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Nahjul Balaaghah about Allah (swt): Tawhid By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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Presentation on theme: "Nahjul Balaaghah about Allah (swt): Tawhid By A.S. Hashim. MD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nahjul Balaaghah about Allah (swt): Tawhid By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: 1. neither in substance 2. nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

4 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid References about Tawhid Nahjul Balaaghah contains 11 references about Tawhid, some of which appear here The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. 1. The Arabic quotes are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut 1967. 2. The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah 3. The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see Al-Islam.org, internet)

5 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

6 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 1, Page 39 Ali: about Tawhid Ali speaks about the creation starting with Praise to the Almighty, then about Tawhid, then other points. Ali says about Tawhid as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Harrani, Tuhaf, 57; 2. al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, I, 140; 3. al-Qadi al-Quda`i, Dustur, 153; 4. al-Razi, Tafsir, II, 164; 5. Ibn Talhah, Matalib; 6. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, I, bab al-sama' wa al-kawakib; 7. al-Wasiti, `Uyun, see al-Majlisi, Bihar, vol.77, 300, 423; 8. al-Rawandi, Sharh, see Kashif al-Ghita', Madarik, 69; 9. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 150

7 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 1, Ali: about Tawhid Foremost in Faith is to acknowledge Allah, and to acknowledge Him is to attest to Him. The height of attesting is to believe in His Oneness. The height of believing in His Oneness is sincerity to Him. The height of sincerity to Him is to disavow descriptions of Him (since every description is unlike the described), and to attest that descriptions attributed to Him are not His. Thus he who describes Allah would have associated with Him, and he who associates would have duplicated Him; and he who duplicates Him would have subdivided Him; and he who subdivides Him would have mistaken Him; and he who mistakes Him would have alluded to Him; and he who alludes to Him would have limited Him, and he who admits limitations for Him would have numbered Him… أَوَّلُ الدِّينِ مَعْرِفَتُهُ، وَكَمَالُ مَعْرِفَتِهِ التَّصْديقُ بِهِ، وَكَمَالُ التَّصْدِيقِ بِهِ تَوْحِيدُهُ، وَكَمَالُ تَوْحِيدِهِ الاِْخْلاصُ لَهُ، وَكَمَالُ الاِْخْلاصِ لَهُ نَفْيُ الصِّفَاتِ عَنْهُ، لِشَهَادَةِ كُلِّ صِفَة أَنَّها غَيْرُ المَوْصُوفِ، وَشَهَادَةِ كُلِّ مَوْصُوف أَنَّهُ غَيْرُ الصِّفَةِ، فَمَنْ وَصَفَ اللهَ سُبْحَانَهُ فَقَدْ قَرَنَهُ، وَمَنْ قَرَنَهُ فَقَدْ ثَنَّاهُ،وَمَنْ ثَنَّاهُ فَقَد جَزَّأَهُ، وَمَنْ جَزَّأَهُ فَقَدْ جَهِلَهُ، وَمَنْ جَهِلَهُ فَقَدْ أشَارَ إِلَيْهِ، وَمَنْ أشَارَ إِلَيْهِ فَقَدْ حَدَّهُ، وَمَنْ حَدَّهُ فَقَدْ عَدَّهُ،….

8 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 65, Page 96 Ali: About Allah's attributes Ali speaks about Allah’s attributes in amazing detail, some of which appear in next slide as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, 29, 62; 2. al-Wasiti, `Uyun; 3. al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 238.

9 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 65, Ali: About Allah's attributes To Allah is the Praise for Whom one condition does not precede another, that He may be the First before being Last, or be Manifest before being the Concealed. Everyone called One except Allah is petty; and everyone with honor other than Allah is meek. Every strong man other than Allah is weak. Every master other than Allah is a slave. Every scholar other than Allah is knowledge seeker. Every capable other than Allah maybe able or unable. Every listener other than Allah is deaf to whispers, or to loud or distant voices. Every seer other than Allah is blind to the hidden colors and delicate bodies. Every manifest thing other than Allah cannot be hidden, and every hidden except Allah cannot be manifest. الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي لَمْ تَسْبِقْ لَهُ حَالٌ حالاً، فَيَكُونَ أَوَّلاً قَبْلَ أَنْ يَكُونَ آخِراً، وَيَكُونَ ظَاهِراً قَبْلَ أَنْ يَكُونَ بَاطِناً. كُلُّ مُسَمّىً بِالْوَحْدَةِ غَيْرَهُ قَلِيلٌ، وَكُلُّ عَزِيز غَيْرَهُ ذَلِيلٌ، وَكُلُّ قَوِي غَيْرَهُ ضَعِيفٌ، وَكُلُّ مَالِك غَيْرَهُ مَمْلُوكٌ، وَكُلُّ عَالِم غَيْرَهُ مُتَعَلِّمٌ، وَكُلُّ قَادِر غَيْرَهُ يَقْدِرُ وَيَعْجَزُ، وَكُلُّ سَمِيع غَيْرَهُ يَصَمُّ عَنْ لَطِيفِ الاَْصْوَاتِ، ويُصِمُّهُ كَبِيرُهَا، وَيَذْهَبُ عَنْهُ مَا بَعُدَ مِنْهَا، وَكُلُّ بَصِير غَيْرَهُ يَعْمَى عَنْ خَفِيِّ الاَْلْوَانِ وَلَطِيفِ الاَْجْسَامِ، وَكُلُّ ظَاهِر غَيْرَهُ غَيْرُ بَاطِن، وَكُلُّ بَاطِن غَيْرَهُ غَيْرُ ظَاهِر.

10 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 85, Page 115 Ali: about Allah’s Perfection Ali testifies by Allah’s Perfection then admonishes the audience about other points in this sermon. About Allah’s Perfection Ali says as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Abu Nu`aym, Hilyah, I, 77; 2. al-Wasiti, `Uyun al-hikam; 3. Sibt, Tadhkirah, 131; 4. Ibn Talhah, Matalib, I, 140.

11 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 85, Ali: about Allah’s Perfection I stand witness that there is no god but Allah, He is One and there is no partner with Him. Allah is the First, such that nothing was before Him. He is the Last, such that there is no limit for Him. Neither imagination can grasp any of His qualities, nor minds can discern the essence of His Being. Neither analysis nor division can be applied to Him. And neither the eyes nor the hearts can encompass Him. وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ: الاَْوَّلُ لاَ شَيْءَ قَبْلَهُ، وَالاخِرُ لاَ غَايَةَ لَهُ، لاَ تَقَعُ الاَْوْهَامُ لَهُ عَلى صِفَة، وَلاَ تُعْقَدُ الْقُلُوبُ مِنْهُ عَلَى كَيْفِيَّة، وَلاَ تَنَالُهُ التَّجْزِئَةُ وَالتَّبْعِيضُ، وَلاَ تُحِيطُ بِهِ الاَْبْصَارُ وَالْقُلُوبُ.

12 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 182, Page 260 Ali: about Allah Probably this is the last sermon Ali gave, since Ibn Muljim assassinated him while he was in Morning Prayer at Masjid of Kufa. Ali died of the wound on 21 st of Ramadhan. The sermon is long, part of which appears in next slide as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Wasiti, `Uyun al-hikam, see al-Majlisi, vol. 77, 310; 2. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, II, 145, 198.

13 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 182, Ali: about Allah Since Allah was not begotten, none can share Him in glory, nor did He beget thus none is to inherit Him (as after dying). Neither time nor duration have preceded Him. And neither increase nor decrease occur to Him. But He has manifested Himself to our minds by observing His meticulous control and exacting decree. Among the proofs of His creation is the creation of the heavens, fastened without pillars, standing without support. He called them and they responded, obediently and humbly, with no tardiness or hesitation. Were it not to have acknowledged His Godhead and obeyed Him He would not have made them the place for His throne, the abode of His angels and the destination for the rising up of the pure utterances and the righteous deeds of the creatures. لَمْ يُولَدْ سُبْحَانَهُ فَيَكُونَ فِي الْعِزِّ مُشَارَكاً، وَلَمْ يَلِدْ فَيَكُونَ مُوْرُوثاً هَالِكاً، وَلَمْ يَتَقَدَّمْهُ وَقْتٌ وَلاَ زَمَانٌ، ولَمْ يَتَعَاوَرْهُ زِيَادَةٌ وَلاَ نُقْصَانٌ بَلْ ظَهَرَ لِلْعُقُولِ بِمَا أَرَانَا مِنْ عَلاَمَاتِ التَّدْبِيرِ الْمُتْقَنِ، وَالْقَضَاءِ الْمُبْرَمِ. فَمِنْ شَوَاهِدِ خَلْقِهِ خَلْقُ السَّماوَاتِ مُوَطَّدَات بِلاَ عَمَد، قَائِمَات بِلاَ سَنَد، دَعَاهُنَّ فَأَجَبْنَ طَائِعَات مُذْعِنَات، غَيْرَ مُتَلَكِّئَات وَلاَ مُبْطِئَات، وَلَوْ لاَ إقْرَارُهُنَّ لَهُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ وَإِذْعَانُهُنَّ بِالطَّوَاعِيَةِ، لَمَا جَعَلَهُنَّ مَوْضِعاً لِعَرْشِهِ، وَلاَ مَسْكَناً لِمَلائِكَتِهِ، وَلاَ مَصْعَداً لِلْكَلِمِ الطَّيِّبِ وَالْعَمَلِ الصَّالِحِ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ.

14 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 182, Page 262 Ali: about Allah Probably this was Ali’s last sermon. What follows is another selection about Allah, glory be to Him. The sermon is long, part of which appears in next slide as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Wasiti, `Uyun al-hikam, see al-Majlisi, vol. 77, 310; 2. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, II, 145, 198.

15 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 182, Ali: about Allah Let the Praise be to Allah existing before the existence of the Seat or the Throne, the sky or the earth, the jinn or mankind. Allah cannot be conceived by imagination nor measured by understanding. A person who asks of Him does not divert Him from others, nor does giving away decrease Him. Allah does not see by means of an eye, nor can He be confined to a place. He cannot be said to have companions. He does not create with the help of limbs, nor can He be perceived by senses, or be compared with people’s measures. Allah is He who spoke to Musa clearly and showed him His grand signs, without using any bodily parts, or organ of speech. وَالْحَمْدُ لله الْكَائِنِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَكُونَ كُرْسِيٌّ أَوْ عَرْشٌ، أَوْ سَمَاءٌ أَوْ أَرْضٌ، أَوْ جَانٌّ أَوْ إنْسٌ، لاَ يُدْرَكُ بِوَهْم، وَلاَ يُقَدَّرُ بِفَهْم، وَلاَ يَشْغَلُهُ سَائِلٌ، وَلاَ يَنْقُصُهُ نَائِلٌ، وَلاَ يَنْظُرُ بِعَيْن، وَلاَ يُحَدُّ بِأَيْن، وَلاَ يُوصَفُ بِالاَْزْوَاجِ، وَلاَ يُخْلَقُ بِعِلاَج، وَلاَ يُدْركُ بِالْحَوَاسِّ، وَلاَ يُقَاسُ بِالنَّاسِ الَّذِي كَلَّمَ مُوسى تَكْلِيماً، وَأَرَاهُ مِنْ آيَاتِهِ عَظيماً، بِلاَ جَوَارِحَ وَلاَ أَدَوَات، وَلاَ نُطْق وَلاَ لَهَوَات

16 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 185, Page 269 Ali in Praise of Allah What follows is another selection about Allah, glory be to Him. The sermon is long, part of which appear in next slide as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Abu Talib Yahya ibn al-Husayn ibn Harun al-Husayni, al- 'Amali, 192; 2. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, bab dawabb al-barr wa al-bahr; 3. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 305.

17 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 185, Ali in Praise of Allah Praise be to Allah! Untouched by the senses, uncontained by a place, Unseen by the eyes, nor can a cover hide Him. By the existence of His creation He proves His eternity, and by originating His creation He proves His existence, and by their concurring He proves that none is like Him. Allah who is true in His promise, too eminent to be unjust to His creatures, stands equitably among His subjects in His commands. His evidence of Eternity is through events of creation, and by the inability to reach His power, or for our ceasing to exist is to prove His eternity. He is One not by counting, everlasting without limits, existing without support. Minds admit Him by no senses…. الْحَمْدُ لله الَّذِي لاَ تُدْرِكُهُ الشَّوَاهِدُ، وَلاَ تَحْوِيهِ الْمَشَاهِدُ، وَلاَ تَرَاهُ النَّوَاظِرُ، وَلاَ تَحْجُبُهُ السَّوَاتِرُ، الدَّالِّ عَلَى قِدَمِهِ بِحُدُوثِ خَلْقِهِ، وَبِحُدُوثِ خَلْقِهِ عَلَى وجُودِهِ، وَبِاشْتِبَاهِهِمْ عَلَى أَنْ لاَ شَبَهَ لَهُ، الَّذِي صَدَقَ فِي مِيعَادِهِ، وَارْتَفَعَ عَنْ ظُلْمِ عِبَادِه، وَقَامَ بِالْقِسطِ فِي خَلْقِهِ، وَعَدَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ فِي حُكْمِهِ، مُسْتَشْهِدٌ بِحُدُوثِ الاَْشْيَاءِ عَلَى أَزَلِيَّتِهِ، وَبِمَا وَسَمَهَا بِهِ مِنَ الْعَجْزِ عَلَى قُدْرَتِهِ، وَبِمَا اضْطَرَّهَا إِلَيْهِ مِنَ الْفَنَاءِ عَلَى دَوَامِهِ، وَاحِدٌ لاَ بِعَدَد، وَدَائِمٌ لاَ بِأَمَد، وَقَائِمٌ لاَ بَعَمَد، تَتَلَقَّاهُ الاَْذْهَانُ لاَ بِمُشَاعَرَة،….

18 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 168, Page 272 Ali: about Allah What follows is another selection about Allah, glory be to Him. The sermon is long, part of which appears in next slide as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, I, 138; 2. al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, 96, 320, 324; 3. al-Saduq, al-'Amali, 205; 4. al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 131; 5. al-Mufid, al-'Ikhtisas, 236; 6. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, 157; 7. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 299; 8. al-Murtada, al-'Amali, I, 103.

19 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 168, Ali: about Allah Allah! Assigning to Him conditions means disbelieve in His oneness, or making the likes of Him negates His reality, or illustrating Him would not signify Him, or he who alludes to Him or imagines Him would not mean Him. Everything we know has been created, but what exists beyond that is the very source to create it. Allah works not with help of instruments. He fixes measures but not with a variation of thoughts. He is most rich but not by acquisition. Times do not keep company with Him, and implements do not help Him. His Being precedes times. His Existence precedes non- existence and His eternity precedes beginning. مَا وَحَّدَهُ مَنْ كَيَّفَهُ، وَلاَ حَقِيقَتَهُ أَصَابَ مَنْ مَثَّلَهُ، وَلاَ إِيَّاهُ عَنَى مَنْ شَبَّهَهُ، وَلاَ صَمَدَهُ مَنْ أَشَارَ إِلَيْهِ وَتَوَهَّمَهُ. كُلُّ مَعْرُوف بِنَفْسِهِ مَُصْنُوعٌ، وَكُلُّ قَائِم فِي سِوَاهُ مَعْلُولٌ. فَاعِلٌ لاَ بِاضْطِرَابِ آلَة، مُقَدِّرٌ لاَ بِجَوْلِ فِكْرَة، غَنِيٌّ لاَ بِاسْتِفَادَة. لاَ تَصْحَبُهُ الاَْوْقَاتُ، وَلاَ تَرْفِدُهُ الاَْدَوَاتُ، سَبَقَ الاَْوْقَاتَ كَوْنُهُ، وَالْعَدَمَ وُجُودُهُ، وَالابْتِدَاءَ أَزَلُهُ

20 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 186, Page 273 Ali: about Allah What follows is another selection about Allah, glory be to Him. The sermon is long, part of which appears in next slide as follows: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, I, 138; 2. al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, 96, 320, 324; 3. al-Saduq, al-'Amali, 205; 4. al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 131; 5. al-Mufid, al-'Ikhtisas, 236; 6. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, 157; 7. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 299; 8. al-Murtada, al-'Amali, I, 103.

21 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid In Sermon 168, Ali: about Allah Allah did not beget lest He be regarded being born. He was not begotten otherwise He would be contained within limits. Allah is too Hallowed to have sons, too pure to contact women. Imagination cannot so reach Him as to measure Him. Intellect cannot so think of Him, as to picture Him. Senses cannot so perceive of Him as to feel Him. Hands cannot so touch Him as to feel Him. Allah does not change due to circumstances, nor does He pass from one state to another. Nights and days do not turn Him old, neither does He alter be it by light or darkness ever. He cannot be described to have a portion or limit, nor organs or limbs; nor do conditions control Him so as to either enhance Him or lower Him, ….. لَمْ يَلِدْ فَيَكُونَ مَوْلُوداً، وَلَمْ يُولَدْ فَيَصِيرَ مَحْدُوداً، جَلَّ عَنِ اتِّخَاذِ الاْبْنَاءِ، وَطَهُرَ عَنْ مُلاَمَسَةِ النِّسَاءِ. لاَ تَنَالُهُ الاَْوْهَامُ فَتُقَدِّرَهُ، وَلاَ تَتَوَهَّمُهُ الْفِطَنُ فَتُصَوِّرَهُ، وَلاَ تُدْرِكُهُ الْحَوَاسُّ فَتُحِسَّهُ، وَلاَ تَلْمِسُهُ الاَْيْدِي فَتَمَسَّهُ. وَلاَ يَتَغَيَّرُ بِحَال، وَلاَ يَتَبَدَّلُ فِي الاَْحْوَالِ، وَلاَ تُبْلِيهِ اللَّيَالي وَالاَْيَّامُ، وَلاَ يُغَيِّرُهُ الضِّيَاءُ وَالظَّلاَمُ، وَلاَ يُوصَفُ بِشَيء مِنَ الاَْجْزَاءِ، وَلاَ بِالجَوَارِحِ وَالاَْعْضَاءِ، وَلاَ بِعَرَض مِنَ الاَْعْرَاضِ، وَلاَ بِالْغَيْرِيَّةِ وَالاَْبْعَاضِ.

22 Nahjul Balaaghah about Tawhid Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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