Presentation on theme: "The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings Arild Gustavsen, Professor NTNU Director The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings NUAS, September."— Presentation transcript:
1The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings Arild Gustavsen, Professor NTNU Director The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings NUAS, September 10th 2013
2ZEB’s main objectiveis to develop competitive products and solutions for existing and new buildings that will lead to market penetration of buildings with zero greenhouse gas emissions related to their production, operation, and demolition. The centre will encompass both residential, commercial, and public buildings.Illustration: Snøhetta/MIR
3ZEB Facts Host institution: NTNU Research partners: SINTEF Building and Infrastructure and SINTEF Energy ResearchIndustry and public partners: 22Start date (contract with RCN signed): November 2009Total budget: ca. 290 MNOK (+ additional to research infrastructure)Researchers associated with the Centre: about 25 (most part time)PhD candidates: 213-5 expected to complete during 201313 is partly/directly funded by ZEBPost docs: 4Research on topics from nano material science to whole building performance (e.g. energy and CO2), including studies on individual building technologies (e.g. building envelope and building services technologies) and user studies.
4ZEB – a national team Users (the reference group) Contractors SkanskaCaverionWeberIsolaGlavaProtanHydro AluminiumNorDanVeluxDuPontBrødrene DahlMulticonsultSnøhettaByBoEntra EiendomForsvarsbyggStatsbyggEnovaHusbankenDirektoratet for byggkvalitetByggenæringens landsforeningNorsk TeknologiNTNUSINTEF, SINTEF EnergiforskningNorges forskningsrådDialog with:NTE, BKK, Siemens,Sør-Trøndelag fylkeskommuneUsers (the reference group)ContractorsProducers of materials and products for the building industryConsultants, architectsTrade organizationsProperty managersPublic administrationUniversity and research institutionsThe Research Council
5Other institutions cooperating with ZEB International partnersVTT (Finland)Chalmers (Sweden)Fraunhofer (Germany)TNO (The Netherlands)LBNL (USA)MIT (USA)University of Strathclyde (Scotland)Tsinghua University (China)Other newPolitecnico di TorinoShanghai JiaoTong UniversityEMPAReference groupLavenergiprogrammetNBBLNVEForbrukerrådetEcoBoxDriftsforumArkitektbedrifteneCooperation with some of the international partners has been fruitful, wile some have not been active. A joint Research Centre of Shanghai JiaoTong University and NTNU has started and one PhD student is engaged at NTNU and work within the centre.The reference group consist of important umbrella organizations of the building industry and want to bring new knowledge to the building industry.
6Energy use in buildings in Norway 83 TWh til bygninger, hvorav80% er elektrisitetEnergibruken i Fastlands-Norge går til fire hovedformål. Tre stasjonære formål; bygninger, industrielle prosesser og produksjon av energivarer, samt mobilt formål i form av energibruktil transport. Bygninger omfatter lys, varme og elektrisk utstyr i boliger og yrkesbygg . Det ble brukt 83 TWh til dette formålet i 2009, tilsvarende 37 prosent av innenlands energibruk.Industriprosesser omfatter produksjon av varer i industrien og det ble brukt 55 TWh til dette formålet i Det ble brukt energivarer tilsvarende ca. 15 TWh til å produsere energivarer iFastlands-Norge i 2009, det meste innenfor petroleumssektoren. Det siste hovedformålet omfatter drivstoff til alle typer motoriserte kjøretøy og transportmidler i Fastlands-Norge. Detgikk med 69 TWh, tilsvarende 31 prosent av samlet energibruk i til dette formålet i 2009.3 Sluttbruk av energi tilsvarer innenlands sluttbruk av energi i SSBs Energibalanse. Ekskl. energi brukt som råstoff.4 Energisektoren i Fastlands-Norge omfatter produksjon av elektrisitet, produksjon av fjernvarme, landanleggene innenfor petroleumssektoren, raffineriene og plattformer som får kraft fra land. Energivarer brukt som råstoff for å produsere nye energivarer (omvandling) er ikke inkludert. Se Energibalansen.Source: Energibruk i Fastlands-Norge, NVE, 2011
7Zero energy/emission buildings (ZEBs) in international policy documents USA: «… to achieve our strategic goal of net-zero energy buildings …» UK: «… The objective of the proposal is to set a timetable for moving towards zero carbon development as a contribution to meeting UK target to reduce carbon emissions …» Canada: «The Equilibrium House Initiative aims …» Austria: «The building stock of the year 2050 should be in total over the entire life cycle free of carbon emissions.» Netherlands: «In the Netherlands, the government and the construction sector aim at achieving energy neutral new construction in 2020.» Germany: «Zero emission buildings are the long-term objective»
8Stricter requirements for buildings in Norway Two White Papers from the Norwegian government in 2012 stress that: All new buildings should be nearly zero energy buildings before Stricter requirements will also apply to rehabilitation of existing buildings.
9Why Zero Emission Buildings? McKinsey, ”Pathways to a Low Carbon Economy. Version 2 of the Global Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve”, McKinsey & Company, 2009.Why Zero Emission Buildings?Low Hanging Fruit:Energy Efficiency Pays for Itself
10What should be done? Reduce the energy demand to a minimum – in new and existingbuildings.New renewable energy should beused to cover the remainingdemand for heating and/orcooling.Use renewable energy to coverthe demand for electricity.Consider the usage of materials.We have to consider theinteraction between buildingsand transport.The most environmental kWh is the one that is not used.10
11Zero Emission Buildings - The Challenge: The main concept of a zero emission building is that renewable energy sources produced or transformed at the building site have to compensate for CO2 emissions from operation of the building and for production, transport and demolition of all the building materials and components during the life cycle of the building.Energy standard, single family houses in Norway-100-5050100150200250Today'saveragestandardBuildingscode, 2007PassivehouseNet zeroenergyPlus energyAnnually energy demand/production: kWh/m2Energy demandEnergy productionSource: SINTEF Byggforsk
12The ZEB research activities ZEB focuses its work in five areas that interact and influence each other:WP1 Advanced materials technologiesWP2 Climate-adapted low-energy envelope technologiesWP3 Energy supply systems and servicesWP4 Use, operation, and implementationWP5 Concepts and strategiesA world where buildings do not contribute with greenhouse gas emissions
13WP1 Advanced materials technologies Main goal:Development of new and innovative materials and solutions, as well as improvements of the current state‑of‑the‑art technologies.Research examplesNew insulation materialsNew glass materialContact: Bjørn Petter Jelle
15Nano insulation materials (NIM) From theoretical concepts to development of new and innovative materialsPatent applicationControlling:Sphere inner diameterSphere wall thicknessWithout optimizing:So far we havereached 20 mW/(mK)
16Various other glass and coating properties being investigated A new glass materialA new glass material has been made:Reduced mass density (weight) by a factor 2Reduced thermal conductivity by a factor 2Increased solar transmittanceVarious other glass and coating properties being investigated
17WP2 Climate adapted envelope technologies Main goal:Develop climate adapted, verified, and cost effective solutions for new and existing building envelopes (roofs, walls and floors) that will give the least possible heat loss and at the same time a reduced need for cooling.Research examplesNew sandwiched elements with VIPExperimental studies of heat transport in well insulated walls with phase change materials (PCMs)New window solutionsContact: Berit TimePhoto: Sfære
18Development of sandwich elements with VIPs (Leca Isoblock) Block built-up; Parametric study of U-value and heat loss by 2D and 3D numerical calculationsAssessment of and influence of (convective) heat transport in vertical and horizontal joints for sandwich block systemsLeca Isoblokk with VIP - Prototype developed by ZEB partner Weber (patent has been applied for)
19Phase change material experiments Used to validate e.g. EnergyPlusPCM models.
20Window researchWindows are often considered to contribute to heat lossesWhat about solar gains?
21Example: Multiple layer glazing Windows with up to 10 layers of glass (U-values of less than 0.3 W/(m²K))Phase change material windows
22WP3 Energy supply systems and services Main goal:Develop new solutions for energy supply systems and building services systems with reasonable energy and indoor environment performance appropriate for zero emission buildings.Research example:Development of a new energy exchangerContact: Vojislav Novakovic
23New type of a cross flow energy exchanger using membrane technology Hygro-thermal properties of five different membrane samples have been investigated in laboratory. Laboratory setup for testing of the membrane based energy exchanger is developed. CFD simulation study of air flow patterns in an exchanger is conducted aiming at improvement of design and efficiency.Recovery of moisture in addition to sensible heat will increase the overall energy efficiency of the exchanger. This will also reduce frosting problems in operation but it demand very careful design of the exchanger.
24WP4 Use, operation, and implementation Main goal:Provide knowledge and tools which assure usability and acceptance, maintainability and efficiency, and implementation of ZEBs.Research example:Have analyzed end-use in energy efficient buildingsContact: Thomas Berker
25Analyses of end-use in energy efficient buildings Evaluation of new buildings with high energy ambitionsBad interfacesLack of knowledgeUnintended persistence of energy wasting behaviors (when refurbishing)Deeply rooted values and attitudesNegotiations within the household
26WP5 Concepts and Strategies for ZEBs Main goal:Develop concrete concepts for zero emission buildings which can be translated into realized pilot buildings within the time frame of the Centre.Research examples:ZEB definitionZEB conceptsPilot buildingsContact: Birgit Risholt
27ZEB-Definition ZEB-DEFINITION: Ambition level Rules for calculation System boundariesCO2-factorsEnergy qualityMismatch production and demandMinimum requirement energy efficiencyRequirement indoor climateVerification in useZEB-O÷EQ: Balancing operational energy use exclusive equipment.ZEB-O: Balancing operational energy use inclusive equipment.ZEB-COM: Balancing operational energy, embodied emissions , construction and demolition processesThe main concept of a zero emission building is that renewable energy sources produced or transformed at the building site have to compensate for CO2 emissions from operation of the building and for production, transport and demolition of all the building materials and components during the life cycle of the building.
28Concept work CONCEPT WORK: Four storey office building Two storey dwellingBoth BIM-modelledDetailed LCA and GHG calculationsDetailed simulation of building, installations and energy supply.Building integrated PV balancing CO2 emissions
33ZEB-Pilot Buildings ZEB PILOT BUILDINGS: Skarpnes Arendal: 37 dwellings, ZEB-O.Powerhouse #2 – Sandvika. Renovation of 2 office blocks to Plus energy.Mulitkomfort-Larvik: Single family house, ZEB-COM.Ådland: 500 dwellings, ZEB-O.Powerhouse # 1 – Trondheim. Large office building, Plus energy.Depotbygget Haakonsvern – Bergen. Small office building, ZEB-O÷EQ.Nordahl Brunsgt – Drammen: Renovation of small apartment building. ZEB-O÷EQ.
34Establishment of laboratories and test buildings – ZEB Living Lab and Test Cell