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FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETES I IB 371 - General Mycology Lecture 21 Thursday, November 6, 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETES I IB 371 - General Mycology Lecture 21 Thursday, November 6, 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETES I IB General Mycology Lecture 21 Thursday, November 6, 2003

2 FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETES Mycelium septate Mycelium septate Septa with single pore or many small pores Septa with single pore or many small pores Woronin bodies present at pores Woronin bodies present at pores Nuclei haploid, except during meiosis Nuclei haploid, except during meiosis Antheridia & ascogonia may or may not be formed prior to meiosis Antheridia & ascogonia may or may not be formed prior to meiosis Ascogenous hyphae formed Ascogenous hyphae formed

3 SEPTAL PORE

4 Woronin Bodies

5 NUCLEUS PASSING THROUGH PORE

6 GENERAL LIFE CYCLE

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8 MEIOSIS & ASCOSPOROGENESIS

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10 In-class activity How is a crozier like a clamp connection?

11 ASCOGONIA

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13 TEM of crosier by Charles Mims

14 Crosiers & Developing Asci

15 TEM of developing ascus by Charles Mims

16 TEM of ascospores developing within an ascus by Charles Mims

17 TEM of maturing ascospores within an ascus by Charles Mims

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22 TYPES OF ASC0MATA Cleistothecium Cleistothecium - round & completely closed Apothecium Apothecium - open & saucer shaped Perithecium Perithecium - flask shaped with an opening at the top Pseudothecium Pseudothecium - may look like a perithecium but it is stromatic & is formed prior to the ascogenous hyphae

23 TYPES OF ASCI Prototunicate - one functional wall that deliquesces early Prototunicate - one functional wall that deliquesces early Unitunicate- one functional wall that remains as one wall when ascospores are discharged Unitunicate - one functional wall that remains as one wall when ascospores are discharged Bitunicate (fissitunicate)- two functional walls that separate when ascospores are discharged Bitunicate (fissitunicate) - two functional walls that separate when ascospores are discharged

24 Hamathecium None Paraphyses Apical paraphyses Pseudoparaphyses Catenophyses

25 ONYGENALES Sexual apparatus - antheridium surrounded by a coiled ascogonium Sexual apparatus - antheridium surrounded by a coiled ascogonium Homothallic or heterothallic Homothallic or heterothallic Asci unitunicate, globose to subglobose Asci unitunicate, globose to subglobose Ascus wall breaks down to release ascospores (deliquescent) Ascus wall breaks down to release ascospores (deliquescent) Ascospores usually non-septate (amerospores) Ascospores usually non-septate (amerospores)

26 ONYGENALES cleistothecium pseudoparenchyma Ascoma is a cleistothecium of thin cottony hyphae or very thin layer of pseudoparenchyma tissue Peridial hyphae peridium Peridial hyphae (peridium = wall of cleistothecium) similar to vegetative hyphae, colored and/or rough walled

27 ONYGENALES Anamorphs are solitary holoblastic (determinate) or arthric (thallospores) Anamorphs are solitary holoblastic (determinate) or arthric (thallospores) Taxonomic characters - peridial wall ornamentation, ascospore characters Taxonomic characters - peridial wall ornamentation, ascospore characters Ecology - keratinophilic, cellulolytic - saprophytes and parasites of animals Ecology - keratinophilic, cellulolytic - saprophytes and parasites of animals Habitat - soil, plant debris, faecal pellets of carnivores, birds’ nests and droppings, hoofs and horns Habitat - soil, plant debris, faecal pellets of carnivores, birds’ nests and droppings, hoofs and horns

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35 PATHOGENS OF HUMANS ringworm (tinea), athletes foot, jock itch ringworm (tinea), athletes foot, jock itch Trichophyton (A)/ Arthroderma (T) Trichophyton (A)/ Arthroderma (T) Microsporum (A)/ Nannizzia (T) Microsporum (A)/ Nannizzia (T) Geophilic - soil inhabiting species that are only occasionally pathogenic to humans Geophilic - soil inhabiting species that are only occasionally pathogenic to humans Zoophilic - live on animals but occasionally infect humans Zoophilic - live on animals but occasionally infect humans anthropophilic - species that live only on humans anthropophilic - species that live only on humans

36 DERMATOPHYTES Keratinophylic - live on hair, nails, dead skin cells (protein keratin) Keratinophylic - live on hair, nails, dead skin cells (protein keratin) Symptoms caused by enzymes that irritate epidermal cells Symptoms caused by enzymes that irritate epidermal cells Treatment may be systemic (griseofulvum) or topical (azole antifungals, ciclopirox, others) Treatment may be systemic (griseofulvum) or topical (azole antifungals, ciclopirox, others)

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38 NORTH AMERICAN BLASTOMYCOSIS Blastomyces dermatitidis (A) / Ajellomyces dermatitidis (T) Blastomyces dermatitidis (A) / Ajellomyces dermatitidis (T) Thought to occur in soil in midwest, US-Canadian border from the Great Lakes to the east coast. Thought to occur in soil in midwest, US-Canadian border from the Great Lakes to the east coast. Infection through inhalation of conidia into the lungs Infection through inhalation of conidia into the lungs

39 NORTH AMERICAN BLASTOMYCOSIS fever, chills, cough, chest pain, pneumonia (sometimes fatal), skin lesions fever, chills, cough, chest pain, pneumonia (sometimes fatal), skin lesions fungus is dimorphic - filamentous in nature, yeast-like in body (or above 30C) fungus is dimorphic - filamentous in nature, yeast-like in body (or above 30C) Itraconazole daily for six months or if life threatening, amphotericin B Itraconazole daily for six months or if life threatening, amphotericin B

40 dimorphic - yeast stage

41 HISTOPLASMOSIS Histoplasma capsulatum (A) / Emmonsiella (Ajellomyces) capsulatum Histoplasma capsulatum (A) / Emmonsiella (Ajellomyces) capsulatum Grows as hyphae in soil enriched with bird droppings Grows as hyphae in soil enriched with bird droppings Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, Great Lakes to east coast, Florida, Texas Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, Great Lakes to east coast, Florida, Texas Infection by breathing in conidia Infection by breathing in conidia

42 HISTOPLASMOSIS most people remain asymptomatic most people remain asymptomatic fever, chills, headache, chest pain, malaise, nodules in the lung fever, chills, headache, chest pain, malaise, nodules in the lung chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis mimics TB (diagnosis is very important) chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis mimics TB (diagnosis is very important) acute disease requires treatment with amphotericin B, followed by itraconazole acute disease requires treatment with amphotericin B, followed by itraconazole immunocompromised patients require lifelong treatment if infected immunocompromised patients require lifelong treatment if infected

43 Conidium of H. capsulatum

44 Yeast stage of H. capsulatum

45 VALLEY FEVER aka desert rheumatism, California disease - occurs in desert SW, Mexico, SA aka desert rheumatism, California disease - occurs in desert SW, Mexico, SA Coccidioides immitis (only imperfect state known, connected to Onygenales by 18S r- DNA sequences) Coccidioides immitis (only imperfect state known, connected to Onygenales by 18S r- DNA sequences) Inhalation of conidia (arthrospores), symptoms somewhat similar to histoplasmosis Inhalation of conidia (arthrospores), symptoms somewhat similar to histoplasmosis Most people recover but sometimes the disease is fatal Most people recover but sometimes the disease is fatal

46 EUROTIALES Asci free on mycelium or in ascomata Asci free on mycelium or in ascomata Ascomal wall thin, mesh-like or solid layer Ascomal wall thin, mesh-like or solid layer Sexual fusion usually by a trichogyne and undifferentiated hypha Sexual fusion usually by a trichogyne and undifferentiated hypha Asci spherical to ovoid, evanescent Asci spherical to ovoid, evanescent

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48 EUROTIALES Ascospores 1-celled, oblate, spherical, globose Ascospores 1-celled, oblate, spherical, globose Ascospores smooth or with reticulations, spines or thickened rings Ascospores smooth or with reticulations, spines or thickened rings Conidial states phialidic, conidia seceding schizolytically, in dry chains Conidial states phialidic, conidia seceding schizolytically, in dry chains

49 EUROTIALES Ubiquitous in distribution Ubiquitous in distribution Found commonly in soils and on plant litter Found commonly in soils and on plant litter Associated with cellulosic, starchy or oily substrates Associated with cellulosic, starchy or oily substrates

50 EUROTIALES Decomposers Decomposers Agents of biodeterioration Agents of biodeterioration Human pathogens (aspergillosis, penicilliosis) Human pathogens (aspergillosis, penicilliosis) Aflatoxin & ochratoxin production Aflatoxin & ochratoxin production

51 EUROTIALES Important in cheese industry Important in cheese industry Production of industrially important acids (citric, gallic, fumaric, oxalic, gluconic), and enzymes (alpha- galactosidase) Production of industrially important acids (citric, gallic, fumaric, oxalic, gluconic), and enzymes (alpha- galactosidase) Production of antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporin, griseofulvum Production of antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporin, griseofulvum

52 PENICILLIUM Teleomorph genera – Eupenicillum Talaromyces

53 Discovery of penicillin Changed the world. In 1928, Alexander Fleming found P. notatum growing on a Petri dish (dish is still preserved). In 1939, Howard Florey & Ernest Chain began work on how to use and identify the antibiotic produced by P. notatum. In 1941, work began in Peoria, IL, to increase production of the antibiotic. “Moldy Mary” brought in a moldy melon colonized by the high yielding species, P. chrysogenum.

54 Discovery of penicillin In 1942, the first patient was treated successfully in New Haven, Connecticut (Anne Miller). In 1945, Fleming, Florey & Chain received the Nobel Prize for their work.

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57 PENICILLIUM

58 From Hanlin, Illustrated Genera of Ascomycetes Vol II

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60 ASPERGILLUS Teleomorph genera - Eurotium Neosartorya Emericella

61 Eurotium/Aspergillus

62 ASPERGILLUS

63 Conidial state of Aspergillus (Picture from David Geiser)

64 Hülle cells (picture from David Geiser)

65 Young conidiophores of Aspergillus (SEM from Charles Mims)

66 Mature conidiophores of Aspergillus (SEM from Charles Mims)

67 SEM of conidiogenesis in Aspergillus (from Charles Mims)

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69 EUROTIUM ASCI

70 ASCOSPORES OF EUROTIUM

71 From Hanlin, Illustrated Genera of Ascomycetes Vol II


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