Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Preferential Flow: What is it, How we can deal with it, and….Do we really need to care about it? A Review Ricardo Oyarzún 2003 2003.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Preferential Flow: What is it, How we can deal with it, and….Do we really need to care about it? A Review Ricardo Oyarzún 2003 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preferential Flow: What is it, How we can deal with it, and….Do we really need to care about it? A Review Ricardo Oyarzún

2 Introduction Typical approach unsat. zone: Richards (flow) and Conv.Disp. Eq. (solute) Assumption: “ a mean pore velocity is what governs transport”.

3 Introduction Typical approach unsat. zone: Richards (flow) and Conv.Disp. Eq. (solute) Assumption: “ a mean pore velocity is what governs transport”. Nevertheless, there are conditions that favours preferential movement  assumption no more valid.

4 Introduction Currently, widespread concern over pollution threat to both SW and GW due to ag. Activities. Experimental evidence: pf could lead to an “accelerated leaching” Therefore, there is a necessity to study this kind of process.

5 Concepts and definitions Preferential flow: “process whereby much of the water and solute movement through a porous media follow favored flow paths, ending in highly variable flow rate” Two main classes: Fingered Macro-pore

6 Concepts and definitions Fingered: fairly homogeneous medium, flow is splitted into isolated pathways Macro-pore: movement through pathways (cracks and wormholes” that are larger than would be suggested by the particle size distribution of the soil.

7 Concepts and definitions Fingered: fairly homogeneous medium, flow is splitted into isolated pathways Macro-pore: movement through pathways (cracks and wormholes) that are larger than would be suggested by the particle size distribution of the soil.

8 Concepts and definitions Fingered: fairly homogeneous medium, flow is splitted into isolated pathways Macro-pore: movement through pathways (cracks and wormholes” that are larger than would be suggested by the particle size distribution of the soil. but…. it is occurring in “our” soil (situation)?

9 How to recognize pf? a) Characterization of the soil volumetric water capacity curve 11 22 Log  -d  /d  Bimodality behavior

10 How to recognize pf? b) Tracer experiments EC Depth Natural v/s tracer profiles

11 How to recognize pf? c) Use of dyes and photography (digitalization, GIS)  These methodologies are not “free of problems”  In fact they are not exclusive but complementary

12 Modeling preferential flow Process-based description of preferential flow generally invoke dual-porosity (dual- permeability) models. Two interacting pore regions, one associated with macro-pore (fracture) network, the other related with micro-pores (inside soil aggregates)

13 Modeling preferential flow a) MACRO model ( Swedish Univ. Ag. Sci., available at ) Two flow domains separated by a boundary wat. pot.  b ( hwe), corresponding  b, and K b Vert. flow, micropores: Vert. Flow, macro-pores: (n* account for pore size distrib. in macropore region)

14 Modeling preferential flow a) MACRO model ( Swedish Univ. Ag. Sci., available at ) Water exchange can occurs between Macro and micro-pores (both ways) At surface boundary, infiltrating water is partitioned depending on infiltration capacity (given by K b ) and rainfall intensity

15 Modeling preferential flow a) MACRO model ( Swedish Univ. Ag. Sci., available at ) For solute transport: MACRO model should be linked with additional algorithm, e.g., SOILN for N dynamics. Use of conv/disp eq’n with source/sinks terms U accounting for mass exchange between flow domains and crop uptake

16 Modeling preferential flow b) MICMAC model ( Bruggeman et al. 1999, Trans ASAE 42(6): ) Also two flow and transport domains (systems) Pref. Flow is simulate using an explicitly cylindrical macro-pore located in the center of a soil column

17 Modeling preferential flow b) MICMAC model ( Bruggeman et al. 1999, Trans ASAE 42(6): ) Flow in variable sat. Media is described using an axisymetric form of Richards Eq’n. h() and K() described by Van Genutchen eq’n

18 Modeling preferential flow b) MICMAC model ( Bruggeman et al. 1999, Trans ASAE 42(6): ) Flow in macro-pore region is limited by its geometry, assume gravity induced and fully laminar flow through a cylindrical channel: Hagen-Poiseuille eq’n

19 Modeling preferential flow b) MICMAC model ( Bruggeman et al. 1999, Trans ASAE 42(6): ) Flow between the matrix and the macro- pore region is controlled by the H at the boundary Therefore, no flow occurs from the matrix to the macropore (Po) when soil is unsaturated (-h)

20 Modeling preferential flow b) MICMAC model ( Bruggeman et al. 1999, Trans ASAE 42(6): ) For solute transport in matrix, “classic” convect/dispers eq’n for transport (without adsorption or decay) In macro-pore, transport is assumed dominated by convection (no diffusion)

21 So far so good, but…. What is the relative importance / consequence of preferential flow processes regarding agrochemical transport through soil, and possible effect on surface/ground water?

22 So far so good, but…. What is the relative importance / consequence of preferential flow processes regarding agrochemical transport through soil, and possible effect on surface/ground water? Well…….. It depends!!!!

23 So far so good, but…. As water moves through soil, it tends to equilibrate with the soil  Water low in solutes tends to remove them from soil.  Water rich in solutes may deposit them

24 So far so good, but…. As water moves through soil, it tends to equilibrate with the soil  Water low in solutes tends to remove them from soil.  Water rich in solutes may deposit them ……and what about flux velocity????

25 So far so good, but…. Preferential movement may thus results in either spikes or thoughs in leaching solute concentration curves Therefore, we can’t expect a single (“universal”) behavior!!!!! Flow Nitrate Time

26 So far so good, but…. a) Nitrate: Larrson and Jarvis (1999) found better estimates of NO 3 - leaching when 2-domain model was used. Main effect of macro-pore flow was a reduction in leaching (specially winter) due to infiltration of water with low NO 3 -

27 So far so good, but…. a) Nitrate: Larrson and Jarvis (1999) found better estimates of NO3- leaching when 2-domain model was used. Main effect of macro-pore flow was a reduction in leaching (specially winter) due to infiltration of water with low NO3- But it depends!! (e.g. if most of annual pp occurs soon after fertilization, for a crop overfertilized, or in short-term studies)

28 So far so good, but…. b) Pesticides: Pivetz and Steehnuis (1996), lab test for 2,4-D: differential degradation, faster in macropores (possible due to higher aerobic conditions, and therefore, higher bacterial activity) Also, different values for sorption coefficient between domains!!!

29 So far so good, but…. b) Pesticides: Larsson and Jarvis (2000): macro-pore flow would be spcially critical for compounds which are either strongly sorbed or quickly degrading. Low relevance for persistent or mobile compounds

30 So far so good, but…. b) Pesticides: Larsson and Jarvis (2000): macro-pore flow would be speically critical forcompounds which are either strongly sorbed or quickly degrading. Low relevance for persistent or mobile compounds c) Soil properties related with flow/transport K, differential travel times (Kelly and Pomes, 1998)

31 Final Remarks a) Availability of requiered model parametrs b) Uncertaintity caused by heterogeneous nature of system c) Field studies (quantification of pref. Flow under natural climatic boundary conditions, larger scales d) Better field techniques (for recording water movement at the matrix and macropore scale

32 Final Remarks a) Availability of requiered model parametrs b) Uncertaintity caused by heterogeneous nature of system c) Field studies (quantification of pref. Flow under natural climatic boundary conditions, larger scales d) Better field techniques (for recording water movement at the matrix and macropore scale

33 Thank you!

34 References - Armstrong, A.C., Leeds-Harrison,.B., Harris, G.L., Catt, J.A Measurements of solute fluxes in macroporous soils: techniques, problems and precision. Soil Use and Management, 15: Bergstrom, L., Jarvis, N., Larsson, M., Djodjic, F., and Shirmohammadi, A. Factors affecting the significance of macropore flow for leaching of agrochemicals. In: Preferential flow, water movement and chemical; transport in the environment, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. (3-5 Jan 2001, Honolulu, Hawai, USA), eds. D.D. Bosch and K.W. King. St. Joseph, Michigan, ASAE Pub # 701P0006. Available at Acceded on January, 27, 2003

35 References - Bruggeman, A.C., Mostaghimi, S., and Brannan, K.M A stochastic model for solute transport in macroporous soils. Trans ASAE, 42(6): Kelly, B., and Pomes, M Preferential flow and transport of nitrate and bromide in claypan soil. Ground Water. 26(3): Larsson, M., and Jarvis, N. 1999a. A dual-porosity model to quantify macropore flow effects on nitrate leaching. J. Environ. Qual. 28: Larsson, M., and Jarvis, N. 1999b. Evaluation of a dual porosity model to predict field-scale solute transport in a macroporous soil. Journal of Hydrology. 215: Mc conville, C., Kalin, R.M., Johnston, H., and McNeill, G.W Evaluation of recharge in a small catchment using natural and applied 18O profiles in the unsaturated zone. Groundwater, 39(4):

36 References - Mohnaty, B.P., Castiglione, P., Shouse, P.J., van Genuthchen, M.Th. Measurements and modeling of preferential flow under controlled conditions. In: Preferential flow, water movement and chemical; transport in the environment, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. (3-5 Jan 2001, Honolulu, Hawai, USA), eds. D.D. Bosch and K.W. King. St. Joseph, Michigan, ASAE Pub # 701P0006. Available at Acceded on January, 27, Ray, C., Vogel, T., and Gerke, H. Effects of chemical reaction variability on preferential flow. In: Preferential flow, water movement and chemical; transport in the environment, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. (3-5 Jan 2001, Honolulu, Hawai, USA), eds. D.D. Bosch and K.W. King. St. Joseph, Michigan, ASAE Pub # 701P0006. Available at Acceded on January, 27, 2003

37 References - Regalado, C.M., Munoz-Carpena, R., Alvarez, J., Socorro, A.R., and Hernandez-Moreno. Field and laboratory setup to determine preferential flor in volvcanic soils.. In: Preferential flow, water movement and chemical; transport in the environment, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. (3-5 Jan 2001, Honolulu, Hawai, USA), eds. D.D. Bosch and K.W. King. St. Joseph, Michigan, ASAE Pub # 701P0006. Available at Acceded on January, 27, Ritsema, C Preface. Journal of Hydrology 215, 1-3 (Special Issue on Preferential Flow). Selker, J., Keller, K., and McCord, J Vadose zone processes. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, USA.

38 References - Simic, E., and Destouni, G. Significance of preferential flow for contaminant transport by groundwater in an integrated soil-groundwater system. In: Preferential flow, water movement and chemical; transport in the environment, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. (3-5 Jan 2001, Honolulu, Hawai, USA), eds. D.D. Bosch and K.W. King. St. Joseph, Michigan, ASAE Pub # 701P0006. Available at Acceded on January, 27, 2003


Download ppt "Preferential Flow: What is it, How we can deal with it, and….Do we really need to care about it? A Review Ricardo Oyarzún 2003 2003."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google