Scale and Net Benefits Adding larger scale items into evaluation
Scale and Net Benefits Net benefits –Multi-scalar Person Economy US Planet Earth Clinton tax credit for high MPG cars, 1998 sej/yr 1.CO2 avoided 6.15E14 2.Gas saved3.40E15 3.$ not in circulation4.40E14 4.$ from tax credit3.60E15 Benefit/Deficit Person: 3 + 4 = 4.04E15 Economy: 4 – 3 = 3.16E15 National Security: 1 + 2 – 4 = 4.10E14 Global: 1 + 2 = 4.01E15 1 2 3 4 No Credit With Credit
Scale and Net Benefits Geographic versus political –Watershed versus state or county –Environment difficult to manage from political –Data difficult to obtain for watersheds
Time Scales Short term versus long, human versus geologic –Economy evaluated annually –Renewables evaluated using long term averages –Information turnover: 2-3 months? –Cultural information: 15 – 1000 years? –Watersheds: same as dominant ecosystem? –Watersheds: same as average rain cycle? –Watersheds: same as geologic cycle?
Time Scales Cumulative versus single event –Annual flows are “snapshots” –Average flows need to encompass appropriate time period –Cumulative evaluations best used for impacts –Cumulative may be better represented by simulation