Presentation on theme: "Redoximorphic Features “Redoximorphic Features for Identifying Aquic Conditions”, Technical Bulletin 301 NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina. Order from:"— Presentation transcript:
1Redoximorphic Features “Redoximorphic Features for Identifying Aquic Conditions”, Technical Bulletin 301 NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina. Order from: Dept. of Ag. Comm., Box 7603, NCSU, Raleigh, NC (919) $5 / copy.Presentation developed by:Michael WhitedNRCS - Wetland Science Inst.August, 2000This is a complete presentation on redox. features.It would be beneficial to the viewer to have a copy of “Redoximorphic Features for Identifying Aquic Conditions”, Technical Bulletin 301, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.Order from: Dept. of Ag. Comm., Box 7603, NCSU, Raleigh, NC(919) $5 / copy.
2Objectives Explain how redoximorphic features form Upon completion of this section, participants will be able to:Explain how redoximorphic features formIdentify and describe redoximorphic featuresUnderstand the use of a,a’-dipyridyl to confirm soil reduction
3ReferencesVepraskas, M.J. 1995(revised). Redoximorphic Features for Identifying Aquic Conditions. Tech. Bull. 301, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY. ppSoil Survey Staff Soil Survey Manual. USDA Handbook No. 18. ppMostly this is a shortened version of Mike Vepraskas’s Redoximorphic Features slide set.
4Formation of Redoximorphic Features Anaerobic conditionssoil is saturated so most all pores are filled with water, absence of oxygenProlonged anaerobiosischanges the chemical processes in the soilReduction of Fe and Mn oxidesresults in distinct soil morphological characteristicsmost are readily observable changes in soil colorIn order for a soil to develop anaerobic conditions it must be saturated so that (most) all pores are filled with water. When this occurs, any dissolved O2 that may be present in the soil water is rapidly removed (couple of days, or so) by respiration of micro-organisms, roots, and soil fauna. An anaerobic condition is a condition in which oxygen is virtually lacking from the soil.Prolonged anaerobic conditions changes biogeochemical processes in the soil. This change in chemical processes results in distinctive soil morphological characteristics being present in most hydric soils. The most important of these are the results of:reduction, movement (translocation) and subsequent oxidation of iron and manganese, andaccumulation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. In most aerobic environments OM is rapidly oxidized and does not accumulate as readily as in wet soils.The first process results in the formation of redoximorphic features.
5Reduction SequenceReview of Bill Patrick’s (LSU) research.
6Soil Color and Oxidation / Reduction In subsoil horizons, Fe and Mn oxides give soils their characteristic brown, red, yellow colorsWhen reduced, Fe and Mn are mobile and can be stripped from the soil particlesLeaving the characteristic mineral grain colorusually a “grayish” colorMost mineral soil grains are dominantly silica, so they are generally “colorless”, i.e. gray or whitish, unless they are coated by OM or Fe.
7Redox Concentrations A review of formation Review concentration formation, note how similar appearing features can form in different ways.See pages in Vepraskas (1995).Fig. 9 from Vepraskas 1995
8Types of Redoximorphic Features Redox ConcentrationsMassesPore LiningsNodules and ConcretionsRedox DepletionsDepleted MatrixReduced MatrixTypes of redox features.I have added Depleted Matrix as a “subset” of redox depletions, after all it is a big depletion.
9Redox Concentrations Bodies of apparent accumulation of Fe-Mn oxides MassesPore Liningsped facesroot channelsNodules and ConcretionsRedox concentrations, most often (in upper horizons) they occur as pore linings in root channels and pore linings on ped faces.Note the difference in soil terminology vs. hydrology indicators. Soil scientists say redox concentrations as pore linings in root channels, NOT the same as oxidized rhizospheres which require living roots. In fact, the rhizosphere is on / immediately adjacent to root and the roots should have an iron “plaque” on them in order to be used as a hydrology indicator.Picture is redox concentrations occurring as pore linings on ped faces and in root channels.
10Soft Masses Soft bodies frequently in the soil matrix variable shape can usually be removed from the soil “intact”Darker colored masses are dominated by Mn.
11Soft Masses in SandThe masses have diffuse reddish boundaries
12Pore Linings Zones of accumulation coatings on a pore surface impregnation's of the matrix adjacent to the porePicture is of pore linings along root channels. This is an obvious case of “oxidized rhizospheres.”
14Nodules and Concretions Firm to extremely firm bodiesoften relictshould be irregular shapediffuse boundary“halo” or “corona”Screened Fe nodules from a soil in Texas. In Texas these features are sometimes used on “gravel” roads. These are most likely relict.Contemporary concretions / nodules should have “halos”, diffuse boundaries, or be irregular in shape.Concretions have concentric rings, nodules do not.Photo from M. Vepraskas.
15Relict Fe/Mn concretion from Chesterfield soil, near San Diego, CA.
16Fe / Mn concretion with reddish Fe “halo”, a contemporary feature from a depressional wetland in south-central Nebraska (known locally as rainwater basin wetlands).
18Representation of contemporary concretion, with iron halo, in this case the yellow could be representative of the Fe oxide goethite.
19Redox DepletionsBodies of low chroma where Fe-Mn oxides have been stripped outgenerally value 4chroma 2formerly called“gray mottles”Picture shows redox depletions along root channels. Redox depletions are most common along root channels because this is where the OM is available to energize the microbial reduction process.Redox depletions are usually not used to identify hydric soils unless the depletions dominate and therefore become the matrix color which is defined by the term “depleted matrix.”Note: Although not defined in any of the present soil survey guidance it is possible to have redox depletions that are not so gray. For example a 4 chroma (possibly red parent material) soil with 3 chroma “mottles.” If one was sure these features formed as a result of saturation and reduction they should be considered redox depletions. (Mike Vepraskas, pers. commun.).
20Redox depletions along root channels in an episaturated (perched water table) soil. The upper part of the profile is depleted. Water perches on the clay layer and as it trickles down through root channels into subsoil reduction occurs along root channels.Photo by Warren Lynn - NRCS.
21Redox depletion along ped face in subsoil Redox depletion along ped face in subsoil. This is common morphology in subsoils with fragipans.Picture is looking down at a horizontal cross-section.
22Depleted Matrix Dominant color of the soil is “gray” Commonly used to identify hydric soilsDiscussed more in hydric indicators sectionDepleted matrix in a Fragiaquept. This profile may be close, but (I believe) the dominant color is “gray.” Might be used as an opportunity to ask the class what they perceive as the dominant color.
23Reduced MatrixSoils have high value, low chroma in situ but color changes when exposed to airreduced Fe is presentFe+2 is oxidized to Fe+3 upon exposureReduced matrix in Missouri River flood sediments. Large polygons were cracked so that outside surface had been exposed to air (brown color), when broken open the interior color was gleyed.
24Redox Depletions A review of formation Old Root ChannelDepletion Zone Fe++Concentration Zone Fe+++Soil MatrixFormation of redox depletions and concentrations along root channelsExplain based on “Redoximorphic Features...” booklet.See pages in Vepraskas (1995).
25a, a’ - Dipyridyl A dye used to test for the presence of reduced Fe pink reaction to Fe+2dye sensitive to light and heatapply to freshly broken open soil pedImportant to note that dye will react to light so the Rx needs to take place almost instantaneously when dropped on soil.Dye needs to be carried in a dark colored bottle, do not leave in heat and sun (i.e. never leave on the dashboard of vehicle). Dye should be replaced about once per year. Also, dye will give a false positive reading on soils that have been in contact with steel (i.e. scraped by knives, shovels or augers) - a freshly broken piece of soil for testing is imperative.Never use dye on any soil that has been treated with HCl. Hydrochloric acid (10% solution) is used by soil scientists (generally west of the Ohio Valley) to test for the presence of carbonates.Reference tech. notes on a,a’ - Dipyridyl included in student materials.
26Describing Redoximorphic Features Concentrations and DepletionsDescribe type, color, abundance and location (i.e. along macropores or within matrix)contrast can be obtained from color chartsReduced MatrixDescribe reduced matrix color, oxidized color, and time for color change to occura a’ - DipyridylDescribe % of soil that reacts and location
27Redox ConcentrationsHard Fe/Mn nodule in matrix (likely relict)Pore linings on root channelPore linings on ped surfaceReview this adaptation of Fig. 1, pg. 7 in Vepraskas (1995)Soft Fe mass in matrixHard Fe/Mn concretion in matrixHard Fe/Mn nodule in matrix (likely contemporary)Adapted from Fig 1, Vepraskas 1995Schematic illustration showing different kinds of redox concentrations and their relationship to soil macropores and matrices
28Interpretation Problems Redoximorphic features do not occur in all soilsLow amounts of soluble Organic CarbonHigh pHCold temperaturesLow amounts of FeAerated groundwaterLow amounts of OC, generally , < 2% OM (e.g. sandy soils)High pH, > 8 to 8.5, redox status is pH dependent, explain chart.Cold temperatures, below “biological 0” (<50C). Research has shown that the concept of biological zero may not be valid as reduction occurs in “frozen” soils in Alaska; however, the rate of reduction is very slow.If no Fe in the soil system can’t form redox features (e.g E horizons of Spodosols, some parent materials such as sand).Aerated groundwater - soil may be wet (even saturated) but O2 in water prevents reduction (fast moving floodwaters, slope wetlands).(more of this in “Problem Soils” module).
29Rate of Feature Formation A 2 mm thick Fe depletion around a root channel ranged from less than 1 to greater than 100 years depending upon how long reducing conditions occurred and how much Fe was in solution each dayRecently constructed wetlands should have redox depletions evident within a couple of years if wetland hydrology is present during the “growing season”Everyone asks this question, the basic answer is “it depends”.A soil can become anaerobic under the right conditions in as little as 1 day (warm temperatures, stagnant water, fresh OM, etc.) and reduced in less than a week.Note: When soil scientists say “reduced”, they are talking about the level of reduction necessary to change ferric Fe to ferrous Fe.
30Age of FeaturesRedox features do not always indicate current hydrologic conditioncommonly found in drained (historic) wetlandscan be relict of past climatesterraces in LMV, Texas Coastal Prairierelict features may have sharp edges and abrupt boundaries with the soilrelict nodules and concretions are often roundedcontemporary features should have diffuse boundaries and / or be associated with ped faces or root channelsRedox features can persist for 1000’s of years.
31Relict vs Contemporary Relict ContemporaryRelict features are often firm to extremely firm and have abrupt boundaries with the soil matrixOn left is a relict pore lining in deoxidized loess from eastern Nebraska. Commonly called pipe stems, these features formed at least 10,000 years ago (Pleistocene). On right contemporary depletions along root channels and a contemporary Fe/Mn soft mass in lower left.
32Quiz time Clockwise from upper left: Redox depletions and Mn/Fe concentrations in a reddish brown soil matrix.Classic depletion in root channel with Fe concentration impregnating the soil matrix.Redox concentrations on ped faces in the E horizon of a hydric Argialboll.Relict features in bedrock, Torrey Pines State Park, San Diego, CA. Great slide for showing depletions in root channel, adjacent concentrations and tan colored “soil” matrix.
33Don’t you just love your job? Photo courtesy of Warren Lynn, NRCS-NSSC.