Presentation on theme: "The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings Arild Gustavsen, Professor NTNU Director The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings NUAS, September."— Presentation transcript:
The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings Arild Gustavsen, Professor NTNU Director The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings NUAS, September 10th 2013
ZEB’s main objective is to develop competitive products and solutions for existing and new buildings that will lead to market penetration of buildings with zero greenhouse gas emissions related to their production, operation, and demolition. The centre will encompass both residential, commercial, and public buildings. Illustration: Snøhetta/MIR
ZEB Facts Host institution: NTNU Research partners: SINTEF Building and Infrastructure and SINTEF Energy Research Industry and public partners: 22 Start date (contract with RCN signed): November 2009 Total budget: ca. 290 MNOK (+ additional to research infrastructure) Researchers associated with the Centre: about 25 (most part time) PhD candidates: 21 – 3-5 expected to complete during 2013 – 13 is partly/directly funded by ZEB Post docs: 4 Research on topics from nano material science to whole building performance (e.g. energy and CO 2 ), including studies on individual building technologies (e.g. building envelope and building services technologies) and user studies.
ZEB – a national team Skanska Caverion Weber Isola Glava Protan Hydro Aluminium NorDan Velux DuPont Brødrene Dahl Multiconsult Snøhetta ByBo Entra Eiendom Forsvarsbygg Statsbygg Enova Husbanken Direktoratet for byggkvalitet Byggenæringens landsforening Norsk Teknologi NTNU SINTEF, SINTEF Energiforskning Norges forskningsråd Dialog with: NTE, BKK, Siemens, Sør-Trøndelag fylkeskommune Users (the reference group) Contractors Producers of materials and products for the building industry Consultants, architects Trade organizations Property managers Public administration University and research institutions The Research Council
Other institutions cooperating with ZEB International partners VTT (Finland) Chalmers (Sweden) Fraunhofer (Germany) TNO (The Netherlands) LBNL (USA) MIT (USA) University of Strathclyde (Scotland) Tsinghua University (China) Other new Politecnico di Torino Shanghai JiaoTong University EMPA Reference group Lavenergiprogrammet NBBL NVE Forbrukerrådet EcoBox Driftsforum Arkitektbedriftene
Energy use in buildings in Norway Source: Energibruk i Fastlands-Norge, NVE, TWh til bygninger, hvorav 80% er elektrisitet
Zero energy/emission buildings (ZEBs) in international policy documents USA: «… to achieve our strategic goal of net-zero energy buildings …» UK: «… The objective of the proposal is to set a timetable for moving towards zero carbon development as a contribution to meeting UK target to reduce carbon emissions …» Canada: «The Equilibrium House Initiative aims …» Austria: «The building stock of the year 2050 should be in total over the entire life cycle free of carbon emissions.» Netherlands: «In the Netherlands, the government and the construction sector aim at achieving energy neutral new construction in 2020.» Germany: «Zero emission buildings are the long-term objective»
Stricter requirements for buildings in Norway Two White Papers from the Norwegian government in 2012 stress that: All new buildings should be nearly zero energy buildings before Stricter requirements will also apply to rehabilitation of existing buildings.
Why Zero Emission Buildings? McKinsey, ”Pathways to a Low Carbon Economy. Version 2 of the Global Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve”, McKinsey & Company, Low Hanging Fruit: Energy Efficiency Pays for Itself
What should be done? Reduce the energy demand to a minimum – in new and existing buildings. New renewable energy should be used to cover the remaining demand for heating and/or cooling. Use renewable energy to cover the demand for electricity. Consider the usage of materials. We have to consider the interaction between buildings and transport. The most environmental kWh is the one that is not used.
Zero Emission Buildings - The Challenge: The main concept of a zero emission building is that renewable energy sources produced or transformed at the building site have to compensate for CO 2 emissions from operation of the building and for production, transport and demolition of all the building materials and components during the life cycle of the building. Energy standard, single family houses in Norway Today's average standard Buildings code, 2007 Passive house standard Net zero energy Plus energy Annually energy demand/production: kWh/m2 Energy demandEnergy production Source: SINTEF Byggforsk
The ZEB research activities ZEB focuses its work in five areas that interact and influence each other: – WP1 Advanced materials technologies – WP2 Climate-adapted low-energy envelope technologies – WP3 Energy supply systems and services – WP4 Use, operation, and implementation – WP5 Concepts and strategies A world where buildings do not contribute with greenhouse gas emissions
WP1 Advanced materials technologies Main goal: Development of new and innovative materials and solutions, as well as improvements of the current state ‑ of ‑ the ‑ art technologies. Research examples New insulation materials New glass material Contact: Bjørn Petter Jelle
New insulation materials VIP – Vacuum insulation panelGFP – Gas filled panels Foil Core
Nano insulation materials (NIM) From theoretical concepts to development of new and innovative materials Without optimizing: So far we have reached 20 mW/(mK) Controlling: Sphere inner diameter Sphere wall thickness Patent application
A new glass material has been made: Reduced mass density (weight) by a factor 2 Reduced thermal conductivity by a factor 2 Increased solar transmittance A new glass material Various other glass and coating properties being investigated
WP2 Climate adapted envelope technologies Main goal: Develop climate adapted, verified, and cost effective solutions for new and existing building envelopes (roofs, walls and floors) that will give the least possible heat loss and at the same time a reduced need for cooling. Research examples New sandwiched elements with VIP Experimental studies of heat transport in well insulated walls with phase change materials (PCMs) New window solutions Contact: Berit Time Photo: Sfære
Development of sandwich elements with VIPs (Leca Isoblock) Block built-up; Parametric study of U-value and heat loss by 2D and 3D numerical calculations Assessment of and influence of (convective) heat transport in vertical and horizontal joints for sandwich block systems Leca Isoblokk with VIP - Prototype developed by ZEB partner Weber (patent has been applied for)
Used to validate e.g. EnergyPlus PCM models. Phase change material experiments
Window research Windows are often considered to contribute to heat losses What about solar gains?
Example: Multiple layer glazing Windows with up to 10 layers of glass (U-values of less than 0.3 W/(m²K)) Phase change material windows
WP3 Energy supply systems and services Main goal: Develop new solutions for energy supply systems and building services systems with reasonable energy and indoor environment performance appropriate for zero emission buildings. Research example: Development of a new energy exchanger Contact: Vojislav Novakovic
New type of a cross flow energy exchanger using membrane technology Hygro-thermal properties of five different membrane samples have been investigated in laboratory. Laboratory setup for testing of the membrane based energy exchanger is developed. CFD simulation study of air flow patterns in an exchanger is conducted aiming at improvement of design and efficiency. Recovery of moisture in addition to sensible heat will increase the overall energy efficiency of the exchanger. This will also reduce frosting problems in operation but it demand very careful design of the exchanger.
WP4 Use, operation, and implementation Main goal: Provide knowledge and tools which assure usability and acceptance, maintainability and efficiency, and implementation of ZEBs. Research example: Have analyzed end-use in energy efficient buildings Contact: Thomas Berker )
Analyses of end-use in energy efficient buildings Evaluation of new buildings with high energy ambitions – Bad interfaces – Lack of knowledge Unintended persistence of energy wasting behaviors (when refurbishing) – Deeply rooted values and attitudes – Negotiations within the household
WP5 Concepts and Strategies for ZEBs Main goal: Develop concrete concepts for zero emission buildings which can be translated into realized pilot buildings within the time frame of the Centre. Research examples: ZEB definition ZEB concepts Pilot buildings Contact: Birgit Risholt
ZEB-Definition ZEB-DEFINITION: 1.Ambition level 2.Rules for calculation 3.System boundaries 4.CO2-factors 5.Energy quality 6.Mismatch production and demand 7.Minimum requirement energy efficiency 8.Requirement indoor climate 9.Verification in use The main concept of a zero emission building is that renewable energy sources produced or transformed at the building site have to compensate for CO2 emissions from operation of the building and for production, transport and demolition of all the building materials and components during the life cycle of the building. ZEB-O÷EQ: Balancing operational energy use exclusive equipment. ZEB-O: Balancing operational energy use inclusive equipment. ZEB-COM: Balancing operational energy, embodied emissions, construction and demolition processes
Concept work CONCEPT WORK: Four storey office building Two storey dwelling 1.Both BIM-modelled 2.Detailed LCA and GHG calculations 3.Detailed simulation of building, installations and energy supply. 4.Building integrated PV balancing CO 2 emissions
Concept work – Office building
Solutions for the building envelope
Concept work - Dwelling
ZEB-Pilot Buildings ZEB PILOT BUILDINGS: 1.Skarpnes Arendal: 37 dwellings, ZEB-O. 2.Powerhouse #2 – Sandvika. Renovation of 2 office blocks to Plus energy. 3.Mulitkomfort-Larvik: Single family house, ZEB-COM. 4.Ådland: 500 dwellings, ZEB- O. 5.Powerhouse # 1 – Trondheim. Large office building, Plus energy. 6.Depotbygget Haakonsvern – Bergen. Small office building, ZEB-O÷EQ. 7.Nordahl Brunsgt – Drammen: Renovation of small apartment building. ZEB- O÷EQ.
Establishment of laboratories and test buildings – ZEB Living Lab and Test Cell