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MARY BETH ALLEN EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY THINKING ABOUT WRITING A REVIEW OF LITERATURE.

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Presentation on theme: "MARY BETH ALLEN EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY THINKING ABOUT WRITING A REVIEW OF LITERATURE."— Presentation transcript:

1 MARY BETH ALLEN EAST STROUDSBURG UNIVERSITY THINKING ABOUT WRITING A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2 WHAT IS A LITERATURE REVIEW? A summary of published information related to a topic – recap of what is out there – research, theoretical, and practical pieces A synthesis of this info – reorganized in a logical way to provide a basis for your action

3 HOW TO GET STARTED Narrow the focus of your topic Look at other articles and papers related to the topic – notice the organization of information Think of the big topic and related subtopics – go from broad to narrow Read articles and highlight or record key points – in your own words – color code or subcategorize as you read

4 NARROW THE FOCUS For example…… Centers is too big Consider instead…. What reading centers are appropriate for second graders? How can I get started with implementing centers in grade 2? How can I hold my students accountable during center time? How will using centers affect my students’ reading achievement?

5 LOOK AT OTHER ARTICLES OR PAPERS Ford, M. & Opitz, M. (2002). Using centers to engage children during guided reading time: Intensifying learning experiences away from the teacher. The Reading Teacher, – Effective teaching context - importance of small groups – Challenge of small group instruction – what the rest of the class is doing – powerful instructional time away from teacher – Power of instruction away from the teacher – 3 organizations – Teacher with a group – other students doing worksheets – Teacher with a group – other students engaged in writer’s workshop – Teacher with a group – other students working at centers – Implementing centers – Considerations when planning center Learners Activities State and district goals Content Management Engagement Structures for: Independence Accountability Transitions Equity – Center ideas

6 OTHER ARTICLES Arquette, C. (2007). Multiple activity literacy centers: Promoting choice and learning differentiation. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 35 (3), 3-9. – Change in classrooms since NCLB Less independent work More focus on skills – Definition and advantages of literacy centers – Ideas for planning and implementing centers – Teaching students to be independent – Using classroom space – Center ideas

7 OTHER ARTICLES King-Sears, M. (2007). Designing and delivering learning center instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 42, – Time in schools – fitting everything in, meeting all needs – Differentiated Instruction – Types of learners – Learning centers as part of instruction – Designing learning centers – Learning center activities – Teaching students to use centers – Instruction during centers

8 BROAD TO NARROW - CENTERS Importance of learning to read and the importance of using best practices in reading instruction – broad information about reading and teaching reading (this will lead directly to best practices) Best practices in reading instruction – what to teach and how to best teach it -need for differentiated instruction and independent practice What to teach in reading – what is important- skills, strategies How to teach all levels within a classroom– instruction and contexts (this will lead directly to small groups) Small group instruction as a best practice model – description, benefits, and challenges (this will lead directly to managing using centers) Managing small groups using centers – description of varying models for using these (this will lead directly to a description of good centers and how to implement) What are centers? Definition of centers (stations) How can they be included in classrooms? How do you get started? What are the best centers? How do you create and implement them? (this will lead directly to accountability and assessment) How can students be held accountable? How can they be used for assessment?

9 Key point 1 – Learning to read is a necessary skill for success in life Key point 2 – Good instruction in reading yields students who can be successful in reading; therefore, it is imperative to use the best practices of reading instruction. There are several practices that support student success in reading. Key point 3 - In order to meet the needs of all students, it is necessary to differentiate reading instruction. There are several ways to differentiate instruction. One is to allow all students the opportunity to read at a level where they can be successful; this s best accomplished using small group and individualized instruction. Key point 4 – When teaching with small groups, teachers can maximize and individualize the work students do when they are not working with the teacher. One way to do this is to use a centers approach. Literacy centers are …… Centers provide a time and structure where students can practice the skills and strategies they have been taught, working alone or in small groups. There are specific centers that encompass all the key components of literacy instruction, and allow students independent practice of reading and writing. Key point 5 – It is critical to create a system of management that allows for independence and engagement. Within this management there needs to be specific processes and products for student accountability. Broad to Narrow – Make points that lead to your question

10 Key point 1 – Learning to read is a necessary skill for success in life Overview/definition/description of reading and goals of reading – maybe anecdote about reading Needed for all careers and for living life- communication – gathering information Common core – career and college readiness Stats on students who read well – success in life- importance of reading well – deeply, higher level

11 Key point 2 – Good instruction in reading yields students who can be successful in reading; therefore, it is imperative to use the best practices of reading instruction. There are several practices that support student success in reading. Effective classrooms – stats and descriptions of what they look like – (combine from several sources) Research on classrooms that work What to teach One thing to consider when planning a reading program is what needs to be taught. For readers to be successful at reading, they need to have strategies for rapid identification of new words, they need to be able to use techniques for figuring out the meanings of unknown words, they need to actively manage and monitor their comprehension while reading, and they need to read at a pace that allows meaning to happen. Word identification, vocabulary, comprehension, fluency How to teach Once it is identified what will be taught, it is vital to use processes and strategies that are effective in successful learning. Modeling, guiding, gradual release Large group, small group, individualized instruction - differentiated instruction and independent practice Classroom set-up, management, and flow Specific teaching practices

12 Key point 3 - In order to meet the needs of all students, it is necessary to differentiate reading instruction. There are several ways to differentiate instruction, including adapting content, process, and product. One way to adapt process is to allow all students the opportunity to read at a level where they can be successful; in other words, allowing students to be taught at their instructional level. The only way to differentiate reading instruction this way is to use small group and individualized instruction. Differentiated instruction Small group instruction Leveled reading Guided reading Conditions for effective instruction

13 Key point 4 – When teaching with small groups, teachers can maximize and individualize the work students do when they are working independently. One way to do this is to use a centers approach for managing small group instruction. – Literacy centers are …… Centers provide a time and structure where students can practice the skills and strategies they have been taught, working alone or in small groups. There are specific centers that encompass all the key components of literacy instruction, and allow students independent practice of reading and writing. What are the other kids doing? Definition – centers approach, stations approach Types of centers Activities for centers Using technology Independent practice in reading Activities for different abilities – differentiation

14 Key point 6 – It is critical to create a system of management that allows for independence and engagement. Within this management there needs to be specific processes and products for student accountability.  Management ideas – rotation, workboards, free choice  Clear and specific directions  Record keeping – teacher and student  Physical appearance  Storage  Rubrics  Goals  Self-assessments  Visual checklists

15 Broad Narrow Learning to read is a necessary skill for success in life Good instruction in reading yields students who can be successful in reading; therefore, it is imperative to use the best practices of reading instruction. There are several practices that support student success in reading. In order to meet the needs of all students, it is necessary to differentiate reading instruction. There are several ways to differentiate instruction. One is to allow all students the opportunity to read at a level where they can be successful; this s best accomplished using small group and individualized instruction. When teaching with small groups, teachers can maximize and individualize the work students do when they are not working with the teacher. One way to do this is to use a centers approach. – Literacy centers are …… Centers provide a time and structure where students can practice the skills and strategies they have been taught, working alone or in small groups. There are specific centers that encompass all the key components of literacy instruction, and allow students independent practice of reading and writing. – It is critical to create a system of management that allows for independence and engagement. Within this management there needs to be specific processes and products for student accountability.

16 Definitions and types of centers Broad Narrow Learning to read is a necessary skill for success in life Good instruction in reading yields students who can be successful in reading; therefore, it is imperative to use the best practices of reading instruction. There are several practices that support student success in reading. In order to meet the needs of all students, it is necessary to differentiate reading instruction. There are several ways to differentiate instruction. One is to allow all students the opportunity to read at a level where they can be successful; this s best accomplished using small group and individualized instruction. When teaching with small groups, teachers can maximize and individualize the work students do when they are not working with the teacher. One way to do this is to use a centers approach. Literacy centers are …… Centers provide a time and structure where students can practice the skills and strategies they have been taught, working alone or in small groups. There are specific centers that encompass all the key components of literacy instruction, and allow students independent practice of reading and writing. It is critical to create a system of management that allows for independence and engagement. Within this management there needs to be specific processes and products for student accountability.

17 NOTES - DEFINITIONS Diller (2003) Work station – “an area within the classroom where students work alone or with one another, using instructional materials to explore and expand their literacy. It is a place where a variety of activities reinforce and/or extend learning, often without the assistance of the classroom teacher. It is a time for students to practice reading, writing, listening, and working with letters and words. Different from centers – materials taught with and used first; remain up all year, very connected to instruction, differentiated for varying levels, students and teachers create directions, teacher working with small groups

18 NOTES - DEFINITIONS Ford & Opitz, 2002 “small areas within the classroom where students work alone or together to explore literacy activities independently while the teacher provides small group guided reading instruction King-Sears, 2007 Comprise of activities for individuals or small groups of students – are physical placements that contain materials and directions for students to complete on their own Tyner, 2004 Time for students to practice reading and writing on their own Guastello & Lenz, 2005 A place where students are independently and actively engaged in meaningful literacy experiences

19 DEFINITION OF CENTERS Educators describe literacy centers in a variety of ways. Ford and Opitz (2002) define them as areas in the classroom for students to work as they practice reading and writing activities. These authors suggest centers are places where students can work in a small group or by themselves. Similarly, Tyner (2004) describes center time as a time in the day for students to independently and actively practice reading and writing on their own. King-Sears (2007) agrees, defining centers as places in the classroom where students find materials and activities to practice on their own, in small groups or individually. Turn notes into text.

20 Diller (2003) refers to these areas for independent practice as literacy work stations. She states they are places where students can practice reading, writing, listening, speaking, and working with words, either independently or in small groups. According to Diller (2005), work stations are different from centers because the materials are taught first, the stations are up all year, the activities are differentiated, and there are clear directions created by students and teachers. Guastello and Lenz (2005) suggest something similar, calling these contexts kidstations because they make them portable places where students can gather. The kidstations provide an opportunity for students to independently and actively practice their reading and writing skills using meaningful activities.

21 Although educators define and name literacy centers differently, there are some commonalities. First, centers are physical places within the classroom where students can go to work. Second, centers are places where students can practice reading and writing skills. Additionally, these are places where students engage in practice with meaningful tasks and texts. Finally, centers can be places where students work alone, with a partner, or in small groups (Diller, 2003; Diller, 2005; Ford & Opitz, 2002; Guasello & Lenz, 2005; King-Sears, 2007; Tyner, 2004).

22 NOTES - TYPES OF CENTERS Ford & Opitz, 2002 Listening Post –students listen to a recorded text and follow along with a print version Readers Theatre – students practice reading a text many times – share with class Reading-Writing the Room – students find words in the room they can read and write Pocket Chart – poems, word games Poems-Story Packs – words, sentences, and phrases to practice from familiar texts and poems Big Books – rereading big books – focus on phrases, words Responding through art –demonstrating response and understanding of texts through art Writing – original writing, response to literature, focus on print conventions Reading – independent, buddy

23 NOTES -TYPES OF CENTERS King-Sears, 2007 Vocabulary Learning Center Writing Learning Center – story starters, open-ended questions Peer Tutoring Learning Center Journal Writing Independent Reading Word Study-practice letters, sounds, words Arquette, 2007 Reading Center – trade books, comics, magazines, newspapers – with accountability Big Book Center – read aloud, find words, readers theater Listening Center – students listen to a story – stop at various places to record facts or thinking about the story Reading Plus Listening – seeing the book and hearing it – online resources Writing Center – letter writing, connect reading to writing, poetry, write short stories, make a book, use the computer ABC/Word Study – write the alphabet, make words, alphabetize Readers Theater/Drama Center – multiple readings of text for performance

24 NOTES -TYPES OF CENTERS Guastello & Lenz, 2005 Kidstation 1 Word Recognition – word posters, word sorts, affixes, prefixes, suffixes, homonyms, spelling, sight words Vocabulary Development – word sorts, figurative meanings, word maps, analogies Literal Comprehension Kidstation 2 Response to Literature – story boards, story maps, open-mind portraits, response journals Kidstation 3 Critical Analysis and Evaluation Book reviews, perspective, write a new ending Tyner, 2004 Book Center – independent reading Word Work Center – word study cards, word bank cards, cut up sentences Spelling Center – practice words – sand, clay, sticks, dry erase Recording Center –record reading and listen – to work on fluency Listening Center – listen to a recorded book Computer Center –word study writing, or reading Art Center –respond to reading and writing activities Read the Room – read words from around the room Write the Room – copy words from around the room Writing Center – assigned or independent writing – words lists, abc chart

25 NOTES -TYPES OF CENTERS Diller, 2003 Classroom Library – p Big Book Work Station – p Writing Work Station – p Drama Work Station – p ABC/Word Study Work Station – p Poetry Work Station – p Computer Work Station – p Listening Work Station- p Pocket Chart – p

26 NOTES -TYPES OF CENTERS Diller, 2005 Listening Work Station Buddy Reading Work Station Computer Work Station Word Study Work Station Poetry Work Station Content Area Work Station Drama Work Station Diller, 2007 – p. 63, 84, 85, 111, 136, 160 Classroom Library Listening Buddy Reading Poetry Drama Big Book Writing Computer Word Study ABC Pocket Chart

27 TYPES OF CENTERS Whether students are working alone, with a partner, or in a small group, centers provide a time and activities where students can practice what they have been taught previously (Diller, 2003). Guastello and Lenz (2005) purport that the success of guided reading is related to the opportunities students have to actively practice their reading and writing skills independently. There are several different types of centers where students can work on their literacy skills. Intro Turn notes into text.

28 Independent Reading Center One important center that many educators suggest is the Independent Reading Center (Arquette, 2007; Diller, 2005; Diller, 2003; Ford & Opitz, 2002; Tyner, 2004). At this center, students have an opportunity to read on their own from books of their choosing. It is important to have a variety of reading materials, such as trade books, comic books, magazines, and newspapers readily available (Arquette). The goal of working at this center is to practice reading meaningful texts and to apply the reading skills and strategies that have been previously taught (Diller, 2003). Although this is a center that encourages free reading, it is necessary to build in measures of accountability for students. Arquette (2007) suggests reading logs, reading with a friend, or writing unknown words in a journal as ways for students to demonstrate what they have read. Diller (2005) offers writing letters, reviews, or responses to the books that students have read as a way for students to show what they have learned. Ford and Opitz (2002) add that students can share ideas about their books publicly or they can use reading logs to record ideas.

29 TAKING NOTES Keep track of citations Paraphrase – no direct quotes Organize by subtopic or key points Look at reference list for more sources Color-code by subtopic

30 NOTE-TAKING BY SUBTOPIC OR KEY POINTS SourceImportant ideas Key Point: __________________________________________________________

31 NOTE-TAKING BY SOURCE Source:___________________________________________________________ Important ideasSubtopic

32 REFERENCES Arquette, C. (2007). Multiple activity literacy centers: Promoting choice and learning differentiation. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 35 (3), 3-9. Diller, 2003). Literacy work stations: Making centers work. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Diller, D. (2005). Practice with purpose: Literacy work stations for grades 3-6. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Diller, D. (2007). Making the most of small groups: Differentiation for all. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Ford, M.P. & Opitz, M.E. (2002). Using centers to engage children during guided reading time: Instensifying learning experiences away from the teacher. The Reading Teacher, 55, Guastello, E. F. & Lenz, C. (2005). Student accountability: Guided reading kidstations. The Reading Teacher, 59, King-Sears, M. E. (2007). Designing and delivering learning center instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 42, Tyner, B. (2004). Small group reading instruction: A differentiated teaching model for beginning and struggling readers. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.


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