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The Gene Ontology and Immune System Processes Alexander D. Diehl 6/11/12.

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Presentation on theme: "The Gene Ontology and Immune System Processes Alexander D. Diehl 6/11/12."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Gene Ontology and Immune System Processes Alexander D. Diehl 6/11/12

2 Gene Ontology Background Started 1998, FlyBase, SGD, MGI GO Consortium funded by NIH 2001 At least 20 MODs, databases, societies, and institutes are Consortium Members. A GO Editorial Office is maintained at EBI, and other GO developers are found elsewhere. Multiple GOC meetings occur yearly, including general meetings, content meetings, and annotation training meetings.

3 Gene Ontology Background Developed for the annotation of gene products, primarily proteins, but also RNAs of various types, to provide a common language for representing protein properties. Predates BFO and the OBO Foundry, and is still being improved to match recent best practices in ontology building.

4 Gene Ontology Background GO ontology development is focused on “normal” aspects of an organism’s biology. – Includes defense and immune responses. – Includes processes of symbiosis, encompassing mutualism through parasitism, in which processes originating from one organism affect another organism or organisms. – Excludes pathogenic processes, such as tumorigenesis induced by an organism’s own mutated proteins.

5 GO represents three biological domains Molecular Function = elemental activity/task – the tasks performed by individual gene products; examples include carbohydrate binding and ATPase activity. Cellular Component = location or complex – subcellular and extracellular structures, locations, and macromolecular complexes including protein complexes; examples include nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum lumen, and activin complex Biological Process = a series of events accomplished by one or more ordered assemblies of molecular functions – broad biological goals, examples include mitosis or purine base metabolic process

6 GO represents three biological domains Molecular Function = elemental activity/task – the tasks performed by individual gene products; examples include peptide antigen binding and cytidine deaminase activity. Cellular Component = location or complex – subcellular and extracellular structures, locations, and macromolecular complexes including protein complexes; examples include lysosome, phagocytic vesicle lumen, and NLRP1 inflammasome complex Biological Process = a series of events accomplished by one or more ordered assemblies of molecular functions – broad biological goals, examples include immune response or somatic diversification of immune receptors via gene conversion

7 The GO is a work in progress

8

9 2012

10 Transcription Translation Mitosis Signal Transduction Programmed Cell Death Development Neurobiology

11 2012 Transcription Translation Mitosis Signal Transduction Programmed Cell Death Development Neurobiology Immunology

12 GO Term Development Top-Down and Bottom-Up. Top-Down represents focused efforts to represent an entire sub-field of biology; usually led by a GO Editor with the help of expert biologists. Bottom-Up development largely driven by needs of annotators.

13 GO Term Development Muscle Development – 2007 Heart Development – 2009 Kidney Development – 2010 Electron Transport – 2008 PAMGO – Transcription – 2010 Signal Transduction – Virus Terms – 2009 – present Immunology – 2006

14 GO Term Development Muscle Development – 2007 Heart Development – 2009 Kidney Development – 2010 Electron Transport – 2008 PAMGO – Transcription – 2010 Signal Transduction – Virus Terms – 2009 – present Immunology – 2006

15 Revision of Immunology Terms in Biological Process Ontology November 2005 GO Content Meeting at TIGR. – Meeting of outside experts (immunologists) and GO Consortium members (ontologists) to discuss proposals. Winter-Spring-Summer 2006 – Additional term development and public discussions. September 18, 2006 – New immunology terms incorporated into the official Gene Ontology. (Diehl et al., Bioinformatics Apr 1;23(7):913-5.)

16 Overview of Changes 726 new GO biological process terms created for immunological processes. Large scale rearrangements of existing terms performed to improve logical consistency. Is_a links provided for all primary terms. Structure allows for addition of new terms in a consistent fashion.

17 Additional Improvements Created separate term hierarchies for processes involved in activation of the immune system and effector mechanisms of the immune system. Improved the representation of innate immunity and incorporated plant innate immunity terms. Improved the representation of immune cell differentiation, particularly for T and B cells. Improved the inflammatory response hierarchy.

18 Top Level Structure (Not all terms shown)

19 Areas Well Represented T and B cell selection Antigen processing and presentation Somatic diversification of immune receptors General processes of inflammation Complement activation

20 Areas that need additional work Innate immune response regulation of the adaptive immune response. Better clarification of what an inflammatory response is and the relationship of inflammatory responses to immune responses. Better representation of T cell subset differentiation/development. Better integration with terms from the GO PAMGO project (Plant-Assorted Microbe Gene Ontology).

21 PAMGO Terms Encompass multi-organismal processes such as: – adhesion to host – interspecies quorum sensing – induction by virus of host apoptotic process – pore formation in membrane of other organism – induction by symbiont in host of tumor, nodule, or growth

22 Cellular Extravasation Rolling Activation Arrest Diapedesis/ Transmigration

23 Cellular Extravasation

24 [Term] id: GO: name: leukocyte tethering or rolling namespace: biological_process def: "Transient adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells lining blood vessels mediated primarily by selectins and which are typically the first step in cellular extravasation." [ISBN: , PMID: , PMID: , PMID: , PMID: ] is_a: GO: ! leukocyte cell-cell adhesion relationship: part_of GO: ! cellular extravasation

25 Cellular Extravasation Blood 109:1342

26 What is a GO Annotation? An annotation is the statement of a connection between a type of gene product and the types designated by terms in the GO. This statement is created on the basis of observations of the instances of such types made in experiments and of the inferences drawn from such observations. Hill, DP, et al., BMC Bioinformatics. 9 Suppl 5:S2.

27 Example of GO Annotation 1 Lankar D, “Dynamics of major histocompatibility complex class II compartments during B cell receptor- mediated cell activation,” J Exp Med Feb 18;195(4): Mouse H2-DMa annotated to GO: multivesicular body, as an “inferred from direct evidence” (IDA) annotation of EM data.

28 Example of GO Annotation 2 Negishi I et al., “Essential role for ZAP-70 in both positive and negative selection of thymocytes,” Nature Aug 3;376(6539): Mouse Zap70 Annotated to GO: positive thymic T cell selection as an “inferred from mutant phenotype” (IMP) annotation and GO: negative thymic T cell selection as an “inferred from mutant phenotype” (IMP) annotation based flow cytometry data of thymocytes from wildtype and mutant mice.

29 amigo.geneontology.org

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31 informatics.jax.org

32

33 GO Annotation Counts for Immune System Process (2007) amigo.geneontology.org

34 GO Annotation Counts for Immune System Process (2012) amigo.geneontology.org

35 GO Annotation Counts for Immune System Process (2012 human-mouse) amigo.geneontology.org

36 Gene Product Annotation to Immune System Process amigo.geneontology.org

37 Immunology Annotation Progress is Slow Manual annotation is time-consuming. GOC annotation efforts mostly focused on other areas of biology. Immunology is complex: Complicated experimental data require expert annotators to assign granular annotations.

38 Use of GO Annotations in Microarray Analysis PLoS Genet Jun;7(6):e

39 Use of GO Annotations in Microarray Analysis PLoS Genet Jun;7(6):e

40 Immunology Ontology Includes as key components – GO BP terms for immune system processes – GO MF terms for molecular functions that play a part in the function of the immune system – GO CC terms for cellular components and protein complexes

41 Immunology Ontology Includes representation of pathological immune system processes – allergy – autoimmunity – chronic inflammatory responses These can be described as faulty regulation of normal immune system processes.

42 Immunology Ontology Immune cell types Immune epitope types Immune signaling pathway representations Immunology assays, etc.

43 Acknowledgments MGI, The Jackson Laboratory Judy Blake Mary Dolan Harold Drabkin David HillEBI-GOA Evelyn Camon EBI-GO Editorial Office Jennifer Clark Midori Harris Amelia Ireland Jane Lomax UT Southwestern Medical Center and ImmPort Jamie Lee Richard Scheuermann Lindsay Cowell All Participants in the November 2005 GO Content Meeting and others who helped at all steps

44 End

45 Cellular Extravasation


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