Cell membrane pore A side view of a pore (blue dots) in the water- channel protein AQP1, which pierces the cell membrane. Cell exterior is at top, interior at bottom. The pore is about 2.8 angstroms across at its narrowest.
Advantages of nanoparticles Advantage of nanoparticles - To deliver more effectively: Enhance amount permeate at favorable site, sustain release of actives, increase mucoadhesive (liposome, neosome, nanoparticle, microemulsion, nanoemulsion) - To deliver more effectively: Enhance amount permeate at favorable site, sustain release of actives, increase mucoadhesive (liposome, neosome, nanoparticle, microemulsion, nanoemulsion) - Nano-powder (Zno, TiO 2 etc) - Carbon nanotube
Limited Experimental toxicology of manufactured nanomaterials reported to date Fullerenes Carbon nanotube Metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO 2 )
Eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond, b) Graphite, c) Lonsdaleite, d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene or buckyball), e) C540, f) C70, g) Amorphous carbon, and h) single-walled carbon nanotube or buckytube.carbon DiamondGraphite LonsdaleiteBuckminsterfullerene buckyballAmorphous carboncarbon nanotubebuckytube
Research work in nanoparticles toxicology Use carbon single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) as model SWCT do not induce cell damage but stimulate fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis→ Lung Fibrosis Small well disperse SWCNT penetrate lung tissue more efficiently than agglomeration SWCT induce angiogenesis
Nanomaterialization of Chitin- chitosan: Approaches and potential applications Nanomaterials: the materials which exhibit the special properties due to the function in nanometer range
Formation of nanomaterials Molecolar Architecture: Building from molecular components, Chemical modification Size reduction: Constructing from large entities, Depolymerization
Chitosan Nanosphere Synthesis - Organic base system: mPEG grafted phthaloylchitin - Water base system: Chitosan-mPEG-CA