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“Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than.

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Presentation on theme: "“Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals to deliver a unique mix of value.” Michael E. Porter

2 Corporate strategy is basically concerned with the choice of businesses, products and markets. It tries to answer certain key questions: (i) What businesses the firm should be in, in terms of the range of products it supplies. Punjab Tractors is a specialized company. It is involved almost exclusively in the manufacture of tractors. Hindustan Lever Ltd. is highly diversified with interests in soaps, tea, washing powders, detergents, tooth pastes, shampoo, creams, salt, hair oils etc. (ii) What should be the optional geographic spread of activities for the firm? In the restaurant business, most firms serve small local markets, whereas McDonald’s operates in more than one hundred countries throughout the world. (iii) What range of vertically linked activities should the firm encompass? Reliance Industries is a key player in each of the products in the Petrochemical—Fibre intermediate chain (synthetic textiles, PSF, PFY, PTA MEG) (iv) How the corporate office should manage its group of businesses? Corporate strategy spells out the businesses in which the firm will participate, the markets it will serve and the customer needs it will satisfy.

3 The five Generic Competitive Strategies Five Competitive Strategies Low-Cost Provider Strategies Differentiation Strategies Best-Cost Provider Strategies Focused (or Market Niche) Strategies

4 Ch 5 -4 Long Term Objectives Quantitative Measurable Realistic Understandable Challenging Hierarchical Obtainable Congruent

5 Ch 5 -5 Financial vs. Strategic Objectives Financial Objectives Growth in revenues Growth in earnings Higher dividends Larger profit margins Greater ROI Higher earnings per share Rising stock price Improved cash flow

6 Ch 5 -6 Financial vs. Strategic Objectives Strategic Objectives Larger market share Quicker on-time delivery than rivals Shorter design-to-market times than rivals Lower costs than rivals Higher product quality than rivals Wider geographic coverage than rivals Achieving technological leadership Consistently getting new or improved products to market ahead of rivals

7 Ch 5 -7 Not Managing by Objectives Managing by Extrapolation – “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” Managing by Crisis – The true measure of a good strategist is the ability to fix problems Managing by Subjectives – “Do your own thing, the best way you know how” Managing by Hope – The future is full of uncertainty and if at first you don’t succeed, then you may on the second or third try

8 Ch 5 -8 The Balanced Scorecard Robert Kaplan & David Norton – Strategy evaluation & control technique Balance financial measures with nonfinancial measures Balance shareholder objectives with customer & operational objectives

9 Cont…. R S Kaplan and D P Norton came out with a popular, balanced score card approach in early 90s linking corporate goals with strategic actions undertaken at the business unit, departmental and individual level. The score-card allows managers to evaluate a firm from different complementary perspectives. The arguments run thus: (i)A firm can offer superior returns to stockholders if it has a competitive advantage in its product or service offerings when compared to its rivals. (ii)(ii) In order to sustain a competitive advantage, a firm must offer superior value to customers. (iii) (iii) This, in turn, requires development of operations with necessary capabilities. (iv) (iv) In order to develop the needed operational capabilities, a firm requires the services of employees having requisite skills, creativity, diversity and motivations. Thus, the performance as assessed in one perspective supports performance in other areas—as shown below: T he Balanced Score Card: A Balanced Approach

10 Financial EVA Profitability Growth Customer Differentiation Cost Quick Response Operations Product Development Demand Management Order Fulfilment Organisational Leadership Organisational Learning Ability to Change Four Perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard

11 Ch Levels of Strategies –Large Company

12 Ch Levels of Strategies –Small Company

13 Strategy and Competitive Advantage Competitive advantage exists when a firm’s strategy gives it an edge in  Attracting customers and  Defending against competitive forces Convince customers firm’s product / service offers superior value  A good product at a low price  A superior product worth paying more for  A best-value product Key to Gaining a Competitive Advantage

14 What Is“Competitive Strategy”? Deals exclusively with a company’s business plans to compete successfully  Specific efforts to please customers  Offensive and defensive moves to counter maneuvers of rivals  Responses to prevailing market conditions  Initiatives to strengthen its market position Narrower in scope than business strategy

15 The Five GenericCompetitive Strategies

16 Make achievement of meaningful lower costs than rivals the theme of firm’s strategy Include features and services in product offering that buyers consider essential Find approaches to achieve a cost advantage in ways difficult for rivals to copy or match Low-cost leadership means low overall costs, not just low manufacturing or production costs! Keys to Success Low-Cost Provider Strategies

17 Option 1: Use lower-cost edge to  Underprice competitors and attract price-sensitive buyers in enough numbers to increase total profits Option 2: Maintain present price, be content with present market share, and use lower-cost edge to  Earn a higher profit margin on each unit sold, thereby increasing total profits Options: Achieving a Low-CostAdvantage

18 Nucor Corporation’s Low-Cost Provider Strategy Eliminate some production processes from value chain used by traditional integrated steel mills; cut investment in facilities and equipment Strive hard for continuous improvement in the efficiency of its plants and frequently invest in state-of-the art equipment to reduce unit costs Carefully select plan sites to minimize inbound and outbound shipping costs and to take advantage of low rates for electricity Hire a nonunion workforce that uses team-based incentive compensation systems Heavily emphasize consistent product quality and maintain rigorous quality systems Minimize general and administrative expenses by maintaining a lean staff at corporate headquarters and allowing only 4 levels of management

19 Do a better job than rivals of performing value chain activities efficiently and cost effectively Revamp value chain to bypass cost- producing activities that add little value from the buyer’s perspective Approach 1 Approach 2 Control costs! By-pass costs! Approaches to Securing a Cost Advantage

20 Approach 1: Controlling the Cost Drivers Capture scale economies; avoid scale diseconomies Capture learning and experience curve effects Manage costs of key resource inputs Consider linkages with other activities in value chain Find sharing opportunities with other business units Compare vertical integration vs. outsourcing Assess first-mover advantages vs. disadvantages Control percentage of capacity utilization Make prudent strategic choices related to operations

21 Approach 2: Revamping the Value Chain Make greater use of Internet technology applications Use direct-to-end-user sales/marketing methods Simplify product design Offer basic, no-frills product/service Shift to a simpler, less capital-intensive, or more flexible technological process Find ways to bypass use of high-cost raw materials Relocate facilities closer to suppliers or customers Drop “something for everyone” approach and focus on a limited product/service

22 Keys to Success in Achieving Low-Cost Leadership Scrutinize each cost-creating activity, identifying cost drivers Use knowledge about cost drivers to manage costs of each activity down year after year Find ways to restructure value chain to eliminate nonessential work steps and low-value activities Work diligently to create cost-conscious corporate cultures  Feature broad employee participation in continuous cost- improvement efforts and limited perks for executives  Strive to operate with exceptionally small corporate staffs Aggressively pursue investments in resources and capabilities that promise to drive costs out of the business

23 Characteristics of a Low-Cost Provider Cost conscious corporate culture Employee participation in cost-control efforts Ongoing efforts to benchmark costs Intensive scrutiny of budget requests Programs promoting continuous cost improvement Successful low-cost producers champion frugality but wisely and aggressively invest in cost-saving improvements !

24 When Does a Low-Cost Strategy Work Best? Price competition is vigorous Product is standardized or readily available from many suppliers There are few ways to achieve differentiation that have value to buyers Most buyers use product in same ways Buyers incur low switching costs Buyers are large and have significant bargaining power Industry newcomers use introductory low prices to attract buyers and build customer base

25 Pitfalls of Low-Cost Strategies Being overly aggressive in cutting price Low cost methods are easily imitated by rivals Becoming too fixated on reducing costs and ignoring  Buyer interest in additional features  Declining buyer sensitivity to price  Changes in how the product is used Technological breakthroughs open up cost reductions for rivals

26 Differentiation Strategies Incorporate differentiating features that cause buyers to prefer firm’s product or service over brands of rivals Find ways to differentiate that create value for buyers and are not easily matched or cheaply copied by rivals Not spending more to achieve differentiation than the price premium that can be charged Objective Keys to Success

27 Benefits of Successful Differentiation A product / service with unique, appealing attributes allows a firm to  Command a premium price and/or  Increase unit sales and/or  Build brand loyalty = Competitive Advantage Which hat is unique?

28 Types of Differentiation Themes Unique taste -- Dr. Pepper Multiple features -- Microsoft Windows and Office Wide selection and one-stop shopping -- Home Depot and Superior service -- FedEx, Ritz-Carlton Spare parts availability -- Caterpillar More for your money -- McDonald’s, Wal-Mart Prestige -- Rolex Quality manufacture -- Honda, Toyota Technological leadership -- 3M Corporation Top-of-line image -- Ralph Lauren, Chanel, Cross

29 Sustaining Differentiation: Keys to Competitive Advantage Most appealing approaches to differentiation  Those hardest for rivals to match or imitate  Those buyers will find most appealing Best choices to gain a longer-lasting, more profitable competitive edge  New product innovation  Technical superiority  Product quality and reliability  Comprehensive customer service  Unique competitive capabilities

30 Where to Find Differentiation Opportunities in the Value Chain Purchasing and procurement activities Product R&D and product design activities Production process / technology-related activities Manufacturing / production activities Distribution-related activities Marketing, sales, and customer service activities

31 Where to Find Differentiation Opportunities in the Value Chain Internally Performed Activities, Costs, & Margins Activities, Costs, & Margins of Suppliers Buyer/User Value Chains Activities, Costs, & Margins of Forward Channel Allies & Strategic Partners

32 How to Achieve a Differentiation-Based Advantage Approach 1 Incorporate features/attributes that raise the performance a buyer gets out of the product Approach 2 Incorporate features/attributes that enhance buyer satisfaction in non-economic or intangible ways Approach 3 Compete on the basis of superior capabilities Approach 4 Incorporate product features/attributes that lower buyer’s overall costs of using product

33 Importance of Perceived Value Buyers seldom pay for value that is not perceived Price premium of a differentiation strategy reflects  Value actually delivered to the buyer and  Value perceived by the buyer Actual and perceived value can differ when buyers are unable to assess their experience with a product

34 Signaling Value as Well as Delivering Value Incomplete knowledge of buyers causes them to judge value based on such signals as  Price  Attractive packaging  Extensive ad campaigns  Ad content and image  Characteristics of seller Facilities Customers Professionalism and personality of employees Signals of value may be as important as actual value when  Nature of differentiation is hard to quantify  Buyers are making first-time purchases  Repurchase is infrequent  Buyers are unsophisticated

35 When Does a Differentiation Strategy Work Best? There are many ways to differentiate a product that have value and please customers Buyer needs and uses are diverse Few rivals are following a similar differentiation approach Technological change and product innovation are fast-paced

36 When Does a Differentiation Strategy Work Best? There are many ways to differentiate a product that have value and please customers Buyer needs and uses are diverse Few rivals are following a similar differentiation approach Technological change and product innovation are fast-paced

37 Pitfalls of Differentiation Strategies Buyers see little value in unique attributes of product Appealing product features are easily copied by rivals Differentiating on a feature buyers do not perceive as lowering their cost or enhancing their well-being Over-differentiating such that product features exceed buyers’ needs Charging a price premium buyers perceive is too high Not striving to open up meaningful gaps in quality, service, or performance features vis- à-vis rivals’ products

38 Best-Cost Provider Strategies Combine a strategic emphasis on low-cost with a strategic emphasis on differentiation  Make an upscale product at a lower cost  Give customers more value for the money Deliver superior value by meeting or exceeding buyer expectations on product attributes and beating their price expectations Be the low-cost provider of a product with good-to-excellent product attributes, then use cost advantage to underprice comparable brands Objectives

39 A best-cost provider’s competitive advantage comes from matching close rivals on key product attributes and beating them on price Success depends on having the skills and capabilities to provide attractive performance and features at a lower cost than rivals A best-cost producer can often out-compete both a low-cost provider and a differentiator when  Standardized features/attributes won’t meet diverse needs of buyers  Many buyers are price and value sensitive Competitive Strength of a Best-Cost ProviderStrategy

40 A best-cost provider may get squeezed between strategies of firms using low-cost and differentiation strategies  Low-cost leaders may be able to siphon customers away with a lower price  High-end differentiators may be able to steal customers away with better product attributes Risk of a Best-Cost Provider Strategy

41 Focus / Niche Strategies Involve concentrated attention on a narrow piece of the total market Serve niche buyers better than rivals Choose a market niche where buyers have distinctive preferences, special requirements, or unique needs Develop unique capabilities to serve needs of target buyer segment Objective Keys to Success

42 Geographic uniqueness Specialized requirements in using product/service Special product attributes appealing only to niche buyers Approaches to Defining a Market Niche

43 Examples of Focus Strategies eBay  Online auctions Porsche  Sports cars Jiffy Lube International  Maintenance for motor vehicles Pottery Barn Kids  Children’s furniture and accessories Bandag  Specialist in truck tire recapping

44 Focus / Niche Strategies and Competitive Advantage Achieve lower costs than rivals in serving the segment -- A focused low-cost strategy Offer niche buyers something different from rivals -- A focused differentiation strategy Approach 1 Approach 2 Which hat is unique?

45 What Makes a Niche Attractive for Focusing? Big enough to be profitable and offers good growth potential Not crucial to success of industry leaders Costly or difficult for multi-segment competitors to meet specialized needs of niche members Focuser has resources and capabilities to effectively serve an attractive niche Few other rivals are specializing in same niche Focuser can defend against challengers via superior ability to serve niche members

46 Risks of a Focus Strategy Competitors find effective ways to match a focuser’s capabilities in serving niche Niche buyers’ preferences shift towards product attributes desired by majority of buyers – niche becomes part of overall market Segment becomes so attractive it becomes crowded with rivals, causing segment profits to be splintered

47 Deciding Which Generic Competitive Strategy to Use Each positions a company differently in its market and competitive environment Each establishes a central theme for how a company will endeavor to outcompete rivals Each creates some boundaries for maneuvering as market circumstances unfold Each points to different ways of experimenting with the basics of the strategy Each entails differences in product line, production emphasis, marketing emphasis, and means to sustainthe strategy

48 Deciding Which Generic Competitive Strategy to Use Each positions a company differently in its market Each establishes a central theme for how a company will endeavor to outcompete rivals Each creates some boundaries for maneuvering as market circumstances unfold Each points to different ways of experimenting with the basics of the strategy Each entails differences in product line, production emphasis, marketing emphasis, and means to sustain the strategy The big risk – Selecting a “stuck in the middle” strategy! This rarely produces a sustainable competitive advantage or a distinctive competitive position.


50 Ch Types of Strategies Vertical Integration Strategies Forward Integration Backward Integration Horizontal Integration

51 Ch Vertical Integration Strategies Forward Integration Gaining ownership or increased control over distributors or retailers Backward Integration Seeking ownership or increased control of a firm’s suppliers Horizontal Integration Seeking ownership or increased control over competitors

52 Ch Types of Strategies Intensive Strategies Market Penetration Market Development Product Development

53 Ch Intensive Strategies Market Penetration Seeking increased market share for present products or services in present markets through greater marketing efforts Market Development Introducing present products or services into new geographic areas Product Development Seeking increased sales by improving present products or services or developing new ones

54 Ch Types of Strategies Diversification Strategies Related Diversification Unrelated Diversification

55 Ch Diversification Strategies Related Diversification Adding new but related products or services Unrelated Diversification Adding new, unrelated products or services

56 Ch Types of Strategies Defensive Strategies Retrenchment Divestiture Liquidation

57 Ch Defensive Strategies Retrenchment Regrouping through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales and profit Divestiture Selling a division or part of an organization Liquidation Selling all of a company’s assets, in parts, for their tangible worth

58 Ch Means for Achieving Strategies Cooperation among competitors Joint venture / partnering Merger / acquisition First mover advantages Outsourcing

59 Ch Strategic Management in Nonprofit and Governmental Organizations Educational Institutions Medical Organizations Governmental Agencies and Departments

60 Cont…. Outsourcing in Indian Companies TV Sets National Panasonic The company is outsourcing its colour television assembling processes from Salora, preferring to direct its resources to leveraging the equity of its famous brand and on breaking into a crowded marketplace. Ciba-Geigy Since marketing has become crucial, the company focuses on it, buying all its bottling, packaging, and stamping since these are commoditised aspects where it can expect to add little value itself. Pharmaceuticals Mahindra Ford Entering a crowded market, it will focus on its core function of assembly, keeping start-up costs as low as possible, and is outsourcing 40 per cent of its components, its warehousing as well as its distribution. Indo Rama With global markets for yarns still expanding, the company had opted to focus on its core strength instead of integrating. Since production is crucial, it outsources marketing, distribution, and ware housing. Jenson & Nicholson Intent on catching up with the leaders, the company has invested in marketing and distribution. Unable to integrate backwards, there fore, it has to outsource all its chemicals and raw materials. Automobiles Textiles Paints Industry

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