Macroscopic Displacement Efficiency Areal Sweep Efficiency Vertical Sweep Efficiency Large Scale Reservoir Heterogeneities Well Pattern
Darcy Law is not enough (at Pore Scale) Pore Scale Flow Mechanisms Film Flow Meniscus Movement Corner Flow Wettability Alteration Fluid Spreading
Darcy Law Is Not Enough (In Pore Network) Viscous Fingering Invasion Percolation Diffusion Limited Aggregation Fractal Characteristics
Lenormand et al.
Research Tools at Pore Scale Flow Visualization using Glass Micromodel Flow Visualization using Glass Micromodel Pore Network Simulation Pore Network Simulation
Glass Etched Micromodels 1) Preparing the pattern of porous media 2) Elimination of the protection-layer of the mirror 3) Covering the mirror with photo resist laminate 4) Exposing the covered mirror to UV light 5) Elimination of not-lightened parts using a developer 6) Etching the glass with HF 7) Fusing the etched glass with a plain glass
Pore Network Modeling Simple solution to the momentum equations in each pore throat. Mass conservation at each pore: 1.A discrete view of the porous medium (pores and pore throats) Pores provide volume & interconnectivity Pore throats provide resistance to flow. 2.Solution to various transport problems using conservation equations.
Solution of the Fluid Flow in the Network Fluid Flow Equations a) One Phase (Oil): a) One Phase (Oil): b) Two-Phase (Oil & Gas): b) Two-Phase (Oil & Gas): Nodes with Oil-Gas Front: P gas = Constant= P atm Continuity (Mass Balance) Eq. For Each Oily Node: Writing Continuity Eq. for all Nodes, We have a linear set of equations: Conductances: g =0.5GA 2 /μ, circular cross section g = GA 2 /μ, square cross section g = 3R 2 A/20μ, triangular cross section A t = πR 2, circular cross section A t = 4R 2, square cross section A t =R 2 /4G, triangular cross section Film Conductance:
Gas-Oil Displacement Generalization of Continuity Eq. for Different Fluid Configurations Example: If All Adjacent Nodes of Node i Are Oily Nodes: Example: If One of the Adjacent Nodes of Node i be Occupied by Gas: 3 4 Different Fluid Gonfigurations → 3 4 Different Continuity Equations
Pore Level Displacement Mechanisms 2-Phase Displacement Mechanisms a) Drainage a) Drainage b) Imbibition b) Imbibition c) Counter-Current Drainage c) Counter-Current Drainage 3-Phase Displacement Mechanisms 3-Phase Displacement Mechanisms a) Double Drainage a) Double Drainage b) Double Imbibition b) Double Imbibition
Model Assumptions ≈10 -6 → Viscous forces are negligible ≈10 -6 → Viscous forces are negligible ≈ 1609 > → Gravity forces are very important ≈ 1609 > → Gravity forces are very important
Future Work Micible Co2 Flooding with Gravity Domination Using Glass-etched Micromodel and Pore network Modelling
Miscible Co2 Flooding with Gravity Domination Establishing Flow Visualization Lab Establishing Flow Visualization Lab Performing Miscible Displacement Tests Performing Miscible Displacement Tests Developing Pore Network Model for Miscible Displacement Developing Pore Network Model for Miscible Displacement Identifying Controlling parameters Performing Experimental in Core Scale Performing Process Optimization Upscaling