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Presentation Review and Demonstration of PfEFFER v. 2.0/Pro

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1 Presentation Review and Demonstration of PfEFFER v. 2.0/Pro
PfEFFER Basis Review and Demonstration of PfEFFER v. 2.0/Pro Examples PfEFFER Demo

2 PfEFFER Version 2/Pro Developers: Geoff Bohling, John Doveton, Willard Guy, W. Lynn Watney, and Saibal Bhattacharya in collaboration with 14 companies, U.S. Department of Energy, BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., and Kansas Technology Enterprise Corporation Release date of Version 2.0/Pro: February, 1998 Runs under Excel 97, Excel 2000, PfEFFER 2.0 add-ins and examples require 2 MB of disk space.

3 Programming platform Add-ins for Excel 97 and Excel 2000
PfEFFER.xla for PfEFFER 2.0 Gridsim.xla, utmexl97.xla, and XsecExc97.xla for PfEFFER Pro Developed in Visual Basic for Excel Runs under Windows 95, 98, NT, & 2000 Utilities are included to convert PfEFFER 1.1 (Excel 5.0) files to 2.0/Pro (Excel 97)

4 Goals of PfEFFER Characterize subtle reservoir properties important to hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow; Differentiate bypassed, commingled oil and gas reservoirs; Integrate geological and engineering information; Provide practical, accessible tools for log analysis.

5 Applications Gauge reservoir productivity;
Discern communicating volumes of the reservoir; Integrate with geologic models including deposition, diagenesis, and structure.

6 Practical, user-friendly log analysis using PfEFFER
Cost-effective, accessible well log analysis spreadsheet based graphically oriented interactive, linked: easy “what-if” analysis open ended with other Windows applications Meeting ground for geologists & engineers

7 Old logs can be analyzed with PfEFFER
* Minimum log data required by the spreadsheet-based software is a porosity and resistivity log. * Old logs are well suited to this analysis once they are digitized or simply typed into the spreadsheet.

8 Modules in PfEFFER 2.0 Reading and organizing information from LAS digital files Hough transform for simultaneous solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity Log (depth) display Calculation of porosity with option for shale correction and secondary porosity "Super Pickett" crossplot annotated with lines of water saturation, bulk volume water, and permeability

9 Modules in PfEFFER 2.0 (Continued)
Shaly sand models for Sw calculation (alternatives to Archie equation) Moveable oil plots and calculations Pay-flag cutoffs (and pay column with incremental hydrocarbon feet) Lithology solution Capillary-pressure analysis (mapping on Pickett crossplot) Zonation by depth Mapping

10 Modules in PfEFFER Pro Color-image cross section generation
Latitude-longitude to UTM conversion Bridging software to build input file for a reservoir simulator tracking grid cells and well locations gridding of reservoir parameters preparing reservoir data to export to simulator

11 The Archie Equation Sw = [ (a / Fm)*(Rw / Rt) ](1/n)
Sw: water saturation F: porosity Rw: formation water resistivity Rt: observed bulk resistivity a: a constant (often taken to be 1) m: cementation factor (varies around 2) n: saturation exponent (generally 2)

12 Importing LAS files Log ASCII Standard OpenLAS Add-In
Canadian Well Logging Society Easy exchange (floppy disk) Read/modify with standard word processor OpenLAS Add-In Displays available logs, depth range Reads selected information into Excel Creates a well workbook with unit worksheets Units are named depth intervals (user-specified)

13

14 PfEFFER Worksheet Layout
Home area with computed parameters Computations (links) keyed on RT, PHI (resistivity, porosity) via Archie equation “whole-unit” parameters in column B Attribute columns for auxiliary information used for color-coding points on Pickett Plot available for log vs. depth plots Input logs, additional computations to right

15 PfEFFER Spreadsheet

16 Columns in the home area
PARAMETERS (column B) well info, model parameters, summary values ZN, DEPTH, THK: zone label, depth, thickness RT, PHI: Bulk resistivity, porosity (fractional!) Derived from input logs on right

17 Columns in the home area
RWA, RO, MA: Apparent formation water resistivity, water-saturated resistivity, and cementation exponent SW: Water saturation BVW: Bulk volume water (SW*PHI) VSH: Shale proportion computed from input logs using Vsh button

18 Columns in the home area
Pay: Incremental thickness of oil set to zero if PHI, SW, BVW, or VSH outside user-specified cut-offs THK*PHI*(1-SW) otherwise Flow: Zonation

19 The PfEFFER Toolbar

20 The PfEFFER Toolbar - Shale Fraction and Porosity
Home area calculations Vsh: Computes values in VSH column Phi: Computes values in PHI column based on neutron, density, sonic porosity or combination option to correct phi for Vsh

21 The PfEFFER Toolbar - Calculation of Porosity

22 The PfEFFER Toolbar - Depth Plots of Logs

23 The PfEFFER Toolbar- Pickett Plot
Pickett Plot generation and annotation Generates Pickett Plot Adds water saturation contours Adds BVW contours Adds permeability contours Colors points according to attribute Adds capillary pressure contours

24 The Annotated Pickett Plot
Log-log resistivity-porosity crossplot based on transformed Archie equation log Rt = log(a Rw) - n log Sw- m log F reveals porosity-water saturation patterns Color-coding of third attribute depth, gamma ray, photoelectric factor, . . . Contours of reservoir parameters water saturation, bulk volume water, permeability, capillary pressure

25 Contours on the Pickett Plot
SW, BVW: from Archie equation Permeability (Wylie and Rose, 1950) log k = log P + Q log F - R log Sw i P, Q, R: Set in Parameters column Timur (1968) constants (sandstone) default Assumes irreducible saturation (Sw i) Capillary pressure from user-specified pressure-saturation curves

26 “Super Pickett” Plot

27 The PfEFFER Toolbar Other plots and analyses Plots of logs vs. depth
Rhomaa-Umma computations, plot Composition plot (based on RU results) Moveable oil computations, plot Pay-flag cutoffs Capillary-pressure analysis Zonation by depth

28 The Moveable Oil Plot Sxo = [ (a / Fm)*(Rmf / Rxo) ](1/n) BVF = Sxo*F
Rmf: Resistivity of mud filtrate Rxo: Microresistivity presumably bulk resistivity of flushed zone Sxo: Saturation of total moveable fluid assumes filtrate has displaced everything moveable BVF = Sxo*F Bulk volume (moveable) fluid Volume moveable oil = BVF - BVW

29

30 An Example Moveable Oil Plot

31 Capillary Pressure

32 Capillary Pressure Contours
BVW: empirical expression of pore throat distribution capillary pressure hydrocarbon column Plot Sw vs. phi on Pickett crossplot at constant Cp (height above FWL) Convergence of Cp contours at higher pressures where BVW changes only gradually Assume similar pore type for connected points

33 Color Coding of Pay Cut-offs
Zone considered pay if PHI > PHICUT SW < SWCUT VSH < VSHCUT BVW < BVWCUT Dynamic coloring of pay zones PHI, SW, VSH, BVW values outside cut-offs also flagged Toggle with “Colors” button

34 Color Coding of Pay Cut-offs
Color Button

35 Compositional Analysis - The Rhomaa-Umaa Plot
Rhomaa: Apparent matrix density from bulk density and porosity Umaa: Apparent matrix photoelectric absorption coefficient from bulk photoelectric factor (PEF), density, and porosity Crossplot is good indicator of mineralogy can be annotated with key minerals

36 An Example Rhomaa-Umaa Plot

37 The Composition Plot Derived from Rhomaa-Umaa results
Keyed to three end-member minerals on Rhomaa-Umaa plot Alternative composition systems possible Plot linked to worksheet data updates automatically if end-member definitions changed

38

39 An Example Composition Plot

40 The PfEFFER Mapping Module
Compiles PARAMETER information from a number of wells into a mapping workbook linked to underlying well workbooks Unit worksheets from different well workbooks matched by name Posts well locations with labels Interpolates parameter values to regular grid Creates shaded contour or 3D surface representations of grids

41 Posting of Well Locations

42 A Contour Map - an Excel Chart

43 3-D Maps - an Excel Chart

44 Expanded log analysis in PfEFFER 2.0
Shaly Sand Models for Sw Calculation -- Sw model menu permit selection of Archie water saturation model (the default) and two shaly sand models, the Simandoux model and the dual-water model. Hough Transform -- The Hough transform is used for simultaneous solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity. Secondary Porosity -- Secondary porosity is calculated as the difference between the total porosity (from density or neutron porosity) minus sonic porosity.

45 Shaly Sandstone Model Sw Model = Archie Sw Model = Simandoux

46 Correcting Rt and Phi for Shale Effects
Corrected values provide improved correspondence to pore size, geometries, fluid saturations, capillary pressures, and hydrocarbon column Evaluate models in combination, and determine which is best

47 Hough Transform -- for solution of Archie
Hough Transform -- for solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity

48 Secondary Porosity

49 Other New features in PfEFFER 2.0
Zonation by Depth-constrained Cluster Analysis - Depth-constrained multivariate cluster analysis can be employed to segment the entire spreadsheet into subintervals based on user-specified set of logs. A hierarchical cluster (Ward's method) is used to produce subintervals that are as homogeneous as possible and distinct as possible from each other, in terms of their log characteristics. Option is useful in evaluating flow units and can be used as a blocking function. Forward Modeling -- Module implements equations developed by Pittman to predict values of rx, capillary pressure, and hydrocarbon column height for a range of water saturation values based on specific values of permeability and porosity.

50

51 Depth-constrained zonation used here as blocking function

52 Forward Modeling Then map Cp or height on Super Pickett plot

53 Forward Modeling Model to explain observed log response;
Log response is function of rock pore type, texture, bedding, and hydrocarbon column; Pittman (1992): predict radii of pore throats penetrated over range of mercury saturations for 202 sandstones; Use Cp, phi, Sw and map on Pickett crossplot.

54 PfEFFER Pro - 3 Modules Coordinate conversion
Parameters and gridding for simulation Color image log cross sections

55 PfEFFER Pro -- Conversion of Latitude and Longitude to UTM coordinates (LatLngtoUTM) UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) is a common projection used for most geographic information system (GIS) applications, land grids and commercial mapping. The LntLngtoUTM module in PfEFFER Pro converts longitude (x) and latitude (y) data to UTM x-y coordinates, in units of meters. UTM x-y coordinates can then be are mapped using orthogonal axes.

56 PfEFFER Pro - GridforSim
Generation of reservoir parameters for a fluid flow reservoir simulator (GridforSim) This module was developed to link the elements of building a petrophysical model and a simulation of the reservoir. Specific goals include: 1. reduce complexity in building an input file for a simulation, 2. facilitate interaction with the simulation such that the petrophysical model can be easily modified, thus linking engineering and geological disciplines, and 3. permit iteration to lead to a refined petrophysical geologic model and fluid flow simulation.

57 GridforSim module - generation of reservoir simulation parameters

58 GridforSim module -- includes
GridforSim module -- includes viewing grids with well locations and generating contour maps

59 Generation of Color Image Cross Sections Using PfEFFER

60 Generation of Color Image Cross Sections - continued

61 Generation of Color Image Cross Sections Using PfEFFER
Example one: Variations along a 3 mile long, NW-SE cross section from Terry Field, Finney County, Kansas Example two: Variations in a regional (200 mile long) NW-SE gamma ray cross section of Missourian Pennsylvanian, Ness County to Sumner County, Kansas

62 Index map for cross sections in Terry field
Source: Digital Petroleum Atlas

63 PfEFFER spreadsheet cross section through Terry Field, Finney Co.
NW-SE; Datum: Altamont Limestone; Length: 3 miles (4.8 km) Datum: Top Altamont Limestone 0 ft. Low Sw 15 ft.

64 Altamont Limestone, cross section of water saturation, subsea datum
Section height: approx. 100 feet (30.5 m); 3 miles (4.8 km) long (Terry Field)

65 * * Regional NW-SE Cross Section Index -- Ness County NW SE
to Sumner County, Kansas - oil fields (green), oil and gas fields (blue), gas fields (red); black lines delimit possible Pennsylvanian structural blocks linked to basement reactivation NW * * SE prepared by Kruger, 1997

66 NW-SE Gamma Ray Cross Section Yellow= Limestone
Heebner Yellow= Limestone Blue/Purple=Shale/Sandstone Top Marmaton Group A B Heebner Shale Datum Length: 200 miles (320 km) Maximum interval thickness shown: 2200 feet Ness to Sumner County, Kansas (see index map) C D E F G

67

68 Newfoundland

69

70 Examples of PfEFFER Analysis in the Hugoton Embayment Area, Kansas

71 Sec S-40W Pf , 370 MCFG/D

72 Sec S-40W Pf , 370 MCFG/D

73 Sec S-R38W Production in Council Grove/Panoma Field Gamma Ray Attribute

74

75 Pay from cut-offs and classified pay
using KIPLING Status 1 = pay; 2 = wet; 4 = tight

76

77 `100 mi Porosity-Feet Isopach Map Bethany Falls Limestone
Kansas City Group Western Kansas `100 mi

78 Terry Field, Altamont Ls., 4288.5 ft, thin section photomicrograph
40x transmitted light; core analysis: 15.2% porosity, 180 md

79 Terry Field, 3-22 Six M Farms, Altamont Ls., SEM @ 4288.5 ft,
moldic and vuggy porosity, core plug: 15.2% porosity, 180 md

80 Terry Field, 3-22 Six-M Farms, Altamont Ls. , 4288
Terry Field, 3-22 Six-M Farms, Altamont Ls., ft, small intercrystalline porosity between microspar, small vugs, core plug: 15.2% porosity, 180 md

81 Bethany Falls Limestone
Victory Field Bethany Falls Limestone 3-D visualization of porosity above 17% using Stratamodel (Tm) Watney, W.L., French, J.A., and Guy, W.J., 1996, Modeling of Petroleum Reservoirs in Pennsylvanian Strata of the Midcontinent, USA, in, Forester, A., and Merriam, D.F., eds., Spatial Modeling of Geologic Systems, Plenum Press, p

82 Super Pickett crossplot - pore typing and modeling pay
Omoldic Pay zone with minimum BVW

83 Terry Field, Finney Co. Recompleted to LKC, commingled zones 107 B0+1 BW/D

84 Status 1 = Pay

85 Bluebell Field NW NWNW Sec S-31W WET DST ( ): 60’ M, 670’ SMCSW

86

87 KIPLING Classification:
Status 1 = pay; 2 = wet 3 = tight

88 Good A-A3 Iola Limestone, Kansas City Group, Sec. 28-34S-31W
Pf: 4839

89 Ensign Thunderbird #1-31 Iatan-Stanton Ls. Victory Field
IatanLimestone: Oil producing zone, in transition, BVW 0.07 to 0.1, Sw> 50% Lithology: Interparticle porosity in bioclastic limestone Stanton Limestone: Oil producting zone, near Swi, produces little to no water BVW , Sw 11-20% Lithology: Oomoldic porosity in carbonate grainstone

90 Untested Zone, oomoldic carbonate grainstone, probably 4 genetic units
Top zone: Sw 13%, BVW (possible pay), 2nd zone: Sw 18%, BVW (possible pay) Lower zones: increasing water saturation with steady porosity = oil:water transition zone

91 Increased cementation exponent Cutoffs for oomoldic limestones: 15% porosity, 25% Sw

92 -- Stacked oolites separated by tight zones
-- interval in transition zone

93 Carboniferous Coastal onlap curve of Ross and Ross (1987)
Other IVF Systems Morrow Sandstone

94 Paleogeography during Morrowan
Lowstand exposed shelf incisement Highstand inundated shelf (after Kristinik and Blakeley, 1990)

95 Typical Vertical Profile of Morrowan Valley-fill Deposits
(after Krystinik and Blakeney, 1990)

96 Arroyo Field Lower Morrow, Incised Valley Fill Stanton County, Kansas Hugoton Embayment

97 Santa Fe 22-1 Arroyo Field Upper “A” zone Lower “B” zone

98 Santa Fe 22-1 Arroyo Field Upper sanstone Lower sandstone
Upper “A” Zone Santa Fe 22-1 Arroyo Field Upper sanstone Lower “B” zone Lower sandstone

99 Morrow Kinsler Field Sec. 19-31S-R40W Kinsler Field
Dry Hole - too shaly Sec S-R40W Kinsler Field

100 Morrow Kinsler Field High shale content

101 Morrow Kinsler Field * Perf: 4994-5000’ 138 BOPD, 1.023 MMCFGPD
* Alluvial sandstone -- clean, friable, very fined grained BVW 0.021, Sw 9% * Left side of plot is typical for the shale above and below a sandstone reservoir

102 Mississippian Chester Sandstone
Incised Valley Fill In Haskell County Kansas

103 South Eubank Field, Haskell Co. Hugoton MLP Koenig # 1-28
upper Chester Sandstones lower

104 Upper Chester Sandstone, Koenig #1-28
- decreasing porosity and increasing BVW with depth - smaller pores and transition zone

105 Upper Chester Sandstone, Koenig #1-28
- Pay (phi*.05*[1-Sw]), increasing to upper right

106 Lower Chester Sandstone, Koenig #1-28
- higher BVW than upper sandstone - porosity steady to decreasing and BVW increasing with depth = transition zone

107 Chester Sandstones Koenig #1-28 Pay Attribute Upper Chester Sandstone
Lower Chester Sandstone

108 Chester Sandstones Koenig #1-28 Estimated capillary pressure
via Pittman equation for well behaved sandstone and projected unto Sw-phi space of Super Pickett plot Doveton (1999)

109 Schematic Pickett plot of simple reservoir marked
by trajectory of crossplotted data points A-J Doveton (1999)

110 South Eubank Field, Haskell County
Upper pf. Lower Pf.

111 pf

112 Hugoton 1-9 Clawson, South Eubank Field, Haskell Co
Hugoton 1-9 Clawson, South Eubank Field, Haskell Co. , Chester Sandstone Gamma Ray Pay

113 Mississippian St. Louis Limestone (Oolite) Terry Field, Finney Co., Ks
Pfed at 227 BOPD, commingled with Lenepah, Altamont, and Pawnee Ls. (Marmaton)

114

115 Mississippian St. Louis Limestone (oolite)
Terry Field, Finney County, Kansas Producing well: points trend from out of tight limestone into pay and back into tight limestone

116 Mississippian St. Louis Limestone (oolite)
Terry Field, Finney County, Kansas

117

118 St. Louis Limestone Kinsler East Field Morton Co., KS, Sec. 31-31S-39W
D&A

119 Mississippian Chat Autoclastic chert with clay
General Atlantic, Tjaden 1A1 WIW #1, 4337 ft, autoclastic chert breccia with clay infiltration below arrow. Interpenetrating clasts of brown porous chat. Thin section photomicrograph from 4398 ft. contains autoclasts lined by clay and brown microcrystalline calcite. Abundant microporosity, molds, and vugs in spiculitic microcrystalline chert (chat). Scale bar is 0.1 mm. Plane polarized light and blue epoxy impregnation

120

121 Pay

122 Pay from PfEFFER Analysis KIPLING Classification: Status 1 = Pay

123 General Atlantic Tjaden A-1 WIW
Conglomerate Spivey-Grabs Field 7768 BCFG, 2 MM BO

124 PfEFFER Super-Pickett Plot
Cycle B Cycle D Cycle C

125 Spivey-Grabs Field and Lineaments

126 Spivey-Grabs Field and Lineaments
* pods of more productive, better developed chat *

127 Excellent Mississippian Chat Reservoir
Glick Field Excellent Mississippian Chat Reservoir 30s-15W Basal Pennsylvanian Chat Pay Chat Glick Field: 432 BCFG 487 MMBO

128 Cowley Formation, Aetna Gas Area
Sec. 1-34S-14W, Barber & Commanche Counties, KS Produced via fracture stimulation in Cowley Formation, not “chat” facies, but unaltered parent rock in southern- most Kansas Shaly cherty carbonate with intervals of cleaner (more brittle chert) Aetna Gas Area: 220 BCFG M BO

129 Paleogeographic map during Osage
(after Lane, H.R., and De Keyser, T.L., 1980 )

130 Stratigraphic section of upper Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian Systems
Cowley Formation accumulated on shelf margin as an interval equivalent to succession of formations deposited on the shelf in Osage and Meramec Series

131 Viola Limestone Box Ranch Field Viola Limestone

132 Viola Limestone Perf ’ 10 BODP, 1.0 MMCFG/D NW (5/19/1991)

133

134 Summary Resistivity-Porosity Cross Plot (Pickett)
Determination of Water Saturation (Sw) Determination of Bulk Volume Water (BVW) Cross Plot Pattern Cores and samples Are Necessary to Define Pore Type/Petrofacies Cross Plot Patterns Vertical--Near or at Irreducible Water Saturation (BVW and/or Resistivity Constant) Horizontal-- Reservoir in Transition (Porosity Constant) Parallel to Sw Lines—Indication of Changes in Pore Geometry (Decreased Resistivity and Increased Porosity Indicates a Higher BVW and Smaller Pores with Greater Surface Area; Increased Resistivity and Decreased Porosity Indicates a Lesser BVW and Lower Surface Area Concentration of Data Points— At or Near Irreducible Water Saturation


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