2 Long Term Athlete Development Sports scientists have reported that there are critical periods in the life of a young person in which the effects of training can be maximised. They have also concluded that it can take anything from eight to twelve years of training for a talented athlete to achieve elite status. This has led to the development of athletic models, which identify appropriate training aims at each stage of the athlete's physical development.
3 Long Term Athlete Development Research has shown that that chronological age is not a good indicator on which to base athletic development models for athletes between the ages of 10 to 16 as within this age group there is a wide variation in the physical, cognitive and emotional development.
4 Long Term Athlete Development LTAD aims to create clear pathways in sport by1. promoting pathways that get people into sport2. Promoting pathways that allow progression through a sport.In 2001 elite sports consultant Ivan Bayli wrote an article on the different stages of the development of a long term athlete. This programme is used as a model by UK sport.Most national governing bodies have pathways fortheir sport.The key is that the pathway is based on individual maturation not chronological age since in the past late developers may have been missed.
5 Long Term Athlete Development For LTAD sport can be classified as either early or late specialisation.Early specialisation – sports such as gymnastics, swimming require early sport specific specialisation in their training.Late specialisation – athletics, team games and rowing for example require a generalised approach to early training and that specialised training should not start until after the age of 10.
6 Long Term Athlete Development A basic LTAD programme has 6 stagesFUNdamentalsLearning to trainTraining to trainTraining to competeTraining to win
7 Early Specialization Model Training to train Training to compete Early specialization sports require a four phase model while a late specialization model requires six phases.Early Specialization ModelTraining to trainTraining to competeTraining to winRetirement & retainmentLate Specialization ModelFUNdamentalLearning to trainTraining to trainTraining to competeTraining to winRetirement & retainment
8 Long Term Athlete Development FUNdamentalsTo teach fundamental movement skills and build on motor skills in the young performer.Aimed at boys between 6 and 9 and girls between 6 and 8.All activities should be fun.
9 Long Term Athlete Development Learning to TrainDeveloping on the FUNdamentals stage and aimed at boys between 9 and 12, and girls between 8 and 11.Training should encompass 80% of their time and competitive events 20%.
10 Long Term Athlete Development Training to Trainobjectives here include building aerobic fitness, developing speed and strength as well as developing sport specific skills.Aimed at boys aged 12 to 16 years old and girls aged 11 to 15.Focus is more on learning basic skills than in competing.
11 Long Term Athlete Development Training to CompeteFitness should be optimised.Position specific skills should be learnt.Overall competitive performance should be developed.Competitive situations are presented in training sessions.Aimed at males between the ages of 16 to 23 and females 15 to 21.
12 Long Term Athlete Development Training to WinFinal stage of preparation.They are now working towards a winning performance.Fitness needs to be maximised.Technical and tactical skills need to be developed further.Aimed at males over 19 and females over 18
13 UK Athletics ModelThe following is an example of a five stage progression (UK Athletics model) for long term athlete development:Fundamentals - where the emphasis is on fun, developing basic fitness and general movement skills - training years 1 to 3 and ideally a chronological age of 6 to 13.Learning to Train - where the emphasis is to learn how to train and develop their general skills - training years 3 to 5 and ideally a chronological age of 10 to 15.Training to Train - where the emphasis is event(s) specific training - training years 5 to 7 and ideally a chronological age of 13 to 17.Training to Compete - where the emphasis is to correct weaknesses and develop athletic abilities - training years 7 to 9 and ideally a chronological age of 15 to 19.Training to Win - where the emphasis is on enhancing performance - training years 10+ and ideally a chronological age of 18+.
14 ASA Swimming ModelLong term athlete development (LTAD) is about achieving the correct training, competition and recovery throughout a young athlete’s career, particularly in relation to the important growth and development years of young people.Age Group swimming is about providing the appropriate opportunities for young people with particular reference to their growth and development.One of the central messages from the LTAD swimmingframework is that competition should be regarded as anintegral part of a swimmer’s training programme. AgeGroup and Youth swimming provide opportunities for young people to develop their potential in preparation for senior swimming.
15 ASA Swimming ModelThere are five stages, which can be used to describe growth and development. These equate to the five stages of the LTAD framework for swimming:FUNdamentals - Childhood;SwimSkills – Late Childhood;Training to Train - Adolescence;Training to Compete – Early Adulthood;Training to Win - Adulthood.
16 Long Term Athlete Development Retirement and Active for Life.When a player finishes competing options are needed as to what to do next .This can includeMoving from one sport to another e.g. sprinting to bobsledMoving from competitive sport to recreational activitiesMoving from high competitive sport to lifelong competitive sport e.g. Masters gamesRetiring from competitive sport and adopting a sports related career.Moving from competitive sport to a volunteer role as coach or official etc