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Manufacturing Modern Chinese Identities Dr. Howard Chiang, H0.16

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1 Manufacturing Modern Chinese Identities Dr. Howard Chiang, H0.16 (

2 Chinese Dynasties 221-206 BCQin Dynasty 206 BC-220 ADHan Dynasty 220-280 ADThree Kingdoms 265-420 ADJin Dynasty 420-589 ADSouthern and Northern Dynasties 581-618 ADSui Dynasty 618-907 ADTang Dynasy 907-1125 ADLiao Dynasty 907-960 AD5 Dynasties and 10 Kingdoms 960-1279 ADSong Dynasty 1271-1368 ADYuan Dynasty 1368-1644 ADMing Dynasty 1644-1911 ADQing Dynasty


4 Education Reform 1894-1895 First Sino-Japanese War 1911-1949 Republican Period 1900s Western-style education 19 th -c. missionary schools (southeast coast; treaty ports – extraterritorial rights) Civil service examination system – producing the bureaucratic elite

5 Fuzhou Shipyard

6 Education Reform 1898 math was introduced into the exams 1902 “eight-legged essays” replaced by policy essays 1905 abolished the civil exam system altogether New schools created; old schools converted (still mostly for boys; girls only 2% in 1909) -Transform the people into loyal patriots -Train competent officials

7 Education Reform 1903 & 1906: Qing issued sets of regulations -restricted the amount of time to be spent in the traditional study of the Chinese classics -new subjects: history, geography, science, mathematics, physical exercise, and music Textbooks: introduced Western ideas, with themes of nationalism and patriotism Guo ( 國 ) from dynasty to country as in Guoyu (“national language” or “Mandarin Chinese”)

8 Education Reform New schools: -Time – divided into terms and weeks -Costume – new jackets and trousers -Etiquette – no more kowtow (kneeling on the knees and knocking head on the floor) -Anti-Confucian value system – “no father, no monarch”

9 Race and Revolution Qing government began to send students abroad for advanced study -bring back technical skills -Europe, America, but mostly to Japan (Meiji Restoration since 1860s) -13 students sent to Japan in 1896; by 1905, the number rose up to 8,000-9,000 -Political concerns over technical scientific subjects: for example, Lu Xun (“father of modern Chinese literature”) -Experiences clash with Chinese culturalism

10 Lu Xun (1881-1936)

11 Liang Qichao (1873-1929): the concept of race

12 Race and Revolution Liang Qichao’s conception of race: -18 th century: Manchu identity from cultural practices to inheritance -Han Chinese being descendants of the Yellow Emperor, the mythical founder of the Han race, as a kind of lineage binding the whole Han people into a single family -Han vs. Manchu = ‘Chinese’ vs. others (replacing the older concept of flexible boundaries based on degrees of acculturation)

13 Race and Revolution Liang Qichao’s conception of race: -From “all under heaven” (tianxia, 天下 ) to country (guojia, 國家 ) -“On a New People” - a new emphasis on the relationship between individuals and the collective: the family, society, and country -“Nation” (minzu, 民族 ) taken from Japanese (before 1900, minzu meant “tribes”; after 1900, it became part of anti-Manchu thought) Revolutionary groups: Sun Yatsen, Kang Youwei

14 Sun Yatsen (1866-1925) Revive China Society “revolutionaries”

15 Kang Youwei (1858-1927) Protect the Emperor Society“reformers”

16 Race and Revolution Revolutionary groups -Sun Yatsen – “revolutionaries” -Kang Youwei – “reformers” Huaqiao ( 華僑 ): “Overseas Chinese” -refer to ethnic Chinese living outside the Chinese state -Chinese nationalism was from an early stage pushed towards a definition of national identity that could encompass these groups (emphasis on descent)

17 Ethnicity Han symbolism of revolution - Ethnic minorities distinguished earlier by bans on immigration, intermarriage, and even the learning of the Chinese language Manchuria & Xinjiang – similar to rest of China Mongolia – independence in 1911 (“kitad”) Tibet – 1912 to 1951 de facto separation from China


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