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P IAGET AND H IS T HEORY OF A NIMISM By Alexandra Bartkus and Caitlin Cahill.

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Presentation on theme: "P IAGET AND H IS T HEORY OF A NIMISM By Alexandra Bartkus and Caitlin Cahill."— Presentation transcript:

1 P IAGET AND H IS T HEORY OF A NIMISM By Alexandra Bartkus and Caitlin Cahill

2 O BJECTIVES OF THIS P RESENTATION : After this presentation, the audience will have: 1. Knowledge about Jean Piaget. 2. A basic understanding of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. 3. The ability to identify animism in children. 4. An understanding the methodology of the research study that will be performed.

3 C ONCEPT M AP :

4 W HO I S P IAGET ? Born August 9, 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland Began his career at age 10 Received his PhD at the University of Neuchatel. Paris: studies wrong answers of young boys 1923: married Valentine Chatenay With whom he had 3 kids: Jacqueline Lucienne Laurent J EAN W ILLIAM F RITZ P IAGET

5 BACKGROUND: P IAGET ’ S S TAGES OF C OGNITIVE D EVELOPMENT Sensorimotor (from infancy to 2 years of age) Pre-Operational (2-7 years old) Concrete Operational (7-12 years old) Formal Operational (12 years+) = Animism

6 TERMINOLOGY: Children’s view of the world as alive and feeling. Animism: Example: Physiognomic Perception: Werner’s idea that children react to energetic, emotional, and expressive qualities of objects o Child Video Example Child Video Example o Sound of Music Clip Sound of Music Clip

7 F OUR P HASES OF A NIMISM 1. Animism associated with all objects (4-6 yrs) Example: A light bulb is alive because it gives light. 2. Animism associated with any movement (6-8 yrs) Example: A toy car is alive because it rolls. 3. Animism associated with objects that move on their own accord. (8 years and up) 4. Animism no longer exists in a child when they consider only plants and animals to be alive.

8 Is animism gradually abandoned within the four stages of animism provided by Piaget, or do children abruptly abandon these animistic perceptions of the world? T HE P REMISE

9 G UIDING Q UESTIONS Will the questions we have created support Piaget’s method of identifying animism? Will the children, overall, display a general replication of Piaget’s theory of the four stages of animism? Will there be distinct stages or will we see transitioning children as well?

10 H YPOTHESIS : Animism is a gradually developing process within a child’s cognitive development. Children may individually vary in their beliefs, but the stages outlined by Piaget encompass the majority of children in cognitive development. Therefore, animism is a continual and gradual process that is abandoned over time not abruptly.

11 M ETHODOLOGY : P ART I 1. Students to be observed will be given the handout.the handout 2. Students will be presented with demonstrations of the following items: A lamp A balloon A teddy bear A toy car A real potted flower 3. Students will be asked various questions. Refer to the handout.

12 M ETHODOLOGY : P ART II 1. Have the teacher or principal randomly choose two students (one male and one female) from the class studied. 2. Separately interview the two students on the answers they recorded on their answer sheet. The study will be conducted on four separate classrooms. The study will be conducted on four separate classrooms.

13 DATA

14 H OW P IAGET EVALUATED D ATA “Is the sun alive?– Yes.– Why?– It gives light.– Is a candle alive?– Yes because it gives light. It is alive when it is giving light, but it isn’t alive when it is not giving light....Is the play-bell alive?– Yes, it rings. ” (Piaget, 1926, p. 196) “Is a stone alive?– Yes. – Why?– It moves... How does it move?– By rolling.– Is the table alive?– No, it can’t move.... Is a bicycle alive?– Yes.– Why?– It goes. (p. 196) Crain, William. (2005). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

15 P ART I: R UBRIC FOR E VALUATING THE W ORKSHEET Points01Exception Description Belief that the object is “Not Alive” Belief that the object “Not Feeling” Belief that the object “Not Knowing” Belief that the object is “Alive” Belief in the object having “Feeling” Belief in the object “Knowing” Belief that the Real Flower is “Alive” = 0 points.

16 W ORKSHEET : R UBRIC FOR T OTAL P OINTS Total Points Stage of Animism 1 st Stage: Animism associated with all objects 2 nd Stage: Animism associated with any movement 3 rd Stage: Animism associated with objects that move on their own accord. 4 th Stage: Animism no longer exists in a child when they consider only plants and animals to be alive. Ages that this typically occurs* 4-6 years6-8 years8 years and up * According to Piaget

17 P ART II: R UBRIC FOR E VALUATING I NTERVIEW Points0123 DescriptionAnswer reflected that only humans, animals, and plants are alive. Answer reflected belief that the object was alive because of movement of its own accord. Answer reflected belief that the object was alive because of movement. Answer reflected belief that the object was alive because of any activity/con sciousness.

18 I NTERVIEW : R UBRIC FOR T OTAL P OINTS Total Points Stage of Animism 1 st Stage: Animism associated with all objects 2 nd Stage: Animism associated with any movement 3 rd Stage: Animism associated with objects that move on their own accord. 4 th Stage: Animism no longer exists in a child when they consider only plants and animals to be alive. Ages that this typically occurs* 4-6 years6-8 years8 years and up * According to Piaget

19 P IAGET ’ S S TAGES OF A NIMISM : S TAGES PER G RADE

20 S TAGES PER G RADE C HART

21 O VERALL IN E ACH S TAGE

22 P ART I:

23 M ALE -F EMALE C OMPARISON

24

25 P ART II: J USTIFICATION OF RUBRIC

26 1 ST G RADE : Female: Worksheet Score: 2 / Interview Score: Q3: Does the Lamp know when the light is on, yes or no? A: “No because it can’t see the light.” --- Werner: 3 points 2. Q8: Is the Car alive, yes or no? A: “No, because it can’t move by itself.” --- Piaget: 1 point 3. Q11: Is the Giraffe alive, yes or no? A: “No because he can’t move.” --- Piaget: 2 points Male: Worksheet Score: 4 / Interview Score: Q1: Is the Lamp alive, yes or no? A: “Yes because I was guessing.” --- No points 2. Q8: Is the Car alive, yes or no? A : “No because it doesn’t move.” --- Piaget: 2 Points 3. Q12: Does the Giraffe feel anything when I scratch its head, yes or no? A: “No because it won’t bite.” --- Werner: 3 points

27 3 RD G RADE : Female: Worksheet Score: 0 / Interview Score: Q1: Is the Lamp alive, yes or no? A: “No because it can’t move.” --- Piaget: 2 points 2. Q4: Does the light feel anything when I touch it, yes or no? A : “No because it didn’t see you touch it.” - -- Werner: 3 points 3. Q10: Does the Car feel it is moving, yes or no? A: “No because it doesn’t have hands.” -- Werner: 3 points Male: Worksheet Score: 3 / Interview Score: 9 1. Q2: When the Light is on, is the light alive, yes or no? A: “Yes because it lights up and looks bright, like the sun.” ---Piaget: 3 Points 2. Q7: Does the Balloon feel when I push on it, yes or no? A : “No, because it is just air inside plastic.” --- No points 3. Q10: Does the Car feel it is moving, yes or no? A: “Yes, because it is moving because it has to step on no wheels.” --- Piaget: 3 Points

28 5 TH G RADE : Female: Worksheet Score: 3 / Interview Score: 9 1. Q1: Is the Lamp alive, yes or no? A: “No because it has no soul. A soul is what makes you.” --- No points 2. Q3: Does the Lamp know when the light is on, yes or no? A: “Yes because my brother has a clap light, it would have to know.” --- Piaget: 3 points 3. Q9: Does the Car know it is moving, yes or no? A: “Yes because it has a motor and would have to know it’s on.” --- Piaget: 3 points Male: Worksheet Score: 2 / Interview Score: 3 1. Q1: Is the Lamp alive, yes or no? A: “No because it doesn’t have a mind or a heart.” --- No points 2. Q6: Does the Balloon know I am blowing air into it, yes or no? A: “No because it has no nerves for pressure.” --- No points 3. Q16: Does the Flower Feel when I touch it, yes or no? A: “Yes because it would have feelings because it is alive. ” --- Piaget: 3 points

29 6 TH G RADE : Female: Worksheet Score: 2 / Interview Score: 9 1. Q2: When the Light is on, is the light alive, yes or no? A: “No because it is electricity powered, and I always think alive as human-like.” --- Piaget: 3 points 2. Q10: Does the Car feel it is moving, yes or no? A: “No because it doesn’t have a nervous system.” --- No points 3. Q15: Does the Flower know when the sun is out, yes or no? A: “Yes, if it is alive it can feel what is helping it grow.” --- Piaget: 3 points Male: Worksheet Score: 1 / Interview Score: 0 1. Q1: Is the Lamp alive, yes or no? A: “No because it doesn’t have a beating heart.” --- No points 2. Q8: Is the Car alive, yes or no? A : “No. It has a battery, not a heart.” --- No points 3. Q11: Is the Giraffe alive, yes or no? A: “ No because the Holy Spirit is not with it.” --- No points

30 O VERALL R ESULTS

31 F EMALE R ESULTS

32 M ALE R ESULTS

33 G UIDING Q UESTIONS : A NSWERED Will the questions we have created support Piaget’s method of identifying animism? Yes and No Will the children, overall, display a general replication of Piaget’s theory of the four stages of animism? Yes Will there be distinct stages or will we see transitioning children as well? Not through the worksheets, but through the interviews– yes.

34 C ONCLUSION : Hypothesis = correct Animism = gradually developing process ✓ Children may individually vary in their beliefs ✓ The stages outlined by Piaget encompass the majority of children in cognitive development ✓ Animism is a continual and gradual process that is abandoned over time not abruptly. ✓

35 S OURCES OF E RROR : First grade class study only consisted of 6 students. Allowing the teacher/principal to select the students to be interviewed randomly: students were very timid. Distractions in the interview area.

36 W AYS T O I MPROVE T HIS S TUDY : Include a Preschool class in the study. Create a more effective yet unbiased way of selecting the students to be interviewed. Use a more controlled environment for the interviews. Find a more accurate way of objectifying the subjective.

37 F URTHER S TUDY : Animistic development comparison between males and females. Compare Werner’s physiognomic perception to Piaget’s animism based off of the same observations. Strictly interview-based research. Study based more specifically to age.

38 N ATURE N URTURE L INE NatureNurture Rousseau LockePiaget Montessori Vygotsky Skinner Bandura Alex Caitlin


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