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“Competitive strategy is about being different

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1 “Competitive strategy is about being different
“Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals to deliver a unique mix of value.” Michael E. Porter

2 Corporate strategy is basically concerned with the choice of businesses, products and markets. It tries to answer certain key questions: (i) What businesses the firm should be in, in terms of the range of products it supplies. Punjab Tractors is a specialized company. It is involved almost exclusively in the manufacture of tractors. Hindustan Lever Ltd. is highly diversified with interests in soaps, tea, washing powders, detergents, tooth pastes, shampoo, creams, salt, hair oils etc. (ii) What should be the optional geographic spread of activities for the firm? In the restaurant business, most firms serve small local markets, whereas McDonald’s operates in more than one hundred countries throughout the world. (iii) What range of vertically linked activities should the firm encompass? Reliance Industries is a key player in each of the products in the Petrochemical—Fibre intermediate chain (synthetic textiles, PSF, PFY, PTA MEG) (iv) How the corporate office should manage its group of businesses? Corporate strategy spells out the businesses in which the firm will participate, the markets it will serve and the customer needs it will satisfy.

3 The five Generic Competitive Strategies
Five Competitive Strategies Low-Cost Provider Strategies Differentiation Strategies Best-Cost Provider Strategies Focused (or Market Niche) Strategies

4 Long Term Objectives Quantitative Measurable Realistic Understandable
Challenging Hierarchical Obtainable Congruent

5 Financial vs. Strategic Objectives
Financial Objectives Growth in revenues Growth in earnings Higher dividends Larger profit margins Greater ROI Higher earnings per share Rising stock price Improved cash flow

6 Financial vs. Strategic Objectives Strategic Objectives
Larger market share Quicker on-time delivery than rivals Shorter design-to-market times than rivals Lower costs than rivals Higher product quality than rivals Wider geographic coverage than rivals Achieving technological leadership Consistently getting new or improved products to market ahead of rivals

7 Not Managing by Objectives
Managing by Extrapolation – “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” Managing by Crisis – The true measure of a good strategist is the ability to fix problems Managing by Subjectives – “Do your own thing, the best way you know how” Managing by Hope – The future is full of uncertainty and if at first you don’t succeed, then you may on the second or third try

8 The Balanced Scorecard
Robert Kaplan & David Norton – Strategy evaluation & control technique Balance financial measures with nonfinancial measures Balance shareholder objectives with customer & operational objectives

9 The Balanced Score Card: A Balanced Approach
R S Kaplan and D P Norton came out with a popular, balanced score card approach in early 90s linking corporate goals with strategic actions undertaken at the business unit, departmental and individual level. The score-card allows managers to evaluate a firm from different complementary perspectives. The arguments run thus: A firm can offer superior returns to stockholders if it has a competitive advantage in its product or service offerings when compared to its rivals. (ii) In order to sustain a competitive advantage, a firm must offer superior value to customers. (iii) This, in turn, requires development of operations with necessary capabilities. (iv) In order to develop the needed operational capabilities, a firm requires the services of employees having requisite skills, creativity, diversity and motivations. Thus, the performance as assessed in one perspective supports performance in other areas—as shown below: Cont….

10 Four Perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard
Financial EVA Profitability Growth Customer Differentiation Cost Quick Response Operations Product Development Demand Management Order Fulfilment Organisational Leadership Organisational Learning Ability to Change

11 Levels of Strategies –Large Company

12 Levels of Strategies –Small Company

13 Strategy and Competitive Advantage
Competitive advantage exists when a firm’s strategy gives it an edge in Attracting customers and Defending against competitive forces Convince customers firm’s product / service offers superior value A good product at a low price A superior product worth paying more for A best-value product Key to Gaining a Competitive Advantage

14 What Is“Competitive Strategy”?
Deals exclusively with a company’s business plans to compete successfully Specific efforts to please customers Offensive and defensive moves to counter maneuvers of rivals Responses to prevailing market conditions Initiatives to strengthen its market position Narrower in scope than business strategy

15 The Five GenericCompetitive Strategies

16 Low-Cost Provider Strategies
Keys to Success Make achievement of meaningful lower costs than rivals the theme of firm’s strategy Include features and services in product offering that buyers consider essential Find approaches to achieve a cost advantage in ways difficult for rivals to copy or match Low-cost leadership means low overall costs, not just low manufacturing or production costs!

17 Options: Achieving a Low-CostAdvantage
Option 1: Use lower-cost edge to Underprice competitors and attract price-sensitive buyers in enough numbers to increase total profits Option 2: Maintain present price, be content with present market share, and use lower-cost edge to Earn a higher profit margin on each unit sold, thereby increasing total profits

18 Nucor Corporation’s Low-Cost Provider Strategy
Eliminate some production processes from value chain used by traditional integrated steel mills; cut investment in facilities and equipment Strive hard for continuous improvement in the efficiency of its plants and frequently invest in state-of-the art equipment to reduce unit costs Carefully select plan sites to minimize inbound and outbound shipping costs and to take advantage of low rates for electricity Hire a nonunion workforce that uses team-based incentive compensation systems Heavily emphasize consistent product quality and maintain rigorous quality systems Minimize general and administrative expenses by maintaining a lean staff at corporate headquarters and allowing only 4 levels of management

19 Approaches to Securing a Cost Advantage
Control costs! By-pass costs! Do a better job than rivals of performing value chain activities efficiently and cost effectively Revamp value chain to bypass cost-producing activities that add little value from the buyer’s perspective Approach 2

20 Approach 1: Controlling the Cost Drivers
Capture scale economies; avoid scale diseconomies Capture learning and experience curve effects Manage costs of key resource inputs Consider linkages with other activities in value chain Find sharing opportunities with other business units Compare vertical integration vs. outsourcing Assess first-mover advantages vs. disadvantages Control percentage of capacity utilization Make prudent strategic choices related to operations

21 Approach 2: Revamping the Value Chain
Make greater use of Internet technology applications Use direct-to-end-user sales/marketing methods Simplify product design Offer basic, no-frills product/service Shift to a simpler, less capital-intensive, or more flexible technological process Find ways to bypass use of high-cost raw materials Relocate facilities closer to suppliers or customers Drop “something for everyone” approach and focus on a limited product/service

22 Keys to Success in Achieving Low-Cost Leadership
Scrutinize each cost-creating activity, identifying cost drivers Use knowledge about cost drivers to manage costs of each activity down year after year Find ways to restructure value chain to eliminate nonessential work steps and low-value activities Work diligently to create cost-conscious corporate cultures Feature broad employee participation in continuous cost-improvement efforts and limited perks for executives Strive to operate with exceptionally small corporate staffs Aggressively pursue investments in resources and capabilities that promise to drive costs out of the business

23 Characteristics of a Low-Cost Provider
Cost conscious corporate culture Employee participation in cost-control efforts Ongoing efforts to benchmark costs Intensive scrutiny of budget requests Programs promoting continuous cost improvement Successful low-cost producers champion frugality but wisely and aggressively invest in cost-saving improvements !

24 When Does a Low-Cost Strategy Work Best?
Price competition is vigorous Product is standardized or readily available from many suppliers There are few ways to achieve differentiation that have value to buyers Most buyers use product in same ways Buyers incur low switching costs Buyers are large and have significant bargaining power Industry newcomers use introductory low prices to attract buyers and build customer base

25 Pitfalls of Low-Cost Strategies
Being overly aggressive in cutting price Low cost methods are easily imitated by rivals Becoming too fixated on reducing costs and ignoring Buyer interest in additional features Declining buyer sensitivity to price Changes in how the product is used Technological breakthroughs open up cost reductions for rivals

26 Differentiation Strategies
Objective Incorporate differentiating features that cause buyers to prefer firm’s product or service over brands of rivals Find ways to differentiate that create value for buyers and are not easily matched or cheaply copied by rivals Not spending more to achieve differentiation than the price premium that can be charged Keys to Success

27 Benefits of Successful Differentiation
A product / service with unique, appealing attributes allows a firm to Command a premium price and/or Increase unit sales and/or Build brand loyalty = Competitive Advantage Which hat is unique?

28 Types of Differentiation Themes
Unique taste -- Dr. Pepper Multiple features -- Microsoft Windows and Office Wide selection and one-stop shopping -- Home Depot and Superior service -- FedEx, Ritz-Carlton Spare parts availability -- Caterpillar More for your money -- McDonald’s, Wal-Mart Prestige -- Rolex Quality manufacture -- Honda, Toyota Technological leadership -- 3M Corporation Top-of-line image -- Ralph Lauren, Chanel, Cross

29 Sustaining Differentiation: Keys to Competitive Advantage
Most appealing approaches to differentiation Those hardest for rivals to match or imitate Those buyers will find most appealing Best choices to gain a longer-lasting, more profitable competitive edge New product innovation Technical superiority Product quality and reliability Comprehensive customer service Unique competitive capabilities

30 Where to Find Differentiation Opportunities in the Value Chain
Purchasing and procurement activities Product R&D and product design activities Production process / technology-related activities Manufacturing / production activities Distribution-related activities Marketing, sales, and customer service activities

31 Where to Find Differentiation Opportunities in the Value Chain
Internally Performed Activities, Costs, & Margins Margins of Suppliers Buyer/User Value Chains Activities, Costs, & Margins of Forward Channel Allies & Strategic Partners

32 How to Achieve a Differentiation-Based Advantage
Approach 1 Incorporate product features/attributes that lower buyer’s overall costs of using product Approach 2 Incorporate features/attributes that raise the performance a buyer gets out of the product Approach 3 Incorporate features/attributes that enhance buyer satisfaction in non-economic or intangible ways Approach 4 Compete on the basis of superior capabilities

33 Importance of Perceived Value
Buyers seldom pay for value that is not perceived Price premium of a differentiation strategy reflects Value actually delivered to the buyer and Value perceived by the buyer Actual and perceived value can differ when buyers are unable to assess their experience with a product

34 Signaling Value as Well as Delivering Value
Incomplete knowledge of buyers causes them to judge value based on such signals as Price Attractive packaging Extensive ad campaigns Ad content and image Characteristics of seller Facilities Customers Professionalism and personality of employees Signals of value may be as important as actual value when Nature of differentiation is hard to quantify Buyers are making first-time purchases Repurchase is infrequent Buyers are unsophisticated

35 When Does a Differentiation Strategy Work Best?
There are many ways to differentiate a product that have value and please customers Buyer needs and uses are diverse Few rivals are following a similar differentiation approach Technological change and product innovation are fast-paced

36 When Does a Differentiation Strategy Work Best?
There are many ways to differentiate a product that have value and please customers Buyer needs and uses are diverse Few rivals are following a similar differentiation approach Technological change and product innovation are fast-paced

37 Pitfalls of Differentiation Strategies
Buyers see little value in unique attributes of product Appealing product features are easily copied by rivals Differentiating on a feature buyers do not perceive as lowering their cost or enhancing their well-being Over-differentiating such that product features exceed buyers’ needs Charging a price premium buyers perceive is too high Not striving to open up meaningful gaps in quality, service, or performance features vis-à-vis rivals’ products

38 Best-Cost Provider Strategies
Combine a strategic emphasis on low-cost with a strategic emphasis on differentiation Make an upscale product at a lower cost Give customers more value for the money Deliver superior value by meeting or exceeding buyer expectations on product attributes and beating their price expectations Be the low-cost provider of a product with good-to-excellent product attributes, then use cost advantage to underprice comparable brands Objectives

39 Competitive Strength of a Best-Cost ProviderStrategy
A best-cost provider’s competitive advantage comes from matching close rivals on key product attributes and beating them on price Success depends on having the skills and capabilities to provide attractive performance and features at a lower cost than rivals A best-cost producer can often out-compete both a low-cost provider and a differentiator when Standardized features/attributes won’t meet diverse needs of buyers Many buyers are price and value sensitive

40 Risk of a Best-Cost Provider Strategy
A best-cost provider may get squeezed between strategies of firms using low-cost and differentiation strategies Low-cost leaders may be able to siphon customers away with a lower price High-end differentiators may be able to steal customers away with better product attributes

41 Focus / Niche Strategies
Involve concentrated attention on a narrow piece of the total market Serve niche buyers better than rivals Choose a market niche where buyers have distinctive preferences, special requirements, or unique needs Develop unique capabilities to serve needs of target buyer segment Objective Keys to Success

42 Approaches to Defining a Market Niche
Geographic uniqueness Specialized requirements in using product/service Special product attributes appealing only to niche buyers

43 Examples of Focus Strategies
eBay Online auctions Porsche Sports cars Jiffy Lube International Maintenance for motor vehicles Pottery Barn Kids Children’s furniture and accessories Bandag Specialist in truck tire recapping

44 Focus / Niche Strategies and Competitive Advantage
Achieve lower costs than rivals in serving the segment -- A focused low-cost strategy Approach 1 Offer niche buyers something different from rivals -- A focused differentiation strategy Approach 2 Which hat is unique?

45 What Makes a Niche Attractive for Focusing?
Big enough to be profitable and offers good growth potential Not crucial to success of industry leaders Costly or difficult for multi-segment competitors to meet specialized needs of niche members Focuser has resources and capabilities to effectively serve an attractive niche Few other rivals are specializing in same niche Focuser can defend against challengers via superior ability to serve niche members

46 Risks of a Focus Strategy
Competitors find effective ways to match a focuser’s capabilities in serving niche Niche buyers’ preferences shift towards product attributes desired by majority of buyers – niche becomes part of overall market Segment becomes so attractive it becomes crowded with rivals, causing segment profits to be splintered

47 Deciding Which Generic Competitive Strategy to Use
Each positions a company differently in its market and competitive environment Each establishes a central theme for how a company will endeavor to outcompete rivals Each creates some boundaries for maneuvering as market circumstances unfold Each points to different ways of experimenting with the basics of the strategy Each entails differences in product line, production emphasis, marketing emphasis, and means to sustainthe strategy

48 Deciding Which Generic Competitive Strategy to Use
Each positions a company differently in its market Each establishes a central theme for how a company will endeavor to outcompete rivals Each creates some boundaries for maneuvering as market circumstances unfold Each points to different ways of experimenting with the basics of the strategy Each entails differences in product line, production emphasis, marketing emphasis, and means to sustain the strategy The big risk – Selecting a “stuck in the middle” strategy! This rarely produces a sustainable competitive advantage or a distinctive competitive position.


50 Horizontal Integration
Types of Strategies Forward Integration Vertical Integration Strategies Backward Integration Horizontal Integration

51 Vertical Integration Strategies
Forward Integration Gaining ownership or increased control over distributors or retailers Backward Integration Seeking ownership or increased control of a firm’s suppliers Horizontal Integration Seeking ownership or increased control over competitors

52 Types of Strategies Market Penetration Market Development
Intensive Strategies Market Development Product Development

53 Intensive Strategies Market Penetration Market Development
Seeking increased market share for present products or services in present markets through greater marketing efforts Market Development Introducing present products or services into new geographic areas Product Development Seeking increased sales by improving present products or services or developing new ones

54 Diversification Strategies
Types of Strategies Related Diversification Diversification Strategies Unrelated Diversification

55 Diversification Strategies
Related Diversification Adding new but related products or services Unrelated Diversification Adding new, unrelated products or services

56 Types of Strategies Retrenchment Divestiture Liquidation
Defensive Strategies Divestiture Liquidation

57 Defensive Strategies Retrenchment Divestiture Liquidation
Regrouping through cost and asset reduction to reverse declining sales and profit Divestiture Selling a division or part of an organization Liquidation Selling all of a company’s assets, in parts, for their tangible worth

58 Means for Achieving Strategies
Cooperation among competitors Joint venture / partnering Merger / acquisition First mover advantages Outsourcing

59 Strategic Management in Nonprofit and Governmental Organizations
Educational Institutions Medical Organizations Governmental Agencies and Departments

60 Outsourcing in Indian Companies
Industry National Panasonic Ciba - Geigy Since marketing has become crucial, the The company is outsourcing its colour television company focuses on it, buying all its bottling, assembling processes from Salora, preferring to packaging, and stamping since these are direct its resources to leveraging the equity of its commoditised aspects where it can expect to famous brand and on breaking into a crowded ad d little value itself. marketplace. TV Sets Pharmaceuticals Mahindra Ford Indo Rama Jenson & Nicholson Entering a crowded market, With global markets for Intent on catching up with it will focus on its core yarns still expanding, the the leaders, the company function of assembly, company had opted to focus has invested in marketing keeping start - up costs as on its core strength instead and distribution. Unable to low as possible, and is of integrating. Since integrate backwards, there outsourcing 40 per cent of production is crucial, it fore, it has to outsource all its components, its outsources marketing, its chemicals and raw warehousing as well as its distribution, and ware materials. distribution. housing . Cont…. Automobiles Textiles Paints

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