Presentation on theme: "Presentation Review and Demonstration of PfEFFER v. 2.0/Pro"— Presentation transcript:
1Presentation Review and Demonstration of PfEFFER v. 2.0/Pro PfEFFER BasisReview and Demonstration of PfEFFER v. 2.0/ProExamplesPfEFFER Demo
2PfEFFER Version 2/ProDevelopers: Geoff Bohling, John Doveton, Willard Guy, W. Lynn Watney, and Saibal Bhattacharyain collaboration with 14 companies,U.S. Department of Energy,BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., andKansas Technology Enterprise CorporationRelease date of Version 2.0/Pro: February, 1998Runs under Excel 97, Excel 2000, PfEFFER 2.0 add-ins and examples require 2 MB of disk space.
3Programming platform Add-ins for Excel 97 and Excel 2000 PfEFFER.xla for PfEFFER 2.0Gridsim.xla, utmexl97.xla, and XsecExc97.xla for PfEFFER ProDeveloped in Visual Basic for ExcelRuns under Windows 95, 98, NT, & 2000Utilities are included to convert PfEFFER 1.1 (Excel 5.0) files to 2.0/Pro (Excel 97)
4Goals of PfEFFERCharacterize subtle reservoir properties important to hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow;Differentiate bypassed, commingled oil and gas reservoirs;Integrate geological and engineering information;Provide practical, accessible tools for log analysis.
5Applications Gauge reservoir productivity; Discern communicating volumes of the reservoir;Integrate with geologic models including deposition, diagenesis, and structure.
6Practical, user-friendly log analysis using PfEFFER Cost-effective, accessible well log analysisspreadsheet basedgraphically orientedinteractive, linked: easy “what-if” analysisopen ended with other Windows applicationsMeeting ground for geologists & engineers
7Old logs can be analyzed with PfEFFER * Minimum log data required by the spreadsheet-based software is a porosity and resistivity log.* Old logs are well suited to this analysis once they are digitized or simply typed into the spreadsheet.
8Modules in PfEFFER 2.0Reading and organizing information from LAS digital filesHough transform for simultaneous solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivityLog (depth) displayCalculation of porosity with option for shale correction and secondary porosity"Super Pickett" crossplot annotated with lines of water saturation, bulk volume water, and permeability
9Modules in PfEFFER 2.0 (Continued) Shaly sand models for Sw calculation (alternatives to Archie equation)Moveable oil plots and calculationsPay-flag cutoffs (and pay column with incremental hydrocarbon feet)Lithology solutionCapillary-pressure analysis (mapping on Pickett crossplot)Zonation by depthMapping
10Modules in PfEFFER Pro Color-image cross section generation Latitude-longitude to UTM conversionBridging software to build input file for a reservoir simulatortracking grid cells and well locationsgridding of reservoir parameterspreparing reservoir data to export to simulator
11The Archie Equation Sw = [ (a / Fm)*(Rw / Rt) ](1/n) Sw: water saturationF: porosityRw: formation water resistivityRt: observed bulk resistivitya: a constant (often taken to be 1)m: cementation factor (varies around 2)n: saturation exponent (generally 2)
12Importing LAS files Log ASCII Standard OpenLAS Add-In Canadian Well Logging SocietyEasy exchange (floppy disk)Read/modify with standard word processorOpenLAS Add-InDisplays available logs, depth rangeReads selected information into ExcelCreates a well workbook with unit worksheetsUnits are named depth intervals (user-specified)
14PfEFFER Worksheet Layout Home area with computed parametersComputations (links) keyed on RT, PHI (resistivity, porosity) via Archie equation“whole-unit” parameters in column BAttribute columns for auxiliary informationused for color-coding points on Pickett Plotavailable for log vs. depth plotsInput logs, additional computations to right
16Columns in the home area PARAMETERS (column B)well info, model parameters, summary valuesZN, DEPTH, THK:zone label, depth, thicknessRT, PHI:Bulk resistivity, porosity (fractional!)Derived from input logs on right
17Columns in the home area RWA, RO, MA:Apparent formation water resistivity, water-saturated resistivity, and cementation exponentSW: Water saturationBVW: Bulk volume water (SW*PHI)VSH: Shale proportioncomputed from input logs using Vsh button
18Columns in the home area Pay: Incremental thickness of oilset to zero if PHI, SW, BVW, or VSH outside user-specified cut-offsTHK*PHI*(1-SW) otherwiseFlow: Zonation
20The PfEFFER Toolbar - Shale Fraction and Porosity Home area calculationsVsh: Computes values in VSH columnPhi: Computes values in PHI columnbased on neutron, density, sonic porosity or combinationoption to correct phi for Vsh
23The PfEFFER Toolbar- Pickett Plot Pickett Plot generation and annotationGenerates Pickett PlotAdds water saturation contoursAdds BVW contoursAdds permeability contoursColors points according to attributeAdds capillary pressure contours
24The Annotated Pickett Plot Log-log resistivity-porosity crossplotbased on transformed Archie equationlog Rt = log(a Rw) - n log Sw- m log Freveals porosity-water saturation patternsColor-coding of third attributedepth, gamma ray, photoelectric factor, . . .Contours of reservoir parameterswater saturation, bulk volume water, permeability, capillary pressure
25Contours on the Pickett Plot SW, BVW: from Archie equationPermeability (Wylie and Rose, 1950)log k = log P + Q log F - R log Sw iP, Q, R: Set in Parameters columnTimur (1968) constants (sandstone) defaultAssumes irreducible saturation (Sw i)Capillary pressurefrom user-specified pressure-saturation curves
27The PfEFFER Toolbar Other plots and analyses Plots of logs vs. depth Rhomaa-Umma computations, plotComposition plot (based on RU results)Moveable oil computations, plotPay-flag cutoffsCapillary-pressure analysisZonation by depth
28The Moveable Oil Plot Sxo = [ (a / Fm)*(Rmf / Rxo) ](1/n) BVF = Sxo*F Rmf: Resistivity of mud filtrateRxo: Microresistivitypresumably bulk resistivity of flushed zoneSxo: Saturation of total moveable fluidassumes filtrate has displaced everything moveableBVF = Sxo*FBulk volume (moveable) fluidVolume moveable oil = BVF - BVW
32Capillary Pressure Contours BVW: empirical expression ofpore throat distributioncapillary pressurehydrocarbon columnPlot Sw vs. phi on Pickett crossplot at constant Cp (height above FWL)Convergence of Cp contours at higher pressures where BVW changes only graduallyAssume similar pore type for connected points
33Color Coding of Pay Cut-offs Zone considered pay ifPHI > PHICUTSW < SWCUTVSH < VSHCUTBVW < BVWCUTDynamic coloring of pay zonesPHI, SW, VSH, BVW values outside cut-offs also flaggedToggle with “Colors” button
35Compositional Analysis - The Rhomaa-Umaa Plot Rhomaa: Apparent matrix densityfrom bulk density and porosityUmaa: Apparent matrix photoelectric absorption coefficientfrom bulk photoelectric factor (PEF), density, and porosityCrossplot is good indicator of mineralogycan be annotated with key minerals
37The Composition Plot Derived from Rhomaa-Umaa results Keyed to three end-member minerals on Rhomaa-Umaa plotAlternative composition systems possiblePlot linked to worksheet dataupdates automatically if end-member definitions changed
40The PfEFFER Mapping Module Compiles PARAMETER information from a number of wells into a mapping workbooklinked to underlying well workbooksUnit worksheets from different well workbooks matched by namePosts well locations with labelsInterpolates parameter values to regular gridCreates shaded contour or 3D surface representations of grids
44Expanded log analysis in PfEFFER 2.0 Shaly Sand Models for Sw Calculation -- Sw model menu permit selection of Archie water saturation model (the default) and two shaly sand models, the Simandoux model and the dual-water model.Hough Transform -- The Hough transform is used for simultaneous solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity.Secondary Porosity -- Secondary porosity is calculated as the difference between the total porosity (from density or neutron porosity) minus sonic porosity.
45Shaly Sandstone ModelSw Model = ArchieSw Model = Simandoux
46Correcting Rt and Phi for Shale Effects Corrected values provide improved correspondence to pore size, geometries, fluid saturations, capillary pressures, and hydrocarbon columnEvaluate models in combination, and determine which is best
47Hough Transform -- for solution of Archie Hough Transform -- for solution of Archie equation constants and formation water resistivity
49Other New features in PfEFFER 2.0 Zonation by Depth-constrained Cluster Analysis - Depth-constrained multivariate cluster analysis can be employed to segment the entire spreadsheet into subintervals based on user-specified set of logs. A hierarchical cluster (Ward's method) is used to produce subintervals that are as homogeneous as possible and distinct as possible from each other, in terms of their log characteristics. Option is useful in evaluating flow units and can be used as a blocking function.Forward Modeling -- Module implements equations developed by Pittman to predict values of rx, capillary pressure, and hydrocarbon column height for a range of water saturation values based on specific values of permeability and porosity.
51Depth-constrained zonation used here as blocking function
52Forward ModelingThen map Cp or height on Super Pickett plot
53Forward Modeling Model to explain observed log response; Log response is function of rock pore type, texture, bedding, and hydrocarbon column;Pittman (1992): predict radii of pore throats penetrated over range of mercury saturations for 202 sandstones;Use Cp, phi, Sw and map on Pickett crossplot.
54PfEFFER Pro - 3 Modules Coordinate conversion Parameters and gridding for simulationColor image log cross sections
55PfEFFER Pro --Conversion of Latitude and Longitude to UTM coordinates (LatLngtoUTM)UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) is a common projection used for most geographic information system (GIS) applications, land grids and commercial mapping. The LntLngtoUTM module in PfEFFER Pro converts longitude (x) and latitude (y) data to UTM x-y coordinates, in units of meters. UTM x-y coordinates can then be are mapped using orthogonal axes.
56PfEFFER Pro - GridforSim Generation of reservoir parameters for a fluid flow reservoir simulator (GridforSim)This module was developed to link the elements of building a petrophysical model and a simulation of the reservoir. Specific goalsinclude:1. reduce complexity in building an input file for a simulation,2. facilitate interaction with the simulation such that thepetrophysical model can be easily modified, thus linking engineering and geological disciplines, and3. permit iteration to lead to a refined petrophysical geologic model and fluid flow simulation.
57GridforSim module - generation of reservoir simulation parameters
58GridforSim module -- includes GridforSim module -- includes viewing grids with well locations and generating contour maps
59Generation of Color Image Cross Sections Using PfEFFER
60Generation of Color Image Cross Sections - continued
61Generation of Color Image Cross Sections Using PfEFFER Example one: Variations along a 3 mile long, NW-SE cross section from Terry Field, Finney County, KansasExample two: Variations in a regional (200 mile long) NW-SE gamma ray cross section of Missourian Pennsylvanian, Ness County to Sumner County, Kansas
62Index map for cross sections in Terry field Source: Digital Petroleum Atlas
63PfEFFER spreadsheet cross section through Terry Field, Finney Co. NW-SE; Datum: Altamont Limestone; Length: 3 miles (4.8 km)Datum: Top Altamont Limestone0 ft.Low Sw15 ft.
64Altamont Limestone, cross section of water saturation, subsea datum Section height: approx. 100 feet (30.5 m); 3 miles (4.8 km) long (Terry Field)
65* * Regional NW-SE Cross Section Index -- Ness County NW SE to Sumner County, Kansas - oil fields (green), oiland gas fields (blue), gas fields (red); black lines delimitpossible Pennsylvanian structural blocks linked to basementreactivationNW**SEprepared by Kruger, 1997
66NW-SE Gamma Ray Cross Section Yellow= Limestone HeebnerYellow= LimestoneBlue/Purple=Shale/SandstoneTop MarmatonGroupABHeebner Shale DatumLength: 200 miles (320 km)Maximum interval thickness shown: 2200 feetNess to Sumner County, Kansas (see index map)CDEFG
79Terry Field, 3-22 Six M Farms, Altamont Ls., SEM @ 4288.5 ft, moldic and vuggy porosity, core plug: 15.2% porosity, 180 md
80Terry Field, 3-22 Six-M Farms, Altamont Ls. , 4288 Terry Field, 3-22 Six-M Farms, Altamont Ls., ft, small intercrystalline porosity between microspar, small vugs, core plug: 15.2% porosity, 180 md
81Bethany Falls Limestone Victory FieldBethany Falls Limestone3-D visualization of porosityabove 17% using Stratamodel (Tm)Watney, W.L., French, J.A., and Guy, W.J., 1996, Modeling of Petroleum Reservoirs in Pennsylvanian Strata of the Midcontinent, USA, in, Forester, A., and Merriam, D.F., eds., Spatial Modeling of Geologic Systems, Plenum Press, p
82Super Pickett crossplot - pore typing and modeling pay Omoldic Pay zone withminimum BVW
88Good A-A3 Iola Limestone, Kansas City Group, Sec. 28-34S-31W Pf: 4839
89Ensign Thunderbird #1-31 Iatan-Stanton Ls. Victory Field IatanLimestone:Oil producing zone, in transition,BVW 0.07 to 0.1, Sw> 50%Lithology: Interparticle porosity in bioclastic limestoneStanton Limestone:Oil producting zone, near Swi,produces little to no waterBVW ,Sw 11-20%Lithology: Oomoldic porosity in carbonate grainstone
90Untested Zone, oomoldic carbonate grainstone, probably 4 genetic units Top zone: Sw 13%, BVW (possible pay),2nd zone: Sw 18%, BVW (possible pay)Lower zones: increasing water saturation with steady porosity = oil:water transition zone
91IncreasedcementationexponentCutoffs for oomoldic limestones: 15% porosity, 25% Sw
92-- Stacked oolites separated by tight zones -- interval in transition zone
93Carboniferous Coastal onlap curve of Ross and Ross (1987) Other IVF SystemsMorrowSandstone
94Paleogeography during Morrowan Lowstand exposed shelf incisementHighstand inundated shelf(after Kristinik and Blakeley, 1990)
95Typical Vertical Profile of Morrowan Valley-fill Deposits (after Krystinik and Blakeney, 1990)
96Arroyo FieldLower Morrow, Incised Valley FillStanton County, KansasHugoton Embayment
97Santa Fe 22-1Arroyo FieldUpper “A” zoneLower “B” zone
98Santa Fe 22-1 Arroyo Field Upper sanstone Lower sandstone Upper “A” ZoneSanta Fe 22-1Arroyo FieldUpper sanstoneLower “B” zoneLower sandstone
99Morrow Kinsler Field Sec. 19-31S-R40W Kinsler Field Dry Hole - too shalySec S-R40WKinsler Field
101Morrow Kinsler Field * Perf: 4994-5000’ 138 BOPD, 1.023 MMCFGPD * Alluvial sandstone -- clean, friable, very finedgrained BVW 0.021, Sw 9%* Left side of plot is typical for the shale aboveand below a sandstone reservoir
102Mississippian Chester Sandstone Incised Valley FillIn Haskell CountyKansas
118St. Louis Limestone Kinsler East Field Morton Co., KS, Sec. 31-31S-39W D&A
119Mississippian Chat Autoclastic chert with clay General Atlantic, Tjaden 1A1 WIW #1, 4337 ft, autoclastic chert breccia with clay infiltration below arrow. Interpenetrating clasts of brown porous chat. Thin section photomicrograph from 4398 ft. contains autoclasts lined by clay and brown microcrystalline calcite. Abundant microporosity, molds, and vugs in spiculitic microcrystalline chert (chat). Scale bar is 0.1 mm. Plane polarized light and blue epoxy impregnation
128Cowley Formation, Aetna Gas Area Sec. 1-34S-14W, Barber & Commanche Counties, KSProduced via fracture stimulation inCowley Formation, not “chat” facies,but unaltered parent rock in southern-most KansasShaly cherty carbonate with intervals ofcleaner (more brittle chert)Aetna Gas Area:220 BCFG M BO
129Paleogeographic map during Osage (after Lane, H.R., and De Keyser, T.L., 1980 )
130Stratigraphic section of upper Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian Systems Cowley Formation accumulated on shelf margin as an interval equivalent to succession of formations deposited on the shelf in Osage and Meramec Series
134Summary Resistivity-Porosity Cross Plot (Pickett) Determination of Water Saturation (Sw)Determination of Bulk Volume Water (BVW)Cross Plot PatternCores and samples Are Necessary to Define Pore Type/PetrofaciesCross Plot PatternsVertical--Near or at Irreducible WaterSaturation (BVW and/or Resistivity Constant)Horizontal-- Reservoir in Transition (Porosity Constant)Parallel to Sw Lines—Indication of Changes in Pore Geometry(Decreased Resistivity and Increased Porosity Indicates aHigher BVW and Smaller Pores with Greater Surface Area;Increased Resistivity and Decreased Porosity Indicates aLesser BVW and Lower Surface AreaConcentration of Data Points—At or Near Irreducible Water Saturation