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Presentation n PfEFFER Basis n Review and Demonstration of PfEFFER v. 2.0/Pro n Examples

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PfEFFER Version 2/Pro Developers: Geoff Bohling, John Doveton, Willard Guy, W. Lynn Watney, and Saibal Bhattacharya in collaboration with 14 companies, U.S. Department of Energy, BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., and Kansas Technology Enterprise Corporation Release date of Version 2.0/Pro: February, 1998 Runs under Excel 97, Excel 2000, PfEFFER 2.0 add-ins and examples require 2 MB of disk space.

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Programming platform n Add-ins for Excel 97 and Excel 2000 –PfEFFER.xla for PfEFFER 2.0 –Gridsim.xla, utmexl97.xla, and XsecExc97.xla for PfEFFER Pro n Developed in Visual Basic for Excel n Runs under Windows 95, 98, NT, & 2000 n Utilities are included to convert PfEFFER 1.1 (Excel 5.0) files to 2.0/Pro (Excel 97)

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Goals of PfEFFER n Characterize subtle reservoir properties important to hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow; n Differentiate bypassed, commingled oil and gas reservoirs; n Integrate geological and engineering information; n Provide practical, accessible tools for log analysis.

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Applications n Gauge reservoir productivity; n Discern communicating volumes of the reservoir; n Integrate with geologic models including deposition, diagenesis, and structure.

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Practical, user-friendly log analysis using PfEFFER n Cost-effective, accessible well log analysis –spreadsheet based –graphically oriented –interactive, linked: easy “what-if” analysis –open ended with other Windows applications n Meeting ground for geologists & engineers

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Old logs can be analyzed with PfEFFER * Minimum log data required by the spreadsheet-based software is a porosity and resistivity log. * Old logs are well suited to this analysis once they are digitized or simply typed into the spreadsheet.

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Modules in PfEFFER 2.0 n Reading and organizing information from LAS digital files n Hough transform for simultaneous solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity n Log (depth) display n Calculation of porosity with option for shale correction and secondary porosity n "Super Pickett" crossplot annotated with lines of water saturation, bulk volume water, and permeability

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Modules in PfEFFER 2.0 (Continued) n Shaly sand models for Sw calculation (alternatives to Archie equation) n Moveable oil plots and calculations n Pay-flag cutoffs (and pay column with incremental hydrocarbon feet) n Lithology solution n Capillary-pressure analysis (mapping on Pickett crossplot) n Zonation by depth n Mapping

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Modules in PfEFFER Pro n Color-image cross section generation n Latitude-longitude to UTM conversion n Bridging software to build input file for a reservoir simulator –tracking grid cells and well locations –gridding of reservoir parameters –preparing reservoir data to export to simulator

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The Archie Equation S w = [ (a / m )*(R w / R t ) ] (1/n) S w = [ (a / m )*(R w / R t ) ] (1/n) – S w :water saturation – :porosity – R w :formation water resistivity – R t :observed bulk resistivity – a:a constant (often taken to be 1) – m:cementation factor (varies around 2) – n:saturation exponent (generally 2)

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Importing LAS files n Log ASCII Standard –Canadian Well Logging Society –Easy exchange (floppy disk) –Read/modify with standard word processor n OpenLAS Add-In –Displays available logs, depth range –Reads selected information into Excel –Creates a well workbook with unit worksheets »Units are named depth intervals (user-specified)

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PfEFFER Worksheet Layout n Home area with computed parameters –Computations (links) keyed on RT, PHI (resistivity, porosity) via Archie equation –“whole-unit” parameters in column B n Attribute columns for auxiliary information –used for color-coding points on Pickett Plot –available for log vs. depth plots n Input logs, additional computations to right

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PfEFFER Spreadsheet

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Columns in the home area n PARAMETERS (column B) –well info, model parameters, summary values n ZN, DEPTH, THK: –zone label, depth, thickness n RT, PHI: –Bulk resistivity, porosity (fractional!) –Derived from input logs on right

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Columns in the home area n RWA, RO, MA: –Apparent formation water resistivity, water- saturated resistivity, and cementation exponent n SW: Water saturation n BVW: Bulk volume water (SW*PHI) n VSH: Shale proportion –computed from input logs using Vsh button

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Columns in the home area n Pay: Incremental thickness of oil –set to zero if PHI, SW, BVW, or VSH outside user-specified cut-offs –THK*PHI*(1-SW) otherwise n Flow: Zonation

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The PfEFFER Toolbar

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The PfEFFER Toolbar - Shale Fraction and Porosity n Home area calculations –Vsh: Computes values in VSH column –Phi: Computes values in PHI column »based on neutron, density, sonic porosity or combination »option to correct phi for Vsh

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The PfEFFER Toolbar - Calculation of Porosity

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The PfEFFER Toolbar - Depth Plots of Logs The PfEFFER Toolbar - Depth Plots of Logs

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The PfEFFER Toolbar- Pickett Plot n Pickett Plot generation and annotation n Generates Pickett Plot –Adds water saturation contours –Adds BVW contours –Adds permeability contours –Colors points according to attribute –Adds capillary pressure contours

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The Annotated Pickett Plot n Log-log resistivity-porosity crossplot –based on transformed Archie equation »log R t = log(a R w ) - n log S w - m log –reveals porosity-water saturation patterns n Color-coding of third attribute –depth, gamma ray, photoelectric factor,... n Contours of reservoir parameters –water saturation, bulk volume water, permeability, capillary pressure

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Contours on the Pickett Plot n SW, BVW: from Archie equation n Permeability (Wylie and Rose, 1950) –log k = log P + Q log - R log S w i –P, Q, R: Set in Parameters column –Timur (1968) constants (sandstone) default –Assumes irreducible saturation (S w i ) n Capillary pressure –from user-specified pressure-saturation curves

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“Super Pickett” Plot

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The PfEFFER Toolbar n Other plots and analyses –Plots of logs vs. depth –Rhomaa-Umma computations, plot –Composition plot (based on RU results) –Moveable oil computations, plot –Pay-flag cutoffs –Capillary-pressure analysis –Zonation by depth

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The Moveable Oil Plot S xo = [ (a / m )*(R mf / R xo ) ] (1/n) S xo = [ (a / m )*(R mf / R xo ) ] (1/n) –R mf : Resistivity of mud filtrate –R xo : Microresistivity »presumably bulk resistivity of flushed zone –S xo : Saturation of total moveable fluid »assumes filtrate has displaced everything moveable BVF = S xo * BVF = S xo * –Bulk volume (moveable) fluid n Volume moveable oil = BVF - BVW

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An Example Moveable Oil Plot

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Capillary Pressure Capillary Pressure

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Capillary Pressure Contours n BVW: empirical expression of –pore throat distribution –capillary pressure –hydrocarbon column n Plot Sw vs. phi on Pickett crossplot at constant Cp (height above FWL) n Convergence of Cp contours at higher pressures where BVW changes only gradually n Assume similar pore type for connected points

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Color Coding of Pay Cut-offs n Zone considered pay if –PHI > PHICUT –SW < SWCUT –VSH < VSHCUT –BVW < BVWCUT n Dynamic coloring of pay zones –PHI, SW, VSH, BVW values outside cut- offs also flagged –Toggle with “Colors” button

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Color Coding of Pay Cut-offs Color Button

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Compositional Analysis - The Rhomaa-Umaa Plot n Rhomaa: Apparent matrix density –from bulk density and porosity n Umaa: Apparent matrix photoelectric absorption coefficient –from bulk photoelectric factor (PEF), density, and porosity n Crossplot is good indicator of mineralogy –can be annotated with key minerals

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An Example Rhomaa-Umaa Plot

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The Composition Plot n Derived from Rhomaa-Umaa results n Keyed to three end-member minerals on Rhomaa-Umaa plot n Alternative composition systems possible n Plot linked to worksheet data –updates automatically if end-member definitions changed

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An Example Composition Plot

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The PfEFFER Mapping Module n Compiles PARAMETER information from a number of wells into a mapping workbook –linked to underlying well workbooks –Unit worksheets from different well workbooks matched by name n Posts well locations with labels n Interpolates parameter values to regular grid n Creates shaded contour or 3D surface representations of grids

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Posting of Well Locations

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A Contour Map - an Excel Chart

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3-D Maps - an Excel Chart

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Shaly Sand Models for Sw Calculation -- Sw model menu permit selection of Archie water saturation model (the default) and two shaly sand models, the Simandoux model and the dual-water model. Hough Transform -- The Hough transform is used for simultaneous solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity. Secondary Porosity -- Secondary porosity is calculated as the difference between the total porosity (from density or neutron porosity) minus sonic porosity. Expanded log analysis in PfEFFER 2.0

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Shaly Sandstone Model Sw Model = Archie Sw Model = Simandoux

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Correcting Rt and Phi for Shale Effects n Corrected values provide improved correspondence to pore size, geometries, fluid saturations, capillary pressures, and hydrocarbon column n Evaluate models in combination, and determine which is best

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Hough Transform -- for solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity

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Secondary Porosity

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Other New features in PfEFFER 2.0 Zonation by Depth-constrained Cluster Analysis - Depth-constrained multivariate cluster analysis can be employed to segment the entire spreadsheet into subintervals based on user-specified set of logs. A hierarchical cluster (Ward's method) is used to produce subintervals that are as homogeneous as possible and distinct as possible from each other, in terms of their log characteristics. Option is useful in evaluating flow units and can be used as a blocking function. Forward Modeling -- Module implements equations developed by Pittman to predict values of rx, capillary pressure, and hydrocarbon column height for a range of water saturation values based on specific values of permeability and porosity.

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Depth-constrained zonation used here as blocking function

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Forward Modeling Then map Cp or height on Super Pickett plot

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Forward Modeling n Model to explain observed log response; n Log response is function of rock pore type, texture, bedding, and hydrocarbon column; n Pittman (1992): predict radii of pore throats penetrated over range of mercury saturations for 202 sandstones; n Use Cp, phi, Sw and map on Pickett crossplot.

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PfEFFER Pro - 3 Modules n Coordinate conversion n Parameters and gridding for simulation n Color image log cross sections

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PfEFFER Pro -- Conversion of Latitude and Longitude to UTM coordinates (LatLngtoUTM) UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) is a common projection used for most geographic information system (GIS) applications, land grids and commercial mapping. The LntLngtoUTM module in PfEFFER Pro converts longitude (x) and latitude (y) data to UTM x-y coordinates, in units of meters. UTM x-y coordinates can then be are mapped using orthogonal axes.

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PfEFFER Pro - GridforSim Generation of reservoir parameters for a fluid flow reservoir simulator (GridforSim) This module was developed to link the elements of building a petrophysical model and a simulation of the reservoir. Specific goals include: 1. reduce complexity in building an input file for a simulation, 2. facilitate interaction with the simulation such that the petrophysical model can be easily modified, thus linking engineering and geological disciplines, and 3. permit iteration to lead to a refined petrophysical geologic model and fluid flow simulation.

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GridforSim module - generation of reservoir simulation parameters

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GridforSim module -- includes viewing grids with well locations and generating contour maps

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Generation of Color Image Cross Sections Using PfEFFER

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Generation of Color Image Cross Sections - continued

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Generation of Color Image Cross Sections Using PfEFFER Generation of Color Image Cross Sections Using PfEFFER n Example one: Variations along a 3 mile long, NW-SE cross section from Terry Field, Finney County, Kansas n Example two: Variations in a regional (200 mile long) NW-SE gamma ray cross section of Missourian Pennsylvanian, Ness County to Sumner County, Kansas

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Source: Digital Petroleum Atlas Terry Field Index map for cross sections in Terry field

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PfEFFER spreadsheet cross section through Terry Field, Finney Co. NW-SE; Datum: Altamont Limestone; Length: 3 miles (4.8 km) Datum: Top Altamont Limestone 0 ft. 15 ft. Low Sw

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Altamont Limestone, cross section of water saturation, subsea datum Section height: approx. 100 feet (30.5 m); 3 miles (4.8 km) long (Terry Field)

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* * Regional NW-SE Cross Section Index -- Ness County to Sumner County, Kansas - oil fields (green), oil and gas fields (blue), gas fields (red); black lines delimit possible Pennsylvanian structural blocks linked to basement reactivation prepared by Kruger, 1997 NW SE

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A B C D E F G Heebner Shale Datum Length: 200 miles (320 km) Maximum interval thickness shown: 2200 feet Ness to Sumner County, Kansas (see index map) NW-SE Gamma Ray Cross Section Cross Section Yellow= Limestone Blue/Purple=Shale/Sandstone Heebner Top Marmaton Group

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Newfoundland

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Examples of PfEFFER Analysis in the Hugoton Embayment Area, Kansas

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Sec S-40W Pf , 370 MCFG/D

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Sec S-40W Pf , 370 MCFG/D

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Sec S-R38W Gamma Ray Attribute Production in Council Grove/Panoma Field

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Pay from cut-offs and classified pay using KIPLING Status 1 = pay; 2 = wet; 4 = tight

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`100 mi Porosity-Feet Isopach Map Bethany Falls Limestone Kansas City Group Western Kansas

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Terry Field, Altamont Ls., ft, thin section photomicrograph 40x transmitted light; core analysis: 15.2% porosity, 180 md

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Terry Field, 3-22 Six M Farms, Altamont Ls., ft, moldic and vuggy porosity, core plug: 15.2% porosity, 180 md

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Terry Field, 3-22 Six-M Farms, Altamont Ls., ft, small intercrystalline porosity between microspar, small vugs, core plug: 15.2% porosity, 180 md

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Victory Field Bethany Falls Limestone 3-D visualization of porosity above 17% using Stratamodel (Tm) Watney, W.L., French, J.A., and Guy, W.J., 1996, Modeling of Petroleum Reservoirs in Pennsylvanian Strata of the Midcontinent, USA, in, Forester, A., and Merriam, D.F., eds., Spatial Modeling of Geologic Systems, Plenum Press, p

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Super Pickett crossplot - pore typing and modeling pay Omoldic Pay zone with minimum BVW

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Terry Field, Finney Co. Recompleted to LKC, commingled zones 107 B0+1 BW/D

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Status 1 = Pay

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WET NWNW Sec S-31W Bluebell Field NW DST ( ): 60’ M, 670’ SMCSW

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KIPLING Classification: Status 1 = pay; 2 = wet 3 = tight

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Good A-A3 Iola Limestone, Kansas City Group, Sec S-31W Pf: 4839

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Ensign Thunderbird #1-31 Iatan-Stanton Ls. Victory Field IatanLimestone: Oil producing zone, in transition, BVW 0.07 to 0.1, Sw> 50% Lithology: Interparticle porosity in bioclastic limestone Stanton Limestone: Oil producting zone, near Swi, produces little to no water BVW , Sw 11-20% Lithology: Oomoldic porosity in carbonate grainstone

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Untested Zone, oomoldic carbonate grainstone, probably 4 genetic units Top zone: Sw 13%, BVW (possible pay), 2nd zone: Sw 18%, BVW (possible pay) Lower zones: increasing water saturation with steady porosity = oil:water transition zone

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Cutoffs for oomoldic limestones: 15% porosity, 25% Sw Increased cementation exponent

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-- Stacked oolites separated by tight zones -- interval in transition zone

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Carboniferous Coastal onlap curve of Ross and Ross (1987) Other IVF Systems Morrow Sandstone

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Paleogeography during Morrowan (after Kristinik and Blakeley, 1990) Lowstand exposed shelf incisementHighstand inundated shelf

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Typical Vertical Profile of Morrowan Valley-fill Deposits (after Krystinik and Blakeney, 1990)

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Arroyo Field Lower Morrow, Incised Valley Fill Stanton County, Kansas Hugoton Embayment

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Upper “A” zone Lower “B” zone Santa Fe 22-1 Arroyo Field

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Upper “A” Zone Lower “B” zone Santa Fe 22-1 Arroyo Field Upper sanstone Lower sandstone

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Dry Hole - too shaly Sec S-R40W Kinsler Field Morrow Kinsler Field

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High shale content Morrow Kinsler Field

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Morrow Kinsler Field * Perf: ’ 138 BOPD, MMCFGPD * Alluvial sandstone -- clean, friable, very fined grained BVW 0.021, Sw 9% * Left side of plot is typical for the shale above and below a sandstone reservoir

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Mississippian Chester Sandstone Incised Valley Fill In Haskell County Kansas

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South Eubank Field, Haskell Co. Hugoton MLP Koenig # 1-28 Chester Sandstones upper lower

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Upper Chester Sandstone, Koenig # decreasing porosity and increasing BVW with depth - smaller pores and transition zone

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Upper Chester Sandstone, Koenig # Pay (phi*.05*[1-Sw]), increasing to upper right

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Lower Chester Sandstone, Koenig # higher BVW than upper sandstone - porosity steady to decreasing and BVW increasing with depth = transition zone

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Pay Attribute Upper Chester Sandstone Chester Sandstones Koenig #1-28 Pay Attribute Lower Chester Sandstone

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Chester Sandstones Koenig #1-28 Estimated capillary pressure via Pittman equation for well behaved sandstone and projected unto Sw-phi space of Super Pickett plot Doveton (1999)

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Schematic Pickett plot of simple reservoir marked by trajectory of crossplotted data points A-J Doveton (1999)

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Upper pf. Lower Pf. South Eubank Field, Haskell County

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pf

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Gamma Ray Pay Hugoton 1-9 Clawson, South Eubank Field, Haskell Co., Chester Sandstone

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Pfed at 227 BOPD, commingled with Lenepah, Altamont, and Pawnee Ls. (Marmaton) Mississippian St. Louis Limestone (Oolite) Terry Field, Finney Co., Ks

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Mississippian St. Louis Limestone (oolite) Terry Field, Finney County, Kansas Producing well: points trend from out of tight limestone into pay and back into tight limestone

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Mississippian St. Louis Limestone (oolite) Terry Field, Finney County, Kansas

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St. Louis Limestone Kinsler East Field Morton Co., KS, Sec S-39W D&A

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Mississippian Chat Autoclastic chert with clay n General Atlantic, Tjaden 1A1 WIW #1, 4337 ft, autoclastic chert breccia with clay infiltration below arrow. Interpenetrating clasts of brown porous chat. Thin section photomicrograph from 4398 ft. contains autoclasts lined by clay and brown microcrystalline calcite. Abundant microporosity, molds, and vugs in spiculitic microcrystalline chert (chat). Scale bar is 0.1 mm. Plane polarized light and blue epoxy impregnation

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Pay

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KIPLING Classification: Status 1 = Pay Pay from PfEFFER Analysis

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General Atlantic Tjaden A-1 WIW Conglomerate Spivey-Grabs Field 7768 BCFG, 2 MM BO

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PfEFFER Super-Pickett Plot Cycle D Cycle C Cycle B

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Spivey-Grabs Field and Lineaments

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* pods of more productive, better developed chat *

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Glick Field Excellent Mississippian Chat Reservoir Chat 30s-15W Glick Field: 432 BCFG 487 MMBO Chat Pay Basal Pennsylvanian

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Cowley Formation, Aetna Gas Area Sec. 1-34S-14W, Barber & Commanche Counties, KS Aetna Gas Area: 220 BCFG M BO Produced via fracture stimulation in Cowley Formation, not “chat” facies, but unaltered parent rock in southern- most Kansas Shaly cherty carbonate with intervals of cleaner (more brittle chert)

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Paleogeographic map during Osage (after Lane, H.R., and De Keyser, T.L., 1980 )

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Stratigraphic section of upper Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian Systems n Cowley Formation accumulated on shelf margin as an interval equivalent to succession of formations deposited on the shelf in Osage and Meramec Series

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Box Ranch Field Viola Limestone

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Perf ’ 10 BODP, 1.0 MMCFG/D NW (5/19/1991) Viola Limestone

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Summary Resistivity-Porosity Cross Plot (Pickett) Determination of Water Saturation (Sw) Determination of Bulk Volume Water (BVW) Cross Plot Pattern Cores and samples Are Necessary to Define Pore Type/Petrofacies Cross Plot Patterns Vertical--Near or at Irreducible Water Saturation (BVW and/or Resistivity Constant) Horizontal-- Reservoir in Transition (Porosity Constant) Parallel to Sw Lines—Indication of Changes in Pore Geometry (Decreased Resistivity and Increased Porosity Indicates a Higher BVW and Smaller Pores with Greater Surface Area; Increased Resistivity and Decreased Porosity Indicates a Lesser BVW and Lower Surface Area Concentration of Data Points— At or Near Irreducible Water Saturation

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