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Please answer the question correctly: 1.Why is the water important for planting 2.Why the water is very reactive and can be a good solvent 3.Describe the.

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Presentation on theme: "Please answer the question correctly: 1.Why is the water important for planting 2.Why the water is very reactive and can be a good solvent 3.Describe the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Please answer the question correctly: 1.Why is the water important for planting 2.Why the water is very reactive and can be a good solvent 3.Describe the molecule of water that shows hydrogen bond 4. Mentioned some kinds of factors that determine the existence of water resources

2 Ground water: accumulated water in the ground or rock below the soil surface

3 Foto: Supriyanto Soil understanding : arable land 2 tons of soil weight 2 hectars of Bu Kokom’s area The details are: plant growing media (habitat and or niche) rizhosphere (micro, meso, macro biota) rocks, mineral, water, air biotic+abiotic: the soil ecology system solar energy: through green plant produce biomass Transformation of mineral and organic compound on the ground that are influenced by environment in long period The variation of soil condition is influenced by difference of environment situation. The collection of different soil form a layer named pedhosphre that all of environment factors interact each others

4 The part of soil with flora-fauna activities that influences soil structure, soil consistence, soil chemical (humus synthesis and organic material degradation) Soil components: Solid Soil material: rock, primary mineral, rock weathered Organic material: litter, organic degradation Water: soil solution Air: atmosphere

5 mineral compound organic material + water and air in soil pore Dry soil: Pore contains much air than water Wet soil: Pore contains much water than air

6 Soil moisture  holding capacity: soil particles  osmosis: solution  capilarrity: soil pore  soil moisture tension  soil moisture pressure The measure of soil ability to keep water againts gravitation

7 Soil moisture tension Soil moisture tension (pF=log 10 cmHg=bar): The effort for moving out of water from particle fixation to make it free. The higher of pF the drier of soil condition. 0 cm of soil moisture tension or 0 bar means: there is no soil moisture tension, water is free and soil in the saturated condition. Soil moisture tension is 10 7 cm water or 10 4 bar or pF 7 means: Dry oven soil

8 The classification of ground water based on soil moisture tension 1.Maximum holding capasity: saturated soil, the pore is fullfilled of water, pF=0, 0 cmHg, 0 bar 2.Field capacity: Amount of ground water after losses of gravitation water, pF=2,54; 346 cmHg; 0,3 bar 3.Hygroscopic coeficient: water is fixed by soil particle 4.Air dried: soil water content after it is dried by air (wind) and make it balance with atmospheric moisture 5.Oven dried: soil water content after it is dried on the oven at °C (water does not evaporate)

9 Water available: capillary water, soil moisture Permanent wilting point: available water for the plant, soil moisture condition when the plant looks wilted, There is no plant turgidity because unavailable water condition in the soil FIELD CAPACITY: available water for growing plant Ground water move as the flow mass that is managed by pressure difference Holding capacity matrix: (depends on soil particle condition), osmosis (water solution: dissolved material), capillary forces (depends on soil pore)

10 UNUSED WATER: FREE WATER Temporary wilting : air temperature makes evaporation, whereas pF is high, so the plant looks temporary wilting, the rate of water absorption is not balance with the rate of evaporation. If the humidity is rise it makes temporary wilting disappeared. Available water: between FC and PWP (pF 2,45- 4,7) Unavailable water: water is held by soil particle, soil moisture tension >> PWP tension (>4,2)

11 1.Free water: between saturated and field capasity: pF 0-2,54 (gravitation water) 2.Capillary water: water in the soil pore: pF 2,54-4,5 (between FC and koefisien higroskopis) 3.Hygroscopic water: water on the soil particle surfaces: pF 4,5-7,0 (between hygroscopic coefficient and oven dried) Physical classification

12 pF 6,9 tanah kering oven tanah kering angin pF 6,0 kelayuan tetap air tersedia % lengas tanah pF 4,2 pF 2,7 lempung bergeluh pasir bergeluh pF 0 estimasi kapasitas lapangan air tersedia pada lempung bergeluh air tersedia pada pasir bergeluh

13 Pore diameter balances (µm) (not absolute: pF is determine by matrix holding capacity and osmosis) pF ,3 0,2 0,03 0,003 0,5 (saturated) 0,40 0,34 1,00 2,00 2,20 2,30 2,51 (FC) 3,00 (moisture equivalent) 4,00 4,18 (PWP) 5 7,00 (oven dried) Relation between soil pore diameter and pF Saturated: pore fill with water FC: pore smaller than 9 mm filled of water, bigger than 9 mm full of air WP: ≤ 3 mm full of water, > 3 mm full of air : ≤ 0,2 mm full of water OD: smaller than 0,003 mm full of water

14 Diameter pori (µm) Sebutan poripFKeadaan tanahFungsi pori > ,2 0,03 Makro Madya Mikro Higroskopis 0 1,7 2,53 4,18 4,5 5 7 Jenuh Basah Lembab kering Aerasi Infiltrasi Pengatusan Antaran kapiler Menyimpan air yang tersedia untuk tanaman Permukaan higroskopik Hubungan ukuran pori tanah dengan fungsi pori Notohadiprawiro, 2000


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