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Passenger Rail Risk Management Issues Allison I. Fultz Kaplan Kirsch & Rockwell LLP Washington, DC 2013 APTA RISK MANAGEMENT SEMINAR Cincinnati, OH June.

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Presentation on theme: "Passenger Rail Risk Management Issues Allison I. Fultz Kaplan Kirsch & Rockwell LLP Washington, DC 2013 APTA RISK MANAGEMENT SEMINAR Cincinnati, OH June."— Presentation transcript:

1 Passenger Rail Risk Management Issues Allison I. Fultz Kaplan Kirsch & Rockwell LLP Washington, DC 2013 APTA RISK MANAGEMENT SEMINAR Cincinnati, OH June 10, 2013

2 2 Overview Today’s Topics: System Safety FRA – Rail System Safety Planning FTA – Transit Safety Planning Operator Safety and Situational Awareness Passenger Rail Hours of Service Use of Handheld Electronic Devices Shared Use of Freight Corridors

3 3 Overview Policy, Law and Regulation: Approach to safety – increasing emphasis on risk reduction and avoidance rather than protecting against aftereffects of incident Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (RSIA) Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21 st Century Act (MAP-21) Shared Use: Allocation of risk

4 4 FRA program: RSIA – new requirements for system safety programs Applies to commuter and intercity passenger rail operators FTA program: MAP-21 – new authority for FTA to develop and enforce nationwide safety standards for transit systems Applies to all transit modes, except those regulated by FRA System Safety - FRA

5 5 Railroad Safety Risk Reduction Programs (RSIA Sec. 103, codified at 49 U.S.C ) - FRA Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (77 Fed. Reg. 55,372, Sept. 7, 2012), 49 CFR Part 270 Goal: to improve safety by reducing the number and rates of accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities System Safety Program (SSP) in FRA’s proposed rule Risk-based hazard analysis Technology implementation plan Fatigue management plan System Safety - FRA

6 6 49 U.S.C : Requires each commuter rail operator to develop a railroad safety risk reduction program (system safety program) that systematically evaluates railroad safety risks on its system and manages those risks in order to reduce the numbers and rates of railroad accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities Conduct risk analysis Mitigate aspects of system that increase risks to railroad safety Enhance aspects of system that decrease risks to railroad safety System Safety - FRA

7 7 Required components of SSP: Risk mitigation plan Technology implementation plan Fatigue management plan System Safety - FRA

8 8 Risk analysis: Identify and analyze: Operating rules and practices Infrastructure Equipment Employee levels and schedules Safety culture Management structure Employee training Other matters, including those not covered by railroad safety regulations or other Federal regulations, that impact railroad safety System Safety - FRA

9 9 Technology implementation plan: 10-year plan to develop, adopt, implement, maintain and use technology to reduce safety risks Analyze safety impact, feasibility and costs-benefits Provide implementation schedule Identify PTC implementation schedule System Safety - FRA

10 10 Fatigue management plan Plan designed to reduce the fatigue experienced by safety-related railroad employees and to reduce the likelihood of accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities caused by fatigue 2 year updates Elements: Targeted fatigue countermeasures aimed at differing conditions throughout system Employee training Scheduling practices Alertness strategies System Safety - FRA

11 11 Protection of risk analysis information from discovery in litigation or disclosure under FOIA: RSIA Sec. 109 (codified at 49 U.S.C ) Protection would apply to: Information generated by railroad in course of conducting risk analysis Statement of mitigation measures identified to address those risks NPRM proposes to shield information compiled or collected solely for the purpose of developing, implementing or evaluating a SSP System Safety - FRA

12 12 Implementation Involvement of labor – agency must make good faith effort to reach agreement with all directly affected employees on contents of SSP FRA has authority to impose civil penalties for failure to submit, certify or comply with SSP System Safety - FRA

13 13 Transit System Safety MAP-21, Sec (codified at 49 U.S.C. 5329) Closes regulatory gap in safety oversight of transit systems Applies to: Heavy rail, light rail, streetcar, bus and ferry FTA authority to Issue safety regulations Inspect, monitor and enforce New FTA Office of Transit Safety and Oversight Rulemaking pending System Safety - FTA

14 14 FTA framework Emphasis on mitigating risks to prevent accidents – all hazards approach Safety Management System (SMS) Policy: Define management and employee responsibilities Risk management: Analyze risks, identify strategies to mitigate or eliminate Assurance: Inspection and data to ensure performance of risk controls Promotion: Create safety culture through communication and employee training System Safety - FTA

15 15 FTA: National Public Transportation Safety Plan (MAP-21 Sec (b), codified at 49 U.S.C. 5329) Develop safety performance criteria for all modes of transportation: Minimum safety performance standards for vehicles not already regulated by other DOT or other Federal agency Incorporate pass/fail safety criteria into Bus Testing Program Safety certification program for state and agency personnel responsible for safety oversight Definition of state of good repair System Safety - FTA

16 16 Individual agency: Public Transportation Agency Safety Plan (MAP- 21 Sec (b), codified at 49 U.S.C. 5329) Develop agency safety plan and certify that plan meets FTA requirements: Strategies for identifying risks and mitigating or eliminating exposure to hazards Trained safety officer to report directly to general manager Performance targets based on national safety performance criteria Establish staffing levels Staff training and certification program System Safety - FTA

17 17 State Safety Oversight (SSO) Program (MAP-21 Secs (b), 20030(e), codified at 49 U.S.C. 5329, 5330): Applies to states that have rail systems not already regulated by FRA State must establish SSO program establishing state responsibility for oversight of rail fixed guideway transportation safety in accordance with federal law SSO must encompass agency’s capacity, organizational structure, financing, and activities. Establish State Safety Oversight agency SSO agency may not derive any funds from any transit agency it oversees System Safety - FTA

18 18 State Safety Oversight (SSO) Program, cont’d: Up to 80% federal funding $21.9 m available – 78 Fed. Reg. 28,014 (May 13, 2013) Implements SMS in collaboration with states in advance of rulemaking System Safety - FTA

19 19 Enforcement: FTA has authority to: Inspect, audit and issue directives Issue subpoenas and conduct discovery Prescribe recordkeeping requirements Investigate accidents in cooperation with NTSB Require more frequent oversight Require that formula grant funds be used to correct safety deficiencies before being allocated to other projects System Safety - FTA

20 20 Looking ahead: FRA and FTA safety programs clearly two separate regimes FRA final rule anticipated this summer FTA rulemaking not yet initiated Office of Transit Safety and Oversight to begin working with states and agencies System Safety

21 21 Resources FTA MAP-21 website: FTA Office of Transit Safety and Oversight: February 7, 2013 Dear Colleague Letter to states outlining actions necessary to establish and finance SSO agency, at: Notice of availability of funding to establish SSO agencies: 78 Fed. Reg. 28,014 (May 13, 2013) System Safety

22 22 Important element of FRA-mandated System Safety Plans Focus on individual’s role in maintaining safe operating environment Situational awareness Alertness Minimizing distractions We’ll cover Hours of service rules for passenger rail operating employees Rules governing the use of personal electronic devices Operator Safety

23 23 Hours of Service regulations for passenger operators (RSIA Sec. 108, codified at 49 U.S.C , 21102, 21109) FRA Final Rule (76 Fed. Reg. 50,360, Aug. 12, 2011) – in effect since Oct. 15, 2011 Commuter and freight operations differ significantly: Scheduling practices Patterns of operation Conditions of operation Operator Safety

24 24 Personnel governed by new legislation: “Train employees”: a railroad’s personnel engaged in or connected to the movement of a train “Signal employees”: a railroad’s personnel or those of a contractor (expansion of class of covered personnel) who are engaged in signal activities Operator Safety

25 25 On-duty and related time limitations: Time spent by a train employee on duty or in other mandatory service (i.e., deadhead or limbo time) cannot exceed 276 hours per month Time spent by a train employee on duty cannot exceed 12 hours A train employee cannot go on duty unless that employee has had at least 10 consecutive hours off duty during the preceding 24 hours For every 6 consecutive days a train employee is on duty for some period of each day, the employee must have at least 48 hours off duty at the employee’s home terminal Operator Safety

26 26 New concept: Requires railroads to perform fatigue modeling to determine effect of working schedules on fatigue: Analyze the risk of fatigue during night time duty hours Implement fatigue mitigation plans on the basis of the completed models Train employees in fatigue mitigation Operator Safety

27 27 Restrictions on handheld electronic devices FRA Final Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 59,580 (September 27, 2010), amending 49 CFR Part 220 Effort to reduce distractions, increase situational awareness Electronic device Personal electronic devices Devices supplied by the railroad for an authorized business purpose Operator Safety

28 28 Rule restricts a railroad operating employee’s use of electronic devices when the use of such a device would affect the employee’s or another employee’s performance of safety-related duties Both locomotive engineers and other categories of railroad operating employees are generally prohibited from using any electronic device: (1) when they are on a moving train, (2) when any crewmember is on the ground or riding rolling equipment during a switching operation, or (3) when any railroad employee is assisting in preparation of the train for movement Operator Safety

29 29 Exceptions, including: To respond to an emergency situation involving the operation of the railroad or encountered while performing a duty for the railroad Deadheading employees not in controlling locomotive Use of medical device consistent with railroad’s standards of medical fitness for duty Enforcement: FRA may assess civil penalties Railroad may impose more stringent requirements Operator Safety

30 30 Shared Use of Freight Corridors Use of freight rail corridors by commuter rail operators: Federal statutory limitation on liability Allocation of liability Environmental issues Separation of operations

31 31 Shared Use of Freight Corridors $200 million limitation on liability – 49 U.S.C : Applies to damages arising out of the operation of rail passenger transportation Caps total aggregate awards to all passengers as the result of a single accident or incident at $200 million Encompasses punitive damages, but only if such damages are recoverable under state law

32 32 Shared Use of Freight Corridors Direct negotiations with freight railroads: Allocation of liability – RRs assume but-for standard Environmental liability Acquisition due diligence Allocation of liability during construction and shared operations Separation of operations Temporal separation Positive train control

33 33 QUESTIONS? Allison I. Fultz Kaplan Kirsch & Rockwell LLP Washington, DC (202)


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