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1 Chapter 4 Efficiency of a Displacement Process

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EOR-Chapter 42 Efficiency of a Displacement Process Introduction Microscopic Displacement of Fluid in a Reservoir Macroscopic Displacement of Fluids in a Reservoir

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EOR-Chapter 23 Efficiency of a Displacement Process Trapped Oil = (Microscopic Efficiency) × (Volumetric Efficiency) = (Microscopic Efficiency) × (Volumetric Efficiency) Production Injection

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EOR-Chapter 24 Overall Displacement Efficiency Where; E =overall hydrocarbon displacement efficiency,the volume of hydrocarbon displaced divided by the volume of hydrocarbon in place at the start of the process measured at the same conditions of pressure and temperature = Macroscopic (Volumetric) displacement efficiency = Microscopic (Volumetric) hydrocarbon displacement efficiency.

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EOR-Chapter 25 Microscopic & Macroscopic sweep efficiencies

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EOR-Chapter 26 Efficiency of a Displacement Process Macroscopic Displacement Where; = Overall displacement efficiency = Overall displacement efficiency = Macroscopic displacement efficiency = Microscopic displacement efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 27 However, = Areal Sweep efficiency = Lateral Sweep efficiency Efficiency of a Displacement Process

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EOR-Chapter 28 Therefore, using all these definitions, the oil recovery equation is To use this equation we must have methods to evaluate the different efficiencies. Estimates are available from: Correlations Scaled laboratory experiments Numerical simulation Oil Recovery Equation

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EOR-Chapter 29 Oil Recovery Equation and is the volumetric sweep efficiency defined as typical values of the overall recovery efficiency are: Steam injection 30%-50% Polymer injection 30%-55% CO 2 injection 30%-65% Solvent injection 35%-63%

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EOR-Chapter 210 Action on Sweep Efficiency at the Macroscopic Scale By increasing water viscosity Polymer flooding By decreasing the oil viscosity Steam drive In-situ combustion Carbon dioxide drive Action on Displacement Efficiency at the Pore Scale Miscible hydrocarbon gas flooding Surfactant flooding By using a miscible displacing fluid By reducing the interfacial tension By action on the rock wettability Alkaline flooding Action on Sweep & Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 211 Microscopic efficiency largely determines the success or failure of any EOR process. For crude oil it is reflected in the magnitude of Sor ( i.e., the residual oil saturation remaining in the reservoir rock at the end of the process). Microscopic Displacement of Fluids

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EOR-Chapter 212 This efficiency is measured directly from a coreflood (since =1). It can also be evaluated from the Buckley-Leveret (or fractional flow theory). For an immiscible displacement is bounded by a residual phase saturation of the displaced phase Sor. Miscible displacements eliminate - in principle - Displacement Sweep Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 213 Example Initial oil saturation, S oi, is 0.60 and S or in the swept region for a typical water flood is 0.30 E D = (S oi – S or ) / S oi E D = ( 0.60 – 0.30 ) / 0.60 E D =0.50 A typical waterflood sweep efficiency, E v, at the economic limit is Therefore, E =E D E V = 0.50 X 0.70 = 0.35

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EOR-Chapter 214 Important factors relating to microscopic displacement behavior Capillary Forces Surface Tension and IFT Solid Wettability Capillary Pressure Viscous Forces

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EOR-Chapter 215 Important factors relating to microscopic displacement behavior Capillary forces have a detrimental effect, being responsible for the trapping of oil within the pore. Trapping is a function of the ratio of Viscous to Capillary forces. The residual oil saturation decreases as the ratio (Viscous force/ Capillary force) increases.

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EOR-Chapter 216 Capillary Forces: Surface Tension and IFT Whenever immiscible phases coexist in a porous as in essentially all processes of interest, surface energy related to the fluid interfaces influences the saturations, distributions and displacement of the phases. Sand Grain Oil Connate Water Close up of oil water between grains of rock

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EOR-Chapter 217 Capillary Forces: Surface Tension and IFT The surface force, which is a tensile force, is quantified in terms of surface tension L Liquid Air or Vapor The force per unit length required to create additional surface area is the surface tension, usually expressed in dynes/cm.

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EOR-Chapter 218 Capillary Forces: Surface Tension and IFT The term “surface tension” usually is reserved for the specific case in which the surface is between a liquid and its vapor or air. If the surface is between two different liquids, or between liquid and solid, the term “interfacial tension” is used. The surface tension of water in contact with its vapor at room temperature is about 73 dynes/cm. IFT’s between water and pure hydrocarbons are about 30 to 50 dynes/cm at room temperature.

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EOR-Chapter 219 Capillary Forces: Surface Tension and IFT One of the simplest ways to measure the surface tension of liquid is to use a capillary tube. At the static condition the force owing to surface tension will be balanced by the force of gravity acting on the column of fluid.

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EOR-Chapter 220 Capillary Forces- Solid Wettability Fluid distribution in porous media are affected not only by the forces at fluid/fluid interfaces, but also by force of fluid/solid interfaces. Wettability is the tendency of one fluid to spread on or adhere to a solid surface in the presence of a second fluid. When two immiscible phases are placed in contact with a solid surface, one phase is usually attracted to the solid more strongly than the other phases. The more strongly attracted phase is called the wetting phase.

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EOR-Chapter 221 Capillary Forces- Solid Wettability Rock wettability affects the nature of fluid saturations and the general relative permeability characteristics of a fluid/rock system. The following figure shows residual oil saturations in a strongly water-wet and a strongly oil-wet rock. Water-wet SystemOil-wet System

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EOR-Chapter 222 Capillary Forces- Solid Wettability Wettability can be quantitatively treated by examining the interfacial forces that exist when two immiscible fluid phases are in contact with a solid. Water

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EOR-Chapter 223 Wettability Where,, = IFT’s between water and oil, oil and solid, and water and solid respectively, dynes/cm., contact angle, measured through the water

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EOR-Chapter 224 Capillary Forces- Capillary Pressure A pressure difference exists across the interface. This pressure, called Capillary pressure can be illustrated by fluid rise in capillary tube. The figure shows rise in a glass capillary. The fluid above the water is an oil, and because the water preferentially wets the glass of the capillary, there is a capillary rise.

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EOR-Chapter 225 Capillary Pressure Equation The difference pressure between oil water at the oil/water interface

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EOR-Chapter 226 Capillary Forces- Capillary Pressure Capillary pressure is related to the fluid/ fluid IFT Relative permeability of fluids (through ) Size of capillary (through r) The phase with the lower pressure will always be the phase that preferentially wets the capillary. Pc varies inversely as a function of the capillary radius and increases as the affinity of the wetting phase for the rock surface increases.

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EOR-Chapter 227 Viscous Force Viscose forces in a porous medium are reflected in the magnetude of the pressure drop that occurs as a result of fluid flow through porous medium. One of the simplest approximations used to calculate the viscous force is to consider a porous medium as a bundle of parallel capillary tubes. With this assumption, the pressure drop for laminar flow through a single tube is given by Poiseuille’s law.

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EOR-Chapter 228 Viscous Force Capillary Number Water floods typically operates at conditions where Nca < 10 -6, and Nca values on the order of are probably most common.

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EOR-Chapter 229 Displacement Sweep Efficiency is a function of Mobility ratios Throughput or Transmissibility Wettability Dip angle Capillary number

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EOR-Chapter 230 All sweep efficiencies can be increased by decreasing the mobility ratio by either: i.e. steam flooding Oil recovery would still be limited by the residual or trapped oil saturation. Methods that target to reduce this saturation include solvent flooding. Increasing i.e. polymer flooding Lowering Displacement Sweep Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 231 Experimental evidence suggests that under most conditions the residual oil saturation (usually a non-wetting phase) can be as large as the wetting phase saturation. The relationship between trapping wetting or non-wetting phase and a local capillary number indicates experimental evidence of trapping in a permeable media. This relationship is called the capillary desaturation curve. The local capillary number is Where = interfacial tension between displacing and displaced fuid u = displacing superficial velocity = displacing fluid viscosity Trapped Oil Saturation

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EOR-Chapter 232 Typical capillary desaturation curve Trapped Oil Saturation

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EOR-Chapter 233 Note that it is required a substantial increase in the capillary number to reduce the residual oil saturation. The capillary number can be increased by either. Lowering interfacial tension miscible/solvent methods Increasing viscosity of displacing fluid polymer flooding. There are physical, technical and economic limits of how much can the displacing fluid viscosity and velocity be increased, thus solvent methods are the natural choice to increase the capillary number and therefore lower the residual oil saturation Capillary desaturation curves are also affected by wettability, and pore size distribution. Trapped Oil Saturation

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EOR-Chapter 234 Viscous Force Viscous forces in a porous medium can be expressed in terms of Darcy’s law:

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EOR-Chapter 235 Calculation of pressure gradient for viscous oil flow in a rock

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EOR-Chapter 236 Example: Calculation of pressure gradient for viscous oil flow in a rock Calculate the pressure gradient for flow of an oil with 10 cp viscosity at an interstitial flow rate of 1 ft/D. the rock permeability is 250 md and the porosity is 0.2. Solution:

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EOR-Chapter 237 Example: pressure required to force an oil trap through a pore throat Calculate the threshold pressure necessary to force an oil trap through a pore throat that has a forward radius of 6.2 micro meter and radius of 15 micro meter. Assume that the wetting contact angle is zero and IFT is 25 dynes/sec. PB-PA=2*25(1/ /0.0015)= dynes/cm *1.438*10^-5= psi

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EOR-Chapter 238 Macroscopic Displacement of Fluids in Reservoir Volumetric Displacement Efficiency & Material Balance Volumetric Displacement Efficiency Expression Definition & Discussion of Mobility Ratio Areal Displacement Efficiency Correlations Vertical Displacement Efficiency Volumetric Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 239 Macroscopic Displacement of Fluids In a Reservoir Introduction Oil recovery in any displacement process depends on the volume of reservoir contacted by the injected fluid. A quantitative measure of this contact is the volumetric displacement (sweep) efficiency defined as the fraction of reservoir (or project )PV that has been contacted or affected by the injected fluid. Clearly, is a function of time in a displacement process. Overall displacement efficiency in a process can be viewed conceptually as a product of the volumetric sweep,,and the microscopic efficiency,

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EOR-Chapter 240 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency and Material Balance Volumetric displacement,or sweep efficiency, is often used to estimate oil recovery by use of material-balance concepts. for example, consider a displacement process that reduces the initial oil saturation to a residual saturation in the region contacted by the displacing fluid. If the process is assumed to be piston-like, the oil displaced is given by Where ; = oil displaced, = oil saturation at the beginning of the displacement process, = residual oil saturation at the end of the process in the volume of reservoir contacted by the displacing fluid, = FVF at initial conditions, = FVF at the end of the process, and = reservoir PV

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EOR-Chapter 241 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency and Material Balance Where; =OOIP at the beginning of the displacement process. if displacement performance data are available, above Eq. also can be used to estimate volumetric sweep. For example, if waterflood recovery data are available, the equation can be rearranged to solve for

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EOR-Chapter 242 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency and Material Balance Where = oil produced in the waterflood.

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EOR-Chapter 243 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency Volumetric Displacement Efficiency Expressed as the product of Areal and Vertical Displacement Efficiencies Volumetric sweep efficiency can be considered conceptually as the product of the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Consider a reservoir that has uniform porosity,thickness,and hydrocarbon saturation, but that consists of several layers. For a displacement process conducted in the reservoir, can be expressed as

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EOR-Chapter 244 Where ; All efficiencies are expressed as fractions. is the volumetric sweep efficiency of the region confined by the largest areal sweep efficiency in the system. For a real reservoir, in which porosity,thickness,and hydrocarbon saturation vary areally, is replaced by a pattern sweep efficiency, Volumetric Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 245 Where ; =pattern sweep (displacment)efficiency,hydrocarbon pore space enclosed behind the injected-fluid front divided by total hydrocarbon pore space in the pattern or reservoir a real reservoir. In essence, is an ideal sweep efficiency that has been corrected for variations in thickness,porosity,and saturation. In either case, overall hydrocarbon recovery efficiency in a displacement process may be expressed as Volumetric Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 246 This figure illustrates the concept of the vertical and areal sweep efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 247 The following figure illustrate the definition of areal sweep efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 248 These correlations are for piston like displacements in homogeneous, confined patterns. When the well patterns are unconfined, the total area can be much lager and smaller. Areal Sweep Efficiency The most common source of areal sweep efficiency data is from displacements in scaled physical models. Several correlations exist in the literature. Craig (1980) in his SPE monograph “the reservoir engineering aspects of waterflooding” discusses several of these methods. Oil Recovery Equation

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EOR-Chapter 249 AREAL SWEEP EFFICIENCY When oil is produced from patterns of injectors and producers, the flow is such that only part of the area is swept at breakthrough. the expansion of the water bank is initially radial from the injector but eventually is focused at the producer. The pattern is illustrated for a direct line drive at a mobility ratio of unity.At breakthrough a considerable area of the reservoir is unswept.

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EOR-Chapter 250 Parameters Affecting The following definitions are needed to describe the effects of reservoir and fluid properties upon the efficiencies: Mobility Ratio Dimensionless Time Viscous Fingering Injection/Production well pattern Reservoir permeability heterogeneity Vertical Sweep Efficiency Gravity Effect Gravity/ Viscous Force Ratio

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EOR-Chapter 251 Mobility Definition The mechanics of displacement of one fluid with another are controlled by differences in the ratio of effective permeability and viscosity The specific discharge (flow per unit cross sectional area) for each fluid phase depends on This is called the fluid mobility ( ):

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EOR-Chapter 252 Mobility Control Mobility controls the relative ease with which fluids can flow through a porous medium. = mobility of the displacing fluid phase = mobility of the displaced fluid phase

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Mobility ratio The mobility ratio is an extremly important parameter in any displacement process. It affects both areal and vertical sweep, with sweep decreasing as M increases for a given volume of fluid injected. M <1 then favorable displacement M >1 then unfavorable displacement EOR-Chapter 253

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EOR-Chapter 254 Dimensionless Time This variable is used to scale-up between the laboratory and the field. The dimensionless time is defined as the There are various definitions for the reference pore volume according to the application.

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EOR-Chapter 255 Viscous Fingering The mechanics of displacing one fluid with another are relatively simple if the displaced fluid (oil) has a tendency to flow faster than the displacing fluid (water). Under these circumstances, there is no tendency for the displaced fluid to be overtaken by the displacing fluid and the fluid – fluid (oil-water) interface is stable.

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EOR-Chapter 256 Viscous Fingering If the displacing fluid has a tendency to move faster than the displaced fluid, the fluid-fluid interface is unstable. tongues of displacing fluid propagate at the interface. This process is called viscous fingering.

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EOR-Chapter 257 Viscous Fingering - Decreases when the mobility ratio increases because the displacement front becomes unstable. This phenomena, known as viscous fingering results in an early breakthrough for the displacing fluid, or into a prolonged injection to achieve sweep-out. The next figure illustrates this phenomena, which is commonly observed in solvent flooding.

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EOR-Chapter 258 Flooding Patterns

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EOR-Chapter 259 Flooding Patterns

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EOR-Chapter 260 Flooding Patterns

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EOR-Chapter 261 Permeability Heterogeneity It is often has a marked effect on areal sweep. This effect may be quite different from reservoir to reservoir, however, and thus it is difficult to develop generalized correlations. Anisotropy in permeability has great effect on the efficiency.

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EOR-Chapter 262 Effect of Mobility Ratio The following figures show fluid fronts at different points in a flood for different mobility ratios. These results are based on photographs taken during displacements of one colored liquid by second, miscible colored liquid in a scaled model.

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EOR-Chapter 263 Correlations Based on Miscible Fluids, Five-Spot Pattern. Figure 1 shows fluid fronts at different points in a flood for different mobility Ratios. The Viscosity Ratio varied in different floods and, because only one phase was present, M is given by Equation. Correlations Based on ….

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EOR-Chapter 264 Figure-1: Miscible displacement in a quarter of a five-spot pattern at mobility ratios<=1.0 M=0.151 M=1.0 Breakthrough Pore Volumes Injected Injection well Producing well

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EOR-Chapter 265 M=2.40 PV BT M= PV PRODUCING WELL PV=PORE VOLUME INJECTED X INJECTION WELL BT=BREAKTHROUGH Figure 2: Miscible displacement in a quarter of a five-spot pattern at mobility ratios>1.0,viscous fingering (from Habermann)

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EOR-Chapter 266 M=17.3 M=71.5 BT PRODUCING WELL PV=PORE VOLUME INJECTED X INJECTION WELL BT=BREAKTHROUGH Figure-3: Miscible displacement in a quarter of a five-spot pattern at mobility ratios>1.0,viscous fingering (from Habermann)

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EOR-Chapter 267 Habermann presented values of E A as a function of dimensionless PVs injected,Vi/Vp,after breakthrough, as shown in Figure 4 Results are given for M=0.216 (favorable) to 71.5 (unfavorable). Correlations Based on Miscible Fluids, Other Patterns Numerous modeling studies for patterns other than a five-spot have been reported. Craig gives a summery listing of references. As an example of such studies, Figure 5 shows one reported result of areal sweep as a function of mobility ratio for one-eighth of a nine-spot pattern. Correlations Based on ….

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EOR-Chapter 268 Pore Volume Injected, Vi/ Vp Figure-4: Areal sweep efficiency after breakthrough as a function of mobility ratio and PVs injected Areal Sweep Efficiency, EA%

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EOR-Chapter 269 Correlation Based on Miscible Fluids Numerous modeling studies for patterns other than a five-spot have been reported. One-eight of a nine-spot pattern is shown as an example. This study was conducted with miscible liquids and the X-ray shadowgraph method

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EOR-Chapter 270 Figure-5:Areal sweep efficiency as a function of mobility ratio;

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EOR-Chapter 271 Correlations Based on Immiscible Fluids, Five –Spot Pattern Craig et al. conducted an experimental study of areal displacement efficiency for immiscible fluids consisting of oil, gas, and water.The study was conducted in consolidated sandstone cores, and fronts were monitored with the X-ray shadowgraph technique. Figure 6 compares areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough as a function of mobility ratio to the data of Dyes et al., which were obtained with miscible fluids.

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EOR-Chapter 272 Figure-6: Areal sweep efficiency at breakthrough as a function of mobility ratio( immiscible fluid displacement); Water-Gas Miscible Gas-Oil Areal Sweep Efficiency at Breakthrough,EAbt% Mobility Ratio,M

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EOR-Chapter 273 Prediction of Areal Displacement Performance on the Basis of Modeling Studies Prediction based on Piston-Like Displacement Caudle & Witte correlation Claridge correlation (viscous fingering) Mahaffey et. Al model (dispersion ) Parallel plate glass model Mathematical Modeling-Numerical

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EOR-Chapter 274 Prediction of Areal Displacement Performance on the Basis of Modeling Studies Prediction Based on Piston –Like Displacement. Caudle and Witte published results from laboratory models of a five-spot pattern in which displacements were conducted with miscible liquids. The performance calculations are restricted to those floods in which piston-like displacement is a reasonable assumption; i.e., the displacing phase flows only in the swept region and the displaced phase flows in the upswept region. No production of displaced phase occurs from the region behind the front.

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EOR-Chapter 275 Figure 8 gives E A as a function of M for different values of the fractional flow of the displacing phase,f D, at the producing well. Figure 7 through 9 show data from the experiments. In Figure 7, E A is given as a function of M for various values of injected PVs. The ratio Vi/V pd is a dimensionless injection volume defined as injected volume divided by displaceable PV, V pd. For a waterflood, V pd is given by Prediction Based on Piston –Like Displacement

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EOR-Chapter 276 Figure 9 presents the conductance ratio,, as a function of M for various values of E A, but only for values of M between 0.1 and 10. Conductance is defined as injection rate divided by the pressure drop across the pattern, At any mobility ratio other than M=1.0,conductance will change as the displacement process proceeds. For a favorable mobility ratio, conductance will decrease as the area swept, EA, increases. The opposite will occur for unfavorable M values. The conductance ratio, shown in Figure 9 is the conductance at any point of progress in the flood divided by the conductance at that same point for a displacement in which the mobility ratio is unity (referenced to the displaced phase). Prediction Based on Piston –Like Displacement

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EOR-Chapter 277 By combining Figures 7 through 9, performance calculations can be performed. Areal sweep, as a function of volume injected, is available from Figure 7. Fractional production of either phase can be determined with Figure 8. Rate of injection may be determined as a function of E A from Figure 9. To apply Figure 9, however, it is also necessary to use the appropriate expression for initial injection rate. This is given by Craig for a five-spot pattern using parameters for the displaced phase: Prediction Based on Piston –Like Displacement

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EOR-Chapter 278 Where i=injection rate at start of a displacement process, B/D; k=absolute rock permeability,md;Krd=relative permeability of displaced phase, h=reservoir thickness,ft; =pressure drop, psi; =viscosity of displaced phase, cp;d=distance measured between injection and production wells,ft; and rw= wellbore radius, ft. At any point in the flood, the flow rate is given by Prediction Based on Piston –Like Displacement

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EOR-Chapter 279 Areal Sweep Efficiency,EA Figure-7: Areal Sweep efficiency as a function of mobility ratio and injected volume.

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EOR-Chapter 280 Mobility Ratio,M Areal Sweep Efficiency,E A Figure-8:Areal sweep efficiency as a function of mobility ratio and fractional flow at displacing phase

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EOR-Chapter 281 Mobility Ratio,M Conductance Ratio, Figure-9:Conductance ratio as a function of mobility ratio and areal sweep.

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EOR-Chapter 282 Example: Performance Calculations Based on Physical Modeling Results A waterflood is conducted in a five-spot pattern in which the pattern area is 20 acres. Reservoir properties are:

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EOR-Chapter 283 Required Use the method of Caudle and Witte to calculate: (1) the barrels of oil recovered at the point in time at which the producing WOR=20, (2) the volume of water injected at the same point (3) the rate of water injection at the same point in time (4) the initial rate of water injection at the start of waterflood

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EOR-Chapter 284 Solution Apply the correlations in Figs 7 through 9 1. Calculate oil recovered M=2.9, f D =20/21=.95 From Fig 8, E A =.94 Np= STB 2. Calculate total water injected. From Fig 7, Vi/Vpd=2.5 (at E A =.94) Vpd = Vp (Soi – Sor) = bbl Vi = Vpd x 2.5 = bbl 3. Calculate water injection rate at the same point in time. From i=63.4 B/D From Fig. 9, γ=2.7, from = 63.4x2.7 = 171 B/D 4. Calculate initial water injection rate i=63.4 B/D

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EOR-Chapter 285 Calculation of E A with Mathematical Modeling Models are based on Numerical analysis methods and digital computers Douglas et al-2D immiscible displacement. This method is based on the numerical solution of the PDE’s that describe the flow of two immiscible phases in two dimensions Higgins and Leighton mathematical model is based on frontal advance theory

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EOR-Chapter 286 Comparison of calculated and experimental results, 5 spot pattern (Douglas et al.)

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EOR-Chapter 287 Vertical sweep ( displacement) efficiency, pore space invaded by the injected fluid divided by the pore space enclosed in all layers behind the location of the leading edge (leading areal location) of the front. Areal sweep efficiency, must be combined in an appropriate manner with vertical sweep to determine overall volumetric displacement efficiency. It is useful, however, to examine the factors that affect vertical sweep in the absence of areal displacement factors. Vertical Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 288 Vertical Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 289 Vertical Displacement Efficiency Vertical Displacement Efficiency is controlled primarily by four factors: Heterogeneity Gravity effect Gravity segregation caused by differences in density Mobility ratio Vertical to horizontal permeability variation Capillary forces

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EOR-Chapter 290 Observation of thre figure indicates a stratified reservoir with layers of different permeability. The displacement of the fluid is an idealized piston-flow type. Due to the permeability contrast the displacing fluid will break through earlier in the first layer, while the entire cross-section will achieve sweep-out at a later time, when layer #4 breaks through. Heterogeneity

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EOR-Chapter 291 Heterogeneity:Location of the water front at different Location

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EOR-Chapter 292 Heterogeneity:Dykstra-Persons model

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EOR-Chapter 293 Gravity Segregation in Horizontal Bed Water tongue Water Gas umbrella Gas

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EOR-Chapter 294 Gravity is a factor that affects the vertical efficiency not only in heterogeneous reservoirs but in homogenous as well. Gravity effects will be important when: (1) vertical communication is good. This is satisfied when is large. (2) When gravity forces are strong compared to viscous forces. This is satisfied when the gravity number Ng is large. Gravity Effect

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EOR-Chapter 295 Where: = relative mobility of displacing fluid = density difference (displaced - displacing) u = superficial velocity Both numbers are dimensionless. The following figures indicate gravity effects for two different situations 1- Density of displacing fluid lower that density of displaced fluid The displacing fluid will tend to flow to the top of the reservoir and bypass the fluid in the lower region (tongue over). Gravity Effect

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EOR-Chapter 296 Tonguing will occur when M < 1 as long as and Ng are large. The effect of heterogeneity and gravity can be mitigated by a favorable mobility ratio. Gravity tonguing does not require a dipping reservoir (although dipping can be used as an advantage when gravity is important). Gravity tonguing is important in steam flooding applications. Density of displacing fluid lower that density of displaced fluid Gravity Effect

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EOR-Chapter 297 Density of displacing fluid higher than density of displaced fluid Gravity Effect

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EOR-Chapter 298 Gravity segregation occurs when the injected fluid is less dense than the displaced fluid, Figure10a. Gravity override is observed in steam displacement, in-situ combustion, CO2 flooding, and solvent flooding processes. Gravity segregation also occurs when the injected fluid is more dense than the displaced fluid, as Figure10b shows for a waterflood. Gravity segregation leads to early breakthrough of the injected fluid and reduced vertical sweep efficiency. Effect of Gravity Segregation and Mobility Ratio on Vertical Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 299 Gravity Segregation in displacement processes Figure-10: Gravity Segregation in displacement processes. Gravity Override (a) Gravity Underride (b) Displaced Phase Displacing Phase Displaced Phase Displacing Phase

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EOR-Chapter 2100 Experimental Result Craig et al. studied vertical sweep efficiency by conducting a set of scaled experiments in linear systems and five-spot models. Both consolidated & unconsolidated sands were used. The linear models used were from 10 to 66 in. long with length/height ratios ranging from 4.1 to 66. Experiments were conducted with miscible and immiscible liquids having mobility ratios from to 200. Immiscible water floods were conducted at M<1. Vertical sweep was determined at breakthrough by material balance and visual observation of produced effluent

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EOR-Chapter 2101 Craig et al. Results Results of the linear displacements are shown in the next Figure, where EI at breakthrough is given as a function of dimensionless group called a viscous/gravity ratio.

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EOR-Chapter 2102 Vertical sweep efficiency at breakthrough as a function of the ratios of viscous/gravity forces, Linear system (from Craig et al.)

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EOR-Chapter 2103 Example: Relative Importance of Gravity Segregation in a Displacement Process A miscible displacement process will be used to displace oil from a linear reservoir having the following properties:

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EOR-Chapter 2104 Solution

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EOR-Chapter 2105 Mathematical Model Spivak used a 2D and 3D numerical model to study gravity effects during water flooding and gas flooding

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EOR-Chapter 2106 Gravity Segregation in two-phase flow

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EOR-Chapter 2107 The correlations of Craig et al. and Spivak on gravity segregation Gravity segregation increases with increasing horizontal and vertical permeability. Gravity segregation increases with increasing density difference between the displacing and displaced fluids. Gravity segregation increases with increasing mobility ratio Gravity segregation increases with increasing rate. This effect can be reduced by viscous fingering Gravity segregation decreases with increasing level of viscosity for a fixed viscosity ratio. The correlations of Craig et al. and Spivak indicate the following effects of various parameters on gravity segregation, as summarized by Spivak

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EOR-Chapter 2108 Flow Regions in Miscible Displacement at Unfavorable Mobility Ratios (A) REGIONS I AND II Oil SOLVENT Flow experiments in a vertical cross section in horizontal porous media have shown that four flow regions, are possible when the mobility ratio is unfavorable. Region I occurs at very low values and is characterized by a single gravity tongue, with the displacing liquid either underriding or overriding the displaced liquid. Vertical sweep is a strong function of.At larger values, in region II, a single gravity tongue still exists, but vertical sweep is relatively insensitive to the value of the viscous/gravity ratio.

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EOR-Chapter 2109 Flow Regions in Miscible Displacement at Unfavorable Mobility Ratios (B) REGION III (C) REGION IV SOLVENT Oil The transition to region III occurs at a particular critical value. In region III, viscous fingers are formed along the primary gravity tongue and appear as secondary fingers along the primary gravity tongue. Vertical sweep is improved by the formation of the viscous fingers in this region. In region IV,flow is dominated by the viscous forces and by viscous fingering. A gravity tongue does not form because of the strong viscous fingering. The vertical sweep in this region is relatively insensitive to

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EOR-Chapter 2110 Flow Regimes in Miscible Displacement

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EOR-Chapter 2111 Volumetric Efficiency Methods of estimating volumetric displacement efficiency in a 3D reservoir fall into two classifications. Direct application of 3D models Physical mathematical Layered reservoir model. The reservoir is divided into a number of no communicating layers. Displacement performance is calculated in each layer with correlations of 2D. Performance in individual layers are summed to obtain volumetric efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 2112 Volumetric Displacement Efficiency

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EOR-Chapter 2113 Calculation of volumetric sweep with Numerical Simulators

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