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Unit 2: Creating clear, world-class design principles developed with stakeholders The Year of the Curriculum What are we trying to achieve? How shall we.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Creating clear, world-class design principles developed with stakeholders The Year of the Curriculum What are we trying to achieve? How shall we."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2: Creating clear, world-class design principles developed with stakeholders The Year of the Curriculum What are we trying to achieve? How shall we organise learning? How shall we evaluate success? How do we make it happen? What are we trying to achieve? Module 1 The programme consists of four modules, each with two units: 1Curriculum Foundation

2 This Unit Unit 2 Title: Creating clear, world-class design principles developed with stakeholders In this unit you will learn how to convert aims and values into the curriculum principles which will provide the foundations for your high quality curriculum, taking account of key competencies. Unit 2 Title: Creating clear, world-class design principles developed with stakeholders In this unit you will learn how to convert aims and values into the curriculum principles which will provide the foundations for your high quality curriculum, taking account of key competencies. 2© Curriculum Foundation

3 By the end of this second unit of module 1 you will: have explored the building blocks of the curriculum and the debates concerning recent trends in curriculum development Go to section 2A Go to section 2A have a clear understanding of the place and importance of competencies in a 21 st century curriculum Go to section 2B Go to section 2B know how to engage stakeholders in developing curriculum principles and how to ensure the school’s principles provide designers with firm foundations for a quality curriculum Go to section 2C have explored the building blocks of the curriculum and the debates concerning recent trends in curriculum development Go to section 2A Go to section 2A have a clear understanding of the place and importance of competencies in a 21 st century curriculum Go to section 2B Go to section 2B know how to engage stakeholders in developing curriculum principles and how to ensure the school’s principles provide designers with firm foundations for a quality curriculum Go to section 2C 3© Curriculum Foundation

4 “The school curriculum must prepare young people for an uncertain future.” No prizes for recognising this man. But what did he say about the school curriculum? ? “To do this, we need the traditional subjects, but we also need young people to develop the key competencies that will enable them to cope with life in the 21 st Century.” 4© Curriculum Foundation

5 In the first unit, we were looking at how we can prepare young people for the future. In this unit we shall explore these “Key Competencies” that Mandela mentioned. What are they? How do we build them into the curriculum? But first some thoughts about ‘curriculum planning’ and ‘curriculum design’, and then a look at what we use to design a curriculum. In the first unit, we were looking at how we can prepare young people for the future. In this unit we shall explore these “Key Competencies” that Mandela mentioned. What are they? How do we build them into the curriculum? But first some thoughts about ‘curriculum planning’ and ‘curriculum design’, and then a look at what we use to design a curriculum. 5© Curriculum Foundation

6 Curriculum Planning Planning can often mean making a list of all the things that pupil should learn and making sure they are in the right order. Not everyone looks forward to planning meetings! 6© Curriculum Foundation

7 Curriculum Design Design is about constructing the learning experiences that pupils will need in order to learn those things. It is about ensuring that those experiences are effective and compelling in themselves and that the sum total of the experiences adds up to a coherent and worthwhile programme that meets the ends that we seek. Design is much more interesting. 7© Curriculum Foundation

8 The ‘Building Blocks’ of a curriculum: What is a curriculum made of? The ‘Building Blocks’ of a curriculum: What is a curriculum made of? 8© Curriculum Foundation

9 The ‘building blocks’ of the curriculum : Knowledge Skills Understanding Possession of information Ability to perform mental or physical operation Development of a concept: putting knowledge in a framework of meaning 9© Curriculum Foundation

10 What is the capital city of France? Find out what is the capital city of Mongolia. Why is New York not the capital of the USA? Look at the following two questions and one instruction. Are they asking for knowledge, skills or understanding? 10© Curriculum Foundation

11 Here are the answers. What is the capital city of France? Find out what is the capital city of Mongolia. Why is New York not the capital of the USA? To answer this question, you need knowledge. You need to be able to recall a piece of information. This requires you to do something. You need to be able to perform an operation. In this case to look something up in an atlas, or google it, or ask someone. This requires a skill of some kind. This requires you to understand something in order to explain it. You need to have acquired the concept of a capital. You need to have to put your knowledge into a framework of meaning. In case you didn’t know – it’s Ulaan Baatar Yes, it was too easy really. However, we do need to bear these distinctions in mind when we design a curriculum. The types of experiences that pupils need in order to acquire knowledge are quite different from the ones they need to acquire skills. You can tell people information – they have to practise skills. Understanding comes from being able to put knowledge in a framework of meaning. Knowledge is essential to understanding, but knowledge without understanding would be merely disconnected information. A collection of such knowledge would be the curriculum of the pub quiz. Yes, it was too easy really. However, we do need to bear these distinctions in mind when we design a curriculum. The types of experiences that pupils need in order to acquire knowledge are quite different from the ones they need to acquire skills. You can tell people information – they have to practise skills. Understanding comes from being able to put knowledge in a framework of meaning. Knowledge is essential to understanding, but knowledge without understanding would be merely disconnected information. A collection of such knowledge would be the curriculum of the pub quiz. When we look at curriculum documents it is often helpful to look at the verb that introduces the learning expectations. Knowledge expectations often start with words such as: know that, identify, state, name, etc Skills expectations tend to start with active verbs: investigate, carry out, explore, construct, etc Understanding expectations tend to start with ways of demonstrating that understanding: explain, recognise why, etc. When we look at curriculum documents it is often helpful to look at the verb that introduces the learning expectations. Knowledge expectations often start with words such as: know that, identify, state, name, etc Skills expectations tend to start with active verbs: investigate, carry out, explore, construct, etc Understanding expectations tend to start with ways of demonstrating that understanding: explain, recognise why, etc. 11© Curriculum Foundation

12 Look at some of the learning outcomes you have written recently, or that are contained in your curriculum planning. How many of these are about: Knowledge? Skills? Understanding? What was the proportion of each? Are you happy with the proportion? What do you think about the proportion of each in the new National Curriculum? We shall return to this issue later. 12© Curriculum Foundation

13 For many years, we thought of the curriculum in terms of knowledge, skills and understanding and we designed learning experiences suitable for each. Recently, a debate has arisen around the notion that knowledge is more important than skills. Or that skills are more important than knowledge if you are on the other side of the argument. So, which is more important? Which side are you on? Have you put your vote in the box? Knowledge Skills 13© Curriculum Foundation

14 Do you recognise this man? He has been very influential in the debate about knowledge versus skills. Yes, it’s E.D. Hirsch. Did you notice the sub-title? It says: “What every American needs to know”. Not “What every American needs to be able to do, or to understand”. This book has been taken to argue the primacy of knowledge over skills, and many people have jumped on the bandwagon. You may recognise the next person. Yes, it’s E.D. Hirsch. Did you notice the sub-title? It says: “What every American needs to know”. Not “What every American needs to be able to do, or to understand”. This book has been taken to argue the primacy of knowledge over skills, and many people have jumped on the bandwagon. You may recognise the next person. 14© Curriculum Foundation

15 “ Our problem is that we have an education system that elevates the acquisition of skills over the passing on of concrete knowledge.” 15© Curriculum Foundation

16 ED Hirsch took his ideas into a set of school books – one for each grade If you look inside these, they are lists of facts (mostly about the USA). The idea has been taken up in England as well: 16© Curriculum Foundation

17 Of course, the English versions have more of a bias toward English facts, but they are still mainly lists of facts. This not to condemn them. We should reserve judgement at this stage. The followers of ED Hirsch believe that facts are the most important aspect of learning, and see them as the key to breaking the cycle of deprivation that means that pupils from poorer homes tend to do worse at school than those from wealthier backgrounds*. Hirsch based his thoughts on a wealth of experimental evidence. We’ll come back to this – but first, look at the first draft of the new English National Curriculum. These were the draft History Programmes of Study for Key Stage 2: Of course, the English versions have more of a bias toward English facts, but they are still mainly lists of facts. This not to condemn them. We should reserve judgement at this stage. The followers of ED Hirsch believe that facts are the most important aspect of learning, and see them as the key to breaking the cycle of deprivation that means that pupils from poorer homes tend to do worse at school than those from wealthier backgrounds*. Hirsch based his thoughts on a wealth of experimental evidence. We’ll come back to this – but first, look at the first draft of the new English National Curriculum. These were the draft History Programmes of Study for Key Stage 2: *You can see and hear Prof Hirsch explain this himself at: *You can see and hear Prof Hirsch explain this himself at: 17© Curriculum Foundation

18 early Britons and settlers, including: the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages Celtic culture and patterns of settlement Roman conquest and rule, including: Caesar, Augustus, and Claudius Britain as part of the Roman Empire the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire Anglo-Saxon and Viking settlement, including: the Heptarchy the spread of Christianity key developments in the reigns of Alfred, Athelstan, Cnut and Edward the Confessor the Norman Conquest and Norman rule, including: the Domesday Book Feudalism Norman culture the Crusades Plantagenet rule in the 12th and 13th centuries, including: key developments in the reign of Henry II, including the murder of Thomas Becket Magna Carta de Montfort's Parliament relations between England, Wales, Scotland and France, including: William Wallace Robert the Bruce Llywelyn and Dafydd ap Gruffydd the Hundred Years War life in 14th-century England, including: Chivalry the Black Death the Peasants’ Revolt the later Middle Ages and the early modern period, including: Chaucer and the revival of learning Wycliffe’s Bible Caxton and the introduction of the printing press the Wars of the Roses Warwick the Kingmaker the Tudor period, including religious strife and Reformation in the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Mary Elizabeth I's reign and English expansion, including: colonisation of the New World plantation of Ireland conflict with Spain the Renaissance in England, including the lives and works of individuals such as Shakespeare and Marlowe the Stuart period, including: the Union of the Crowns King versus Parliament Cromwell's commonwealth, the Levellers and the Diggers the restoration of the monarchy the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London Samuel Pepys and the establishment of the Royal Navy the Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy and the Union of the Parliaments Consultation draft of English National Curriculum Key Stage 2 History Programmes of Study 18© Curriculum Foundation

19 Intelligence involves the achievement over a period of time of thinking skills rather than the mastery of factual information. Jean Piaget It does not take long to work out which category of knowledge, skills or understanding these fall into. Nor do we need to wonder for long about who influenced this thinking. (Although we might be wondering whether this is justified!) It wasn’t this next person! It does not take long to work out which category of knowledge, skills or understanding these fall into. Nor do we need to wonder for long about who influenced this thinking. (Although we might be wondering whether this is justified!) It wasn’t this next person! 19© Curriculum Foundation

20 When we looked at the History example from the first draft of the English National Curriculum, we noticed that it was entirely knowledge. After public furore, this was changed. Here is the final version of Science for Year 6. Which of these are knowledge, skills or understanding? Can you spot the key verbs? Can you spot the change in emphasis? When we looked at the History example from the first draft of the English National Curriculum, we noticed that it was entirely knowledge. After public furore, this was changed. Here is the final version of Science for Year 6. Which of these are knowledge, skills or understanding? Can you spot the key verbs? Can you spot the change in emphasis? Now look at other Programmes of Study from the new National Curriculum. Secondary teachers might like to look at their own subject and one other. Primary teachers might prefer to look at their year group and one other. Examine the expectations. What is being asked for here? What sort of learning experiences will your pupils need in order to achieve this learning? Now look at other Programmes of Study from the new National Curriculum. Secondary teachers might like to look at their own subject and one other. Primary teachers might prefer to look at their year group and one other. Examine the expectations. What is being asked for here? What sort of learning experiences will your pupils need in order to achieve this learning? 20© Curriculum Foundation

21 Go back to the things you wrote in Unit 1 around the ‘stick person’. Which of these are knowledge, which skills and which understanding? Check them off. Do these three categories encompass all the things you wrote? Were some of your aspirations beyond these three categories? What about the values, the attitudes and the elements of personal development? Go back to the things you wrote in Unit 1 around the ‘stick person’. Which of these are knowledge, which skills and which understanding? Check them off. Do these three categories encompass all the things you wrote? Were some of your aspirations beyond these three categories? What about the values, the attitudes and the elements of personal development? 21© Curriculum Foundation

22 So there must be more ‘building blocks’ of the curriculum: Values Attitudes Personal development Sets of core beliefs and understandings on which actions are based Behavioural tendencies based on evaluations Individual, social and emotional skills and wellbeing 22© Curriculum Foundation

23 Even more ‘building blocks’ of the curriculum : Ideas Imagination Aesthetic appreciation Curiosity Excitement Wonder 23© Curriculum Foundation

24 ‘Employers are complaining that academic programmes from schools to universities simply don’t teach what people need to know and be able to do. They want people who can think intuitively, who are imaginative and innovative, who can communicate well, work in teams, and are flexible, adaptable and self-confident. The traditional curriculum is simply not designed to produce such people.’ All Our Futures 1999 Sir Ken Robinson Yet another man to recognise. Yes, it’s Sir Ken Robinson Yet another man to recognise. Yes, it’s Sir Ken Robinson Hear more from Sir Ken at: 24© Curriculum Foundation

25 “To thrive and survive in the 21 st century, people need to be more creative. Employers require people who can adapt, see connections, innovate, communicate and work with others” Prof Anna Craft Exeter University “To thrive and survive in the 21 st century, people need to be more creative. Employers require people who can adapt, see connections, innovate, communicate and work with others” Prof Anna Craft Exeter University (Why have all the slides so far featured men? Could we please hear from a woman?!!) Hear more from Prof Craft at: 25© Curriculum Foundation


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