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THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECT ON INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR REACTORS AND FUEL CYCLES (INPRO) F. Depisch, C.Allan, J. Kupitz (IAEA) WATEC Vienna, 3 rd October 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECT ON INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR REACTORS AND FUEL CYCLES (INPRO) F. Depisch, C.Allan, J. Kupitz (IAEA) WATEC Vienna, 3 rd October 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE INTERNATIONAL PROJECT ON INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR REACTORS AND FUEL CYCLES (INPRO) F. Depisch, C.Allan, J. Kupitz (IAEA) WATEC Vienna, 3 rd October 2003

2 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Table of Contents Table of Contents Introduction Goals of INPRO Results of INPRO Phase 1A in the Area of NP Prospects/Potentials, Economics, Sustainability/Environment, Safety, Proliferation Resistance, Cross Cutting Issues and Methodology Conclusion and Outlook

3 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Introduction INPRO : International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles Basis of INPRO : Resolution at the IAEA General Conference in 2000/2001/2002 in Vienna 16 Participants in INPRO (June 2003): 15 INPRO Member States: Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Germany, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Turkey European Commission. Several Observers in INPRO (e.g. Australia, Belgium, Chile, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Japan, UK, USA, OECD/NEA, etc.)

4 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Goals of INPRO ●INPRO Goals: 1.To help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner. 2.To bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. INPRO Time horizon is 50 years into the future. Why Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems? Need for Innovation to turn around current trend regarding Nuclear Power ( ).

5 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Status of INPRO June 2003: End of INPRO Phase 1A Phase 1A: Definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems in the Area of Economics, Environment, Safety, Proliferation Resistance and Crosscutting Issues, Outline of Methodology Documentation of Results of INPRO Phase1A in IAEA Report TECDOC-1362 July 2003: Start of Phase 1B (Validation of Methodology)

6 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Nuclear Power Prospects and Potentials World Nuclear Electricity Production (GWe) (IPCC) Yellow bars: SRES Scenarios SRES = Special Report on Emission Scenarios of the Intergovernme ntal Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

7 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Economics INPRO: Selection of 4 Representative Scenarios of the Future out of 40 SRES = Special Report on Emission Scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) IIASA = International Institute for Applied System Analysis

8 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Economics Potential Global Market for Nuclear Electricity, Hydrogen, Heat and Desalination for A1T Scenario Energy (EJ) Time (yr) SRES Scenario A1T SRES Potential

9 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Economics NTR = Nuclear Technology Review (IAEA) in 2002 S-2000 = SRES input for the year 2000 A1T-N = Costs in A1T with aggressive Learning Rate Ranges for Specific Capital Costs in 2050 for NPP (SRES) A1T = Costs in A1T as defined in SRES 4% 7% 3% 10% 0% 6% 0% 8% IAEAIAEA SRESSRES Upper Bar: Learning Rate SRES Lower Bar: Learning Rate INPRO

10 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Definition of Selected INPRO Terms Innovative Nuclear Energy System (INS): INS will position NP to make Major Contribution to Energy Supply in the 21 st Century. INS includes Innovative and Evolutionary Designs. Innovative design (= advanced design) incorporating radical conceptual changes in design approaches or system configuration in comparison with existing designs. Evolutionary design (= advanced design) incorporating small to moderate modifications with strong emphasis on maintaining design proveness. INS includes all Components: Mining and Milling, Fuel Production, Enrichment, Fabrication, Production (incl. all types and sizes of reactors), Reprocessing, Materials Management (incl. Transportation and Waste Management), Institutional Measures (e.g. safe guards, etc.), all Phases (e.g. cradle to grave)

11 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Definition of Selected INPRO Terms Basic Principle: Statement of a general rule providing guidance for the development of INS. User Requirement: Conditions to be met to achieve acceptance of INS by User. Definition of measures to fulfill Basic Principle. User: Has a stake or interest in sectors where INS are applicable, e.g. designers, utilities (electricity, heating, desalination, etc.), regulators, national governments, NGO, press, international organizations and public. Includes countries in development and transition. Criterion: Consists of an Indicator and an Acceptance Limit. Used for Judgement of Potential of INS to fulfil the corresponding User Requirement.

12 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Definition of Selected INPRO Terms INPRO Hierarchy of Demands on Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (INS) Basic Principle User Requirement Criterion b b a a a = Derivation b = Fulfilment

13 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Economics Two Basic Principles defined: The cost of energy from INS, taking all costs and credits into account, must be competitive with that of alternative energy sources INS must represent an attractive investment compared with other major investments Five User Requirements and Several Criteria defined

14 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Sustainability / Environment Holistic Approach for Environmental Assessment

15 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Sustainability / Environment  Two Basic Principles defined: 1.Acceptability of Environmental Effects :  The adverse environmental effects of the INS must be well within the performance envelope of current nuclear energy systems. 2.Fitness for Purpose :  The INS must be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the future making efficient use of non-renewable resources.  Four User Requirements (UR) and Six Criteria for INS defined  Four UR for Assessment Method defined

16 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Fuel Cycle Installations - Control Sub-criticality and Chemistry - Remove Decay Heat from Radio-nuclides - Confine Radioactivity and Shield Radiation - Results of INPRO in the Area Safety of Nuclear Installations Approach to Development of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria for INS in the Area of Safety General Nuclear Safety Objective Fundamental Safety Functions Nuclear Reactors - Control Reactivity - Remove Heat from Core - Confine Radioactivity and Shield Radiation - Defence in Depth - Prevent abnormal operation and failures - Control abnormal operation, detect failures - Control accidents within design basis - Assure low damage frequencies - Contain released radioactive materials Balanced design options and configurations Deterministic & Probabilistic Safety Analysis Increased Emphasis on Inherent Safety Characteristics Passive Systems Active Systems

17 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Safety of Nuclear Installations Five Basic Principles defined : The Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Installations shall: Incorporate enhanced defense in depth Be so save that they can be sited in locations similar to other industrial facilities used for similar purpose Incorporate increased emphasis on inherent safety and passive features Include associated RD&D Include holistic life-cycle analysis Twenty-seven User Requirements and Several Criteria defined

18 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Safety of Nuclear Installations Basic Principle 1: Innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle installations shall incorporate enhanced defence-in-depth as a part of their fundamental safety approach and the levels of protection in defence-in-depth shall be more independent from each other than in current installations (continued). The innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle installations shall not need relocation or evacuation measures outside the plant site, apart from those generic emergency measures developed for any industrial facility. Probability of large release of radioactive materials to the environment. <10 -6 per plant * year, or excluded by design. User Requirement Criteria Indicators Acceptance Limit

19 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Waste Management Nine Basic Principles (from IAEA Safety Series No. 111-F) Secure acceptable level of protection for human health and the environment including effects beyond national borders now and in the future (summary of 4 principles) Avoid undue burdens on future generations Minimize waste generation Consider all interdependencies among all steps of waste generation Assure appropriate national legal framework Assure safety of waste facilities during lifetime Six User Requirements and Several Criteria defined by INPRO

20 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Waste Management User Requirement Criteria IndicatorsAcceptance Limits 5.Reduction of Waste at the Source: The energy system should be designed to minimize the generation of wastes and particularly wastes containing long-lived toxic components that would be mobile in a repository environment. Alpha-emitters and other long-lived radionuclidesALARP Total activity Radiotoxicity ALARP MassALARP VolumeALARP Chemically toxic elements that would become part of the radioactive waste ALARP (as low as reasonable practical, social and economic factors taken into account)

21 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Waste management User Requirement Criteria IndicatorsAcceptance Limits Intermediate steps between generation of the waste and the end state should be taken as early as reasonably practicable. The design of the steps should ensure that all important technical issues (e.g., heat removal, criticality control, confinement of radioactive material) are addressed. The processes should not inhibit or complicate the achievement of the end state. Time to produce the waste form specified for the end state As short as reasonably practicable. T E TTechnical indicators: e.g., l Criticality compliance Heat removal provisions Radioactive emission control measures Shielding specifications Volume / activity reduction measures Radiotoxicity l Criteria as prescribed by regulatory bodies of specific Member States. Process descriptions that encompass the entire waste life cycle. Complete chain of processes from generation to final end state and sufficiently detailed to make evident the feasibility of all steps.

22 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Proliferation Resistance Definition of Proliferation Resistance: Characteristics of nuclear energy system that impedes diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material or misuse of technology Intrinsic Features: Technical design (e.g., core with small reactivity margins) Extrinsic Measures: Control and verification agreements (e.g., IAEA safeguards)

23 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Proliferation Resistance Five Basic Principles defined: Provide proliferation resistant features to minimize the possibilities of misuse of nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Provide balanced combination of of intrinsic and extrinsic measures (summary of 2 principles) Encourage development of intrinsic features Assessment methods to be developed Five User Requirements and Several Criteria defined

24 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Crosscutting Issues Definition of Desired Changes (recommendations) to Facilitate Deployment of NP in the Area of : Legal and Institutional Infrastructure Economic and Industrial Infrastructure Socio-Political Infrastructure

25 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Crosscutting Issues Recommendations in the area of Legal and Institutional Infrastructure: License for INS should be based on INPRO Requirements and internationally accepted. International or regional nuclear authorities and inspection bodies should be established. Handling of liability and insurance risk should be comparable to other industries.

26 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Results of INPRO in the Area Methodology for Assessment Top down approach: Development of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria in the Areas of Economics, Environment, Safety, waste management and Proliferation Resistance Compiling of Approaches in INS relevant to different Areas Check of Compliance of Approaches with Basic Principles and User Requirements via Judgment of Potential to fulfill Criteria.

27 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September Conclusion and Outlook Conclusion: INPRO Phase 1A finished in June 2003 Formulation by INPRO in Phase 1A of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria for Assessment of INS in all Areas Documentation of Results of Phase 1A in an IAEA report (TECDOC-1362) Outlook: INPRO Phase 1B started in July 2003: Application of INPRO Methodology by assessing of INS via  Case Studies to update methodology (Argentina, India, Korea, Russia)  Work Packages  Assessment of complete INS Enhancement of Synergy with other projects (e.g. GIF)

28 F. DepischIC on Global Environment and advanced NPP, Kyoto, 15 th – 19 th of September INPRO and GIF Both Projects are complementary: INPRO:  Represents technology users and holders  Global perspective including developing countries  Assessment methodology also for users  Holistic approach of nuclear systems  Inclusion of infrastructure aspects GIF  Represents primarily technology holders  Basis for RD&D of 6 chosen technologies


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