ cytosol lysosome ribosomes on rough ER centriole ___________________ ________________ nuclear pore nuclear envelope chromatin (DNA) nucleolus _______________ ___________________ free ribosome _________ Animal cell

20 Plant Cell - same organelles as an animal cell, plus a few more ribosomesfree ribosome nuclear pore nuclear envelope chromatin (DNA) nucleolus ______ smooth endoplasmic reticulum vesicle rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus __________________ _____________________plastid _____________ plasmodesma _________________ central vacuole cytosol

21 Things we will see in cells First let’s focus on things we can see using a light microscope and ordinary stains: Cell nucleus Cell membrane Cell wall Plastids (Chloroplast, amyloplast, chromoplast) Plant cell vacuole

22 Figure 4-9a Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. nuclear pores nuclear envelope chromatin ____________ Nucleus

23 Cell Wall _________ cell wall middle _________ _______ cell wall

24 Chloroplast _______ ________ membrane ________ membrane channel interconnecting thylakoids 1 micrometer ______ granum (stack of thylakoids)

25 Amyloplasts and other plastids starch globules 0.5 micrometer plastid

26 Protein-making Machinery Information for making proteins is in _____, stored in the ___________. An ______ copy is made in the nucleus and sent out to the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Proteins leave the ER and are finished and packaged in the _____ ___________.

27 Figure 4-12 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. ___________ ____________ER ____________ Endoplasmic Reticulum

28 Figure 4-13 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. Protein-carrying vesicles from ER merge with Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Vesicles carrying modified protein leave Golgi apparatus Golgi Apparatus

29 Figure 4-14 Biology: Life on Earth 8/e ©2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc. 1 A protein is synthesized in the rough ER. 5 Vesicles merge with the plasma membrane and release protein by exocytosis. 4 Completed protein is packaged into vesicles. 3 Vesicles fuse with Golgi. The protein may be altered and finished. 2 Protein is packaged into vesicles and travels to Golgi apparatus. ER and Golgi function

30 Organelles in Cell Energy Chloroplasts capture energy from the sun and use that energy to manufacture sugars (chemical energy storage). Mitochondria break the bonds in sugars and release the energy that was stored there.

31 Mitochondrion _________ ___________ membrane __________ membrane intermembrane compartment 0.2 micrometer _______

32 Single-Celled Organisms Single-celled organisms carry out the same functions that our multicellular bodies do, but all within a single cell. How do they do it?

33 One-celled Eukaryotic organisms have unique challenges. A Paramecium must: ingest food excrete waste sense and respond to the environment

34 (a) Cilium (b) Flagellum propulsion of fluid return strokepower stroke plasma membrane direction of locomotionpropulsion of fluid continuous propulsion

35 cilium Paramecium 0.1 micrometer protein "arms" central pair of microtubules section of cilium (transmission EM) basal body plasma membrane

36 contractile vacuole full reservoir contracted reservoir

37 pore collecting ducts central reservoir Reservoir contracts, expelling water through pore. Water enters collecting ducts, fills central reservoir.

38 Recap Prokaryotic cells have no membrane- bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, which compartmentalize processes for better efficiency. ALL cells have a cell membrane and DNA.

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