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Ftp://ftp.ngs.noaa.gov/dist/whenning/GLRHMC/. THE CHANGE FROM LABOR INTENSIVE TO TECHNOLOGY! “Human knowledge is doubling every 10 years. The scientific.

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Presentation on theme: "Ftp://ftp.ngs.noaa.gov/dist/whenning/GLRHMC/. THE CHANGE FROM LABOR INTENSIVE TO TECHNOLOGY! “Human knowledge is doubling every 10 years. The scientific."— Presentation transcript:

1 ftp://ftp.ngs.noaa.gov/dist/whenning/GLRHMC/

2 THE CHANGE FROM LABOR INTENSIVE TO TECHNOLOGY! “Human knowledge is doubling every 10 years. The scientific knowledge produced between 1987 and 1997 is greater than that produced in all mankind’s history”. Michio Kaku- renowned theoretical physicist

3 2000+/ CHANGE……. 23 YEARS

4 A CONFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY- USE OF RTK INTERNET DATA VIA CELL TECHNOLOGY SOFTWARE/FIRMWARE ALGORITHMS GNSS HARDWARE SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS SATELLITE CODES/FREQUENCIES

5 POTENTIAL FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS (2005 – 2017?) GPS MODERNIZATION – BLOCK IIF & III GLONASS ENHANCEMENTS (K & M) EUROPEAN UNION - GALILEO CHINA - COMPASS 115+ Satellites Second and Third Civil Frequency - GPS No Signal Encryption - GLONASS & GALILEO More Robust Signal Transmissions Real-Time Unaugmented 1 Meter (or better!) Accuracy GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS (GNSS) CHANGE…….

6 STANDALONE POSITIONING: BY 2017? L2C L5 CARRIER New Code on L5 L1C 1-3 m BETTER RESISTANCE TO INTERFERENCE FASTER AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION AUGMENTED CODE APPLICATIONS cm??? CHANGE……. GET USED TO ACCELERATED CHANGE- PREPARE TO ADAPT 2000 ERROR BUDGET (POST S/A)

7 II. INS & OUTS OF REAL-TIME NETWORKS

8 NEW PLAYERS IN ”HIGH-ACCURACY” REAL-TIME POSITIONING √GIS – INFRASTRUCTURE, SIGNAGE, ENVIRONMENTAL, PHOTO CONTROL √AGRICULTURE √MACHINE CONTROL DEFORMATION MONITORING TECTONIC/SEISMIC STUDIES NAVIGATION TO/FROM PORTS REMOTE SENSING/MAPPING – LIDAR FAA – NAVIGATION, LANDING, TAXIING (WEATHER SCIENTISTS – CO-LOCATED RT IONO/TROPO SENSORS)

9 GIS – INFRASTRUCTURE, SIGNAGE, ENVIRONMENTAL, PHOTO CONTROL

10 Real Time for Agriculture DUAL FREQUENCY CARRIER RTK – NOT CODE AGRICULTURE

11 Machine Control Graphics Courtesy of Caterpiller Inc. Slide by Jim Waters, TNDOT GRADE STAKES ARE BECOMING A RARITY ON LARGE SITES AND ROAD PROJECTS…. MACHINE CONTROL CONTROL IS MOVING FROM SINGLE-BASE ON SITE TOWARD RTN

12 RT DEFORMATION MONITORING- BRIDGES, BUILDINGS, DAMS, LEVEES, SUPPORT WALLS TRIPLE DIFFERENCING & KALMAN FILTERING

13 NAVIGATION TO/FROM PORTS- ELLIPSOID HEIGHTS Representatives of the maritime industry unofficially estimate that NDGPS reference stations near ports and harbors would cause an annual increase of $16 billion in cargo value in domestic waters, and an annual increase of $640 million in tax revenue, or a $9.6 billion benefit over the projected15-year life of the NDGPS. SOURCE: National Height Modernization Study Report to Congress U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service National Geodetic Survey June 1998

14 LIDAR and Derivative Products CONTROLLED FROM RTN (Light Detection and Ranging ) DEM - Digital Elevation Model Flood Zone Boundary Red –Original Blue – Improved with LIDAR Height Modernization Slide by Gary Thompson, NC Geodetic Survey OLD FIRMS – SCALED HORIZONTAL OLD REMOTE SENSING REMOTE SENSING/MAPPING – LIDAR (currently around an order of magnitude less precise than classical RTK, ie..1 –.4 m)

15 Aviation User Requirements – GPS / Nav Mike Stills Captain Bryn Jones Joe Kunches United Airlines, USA SolarMetrics Limited, UK Space Weather Services Branch NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Boulder, Colorado, USA Aviation Workshop NOAA SWPC Space Weather Workshop Boulder, Colorado April 28, 2008 Hazards Signal effect (Ionospheric delay) Scintillation (ADS-B impacts) Radio bursts Satellite effects Need information on real-time GPS errors (horizontal, vertical) WAAS, LAAS office input on requirements NextGen requirements FAA – NAVIGATION, LANDING, TAXIING NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE/SPACE WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER

16 ACADEMIC/SCIENTIFIC SPATIAL REFERENCE CENTERS VARIOUS DOTS COUNTY CITY GEODETIC SURVEYS (NC, SC) MANUFACTURERS VENDOR NETWORKS AGRICULTURE MA & PA NETWORKS WHO IS RUNNING RTN IN THE USA? PUBLIC/PRIVATE COOPERATIVES ARE EMERGING RAPIDLY GROWING

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18 RTK vs. RTN RTK RTN

19 WHY NETWORK RTK (RTN)?  No reconnaissance/recovery of passive control  No time lost setting up and breaking down a base  No base baby sitting, therefore labor cost is reduced No base means with two rovers the project is completed in half the time OR the user would only need one rover  = $$$ savings Because the requirement for a user base station is removed:

20 WHY NETWORK RTK (RTN)? NO (1 ST ORDER)DISTANCE CORRELATED ERROR - Atmospheric, ephemeris corrections for the site of survey Data degrade gracefully outside of the network or if a reference station is down RTNS CAN BE SEAMLESSLY CONNECTED TO THE NSRS – This means: Regional inter-GIS compatibility Continual accuracy and integrity monitoring Easy datum adjustment/change updates for the user In other words - “Everything fits together”

21 RTN FLAVORS A.NON-PHYSICAL RS – DUPLEX COMMS B.MAC – DUPLEX OR BROADCAST COMMS C.FKP – BROADCAST COMMS ALL RTN SOLUTIONS END IN A SINGLE BASELINE SOLUTION, I.E., A DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR FROM A “KNOWN” POINT

22 ALL IN ROVER No control center or “master” station All observables from all reference stations are sent to rover Rover does all modeling of corrections and processes baseline Major horsepower is needed at the rover, but eliminates the possibility of errors from differing modeling methods by different hardware. CLOSEST STATION Rover uses broadcast from closest reference station Single baseline, no network modeled corrections Typically a Ma & Pa network of “antennas on the roofs” Back to accounting for 1 PPM error REVERSE PROCESSING Rover sends observables to Server Server processes data and returns position to Rover

23 RTN BIG PICTURE ISSUES PASSIVE / ACTIVE – WHAT IS ‘TRUTH’? GEOID + ELLIPSOID / LOCALIZE – QUALITY OF GEOID MODELS LOCALLY. ORTHOMETRIC HEIGHTS ON CORS? NATIONAL DATUMS / LOCAL DATUMS / ADJUSTMENTS- DIFFERENT WAYS RTN GET THEIR COORDINATES- VARIOUS OPUS, OPUS-DB, CORS ADJUSTED, PASSIVE MARKS. VELOCITIES - NEW DATUMS, “4 -D” POSITIONS GNSS / GPS ACCURACY / PRECISION- IMPORTANCE OF METADATA SINGLE SHOT / REDUNDANCY RTK / RTN GRID / GROUND – LOW DISTORTION PROJECTIONS- SHOULD NGS PLAY?

24 EXAMPLE: GNSS DERIVED HEIGHTS NOS-NGS 58 WITH DRAFT ORTHO GUIDELINES m TO NSRS, 0.02 m LOCAL DGPS – 15 SECONDS, 0.5 TO 2 m OPUS > 4 HRS = 0.02 M (h), 0.05 (H) CORS- SAME AS OPUS OPUS-RS 15 MINUTES =0.10 m SINGLE BASE RTK- “IT DEPENDS!” 5 SECONDS (better than 0.03 m expected) RTN – “IT DEPENDS!” 5 SECONDS ( better than 0.04 m expected) CHANGE IN ACCESSING THE NSRS BY PASSIVE TO ACTIVE MONUMENTATION

25 PASSIVE vs. ACTIVE MONUMENTS SOME CONSIDERATIONS: NAD 83 IS REALIZED BY THE NATIONAL CORS NAVD 88 IS REALIZED BY HIGH ACCURACY & STABLE PASSIVE MARKS(DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN) PASSIVE MARKS ARE A SNAPSHOT IN TIME ACTIVE STATIONS ARE 4-D PASSIVE MARKS CAN BE MANDATED IN STATE ANNOTATED CODES RTN CAN ENCOMPASS MANY STATES AND RUN ACROSS MANY CLASSICAL & GPS CAMPAIGNS OF VARYING TIME AND ACCURACY. PASSIVE MARKS USED IN DESIGN ARE PROJECT “TRUTH” DIFFERENT RTN CAN BE REALIZED IN DIFFERENT DATUMS AND ADJUSTMENTS

26 HARD TO ACCESS PASSIVE MONUMENTS

27 Disturbed Geodetic Control Coordinates/Elevations Questionable! Destroyed Geodetic Control No Coordinates/Elevation Monumented Points Deterioration

28 MISSING MARKS- TYPICAL EXAMPLE DAVE ZILKOSKI’S BASEMENT

29 WHEN WAS THE MONUMENT LAST LEVELED?

30 NEW JERSEY ANNOTATED CODE-PASSIVE MARKS

31 Movement from passive monumentation towards Active monumentation and from traditional positioning and traversing towards RT positioning via GNSS RTN is a movement from 3-D positioning towards 4-D Positioning in most of the conterminous USA. This necessitates the recordation of metadata: source of coordinates, datum, datum epoch, alignment to the NSRS, grid/ground, date of field survey, antennas, GNSS gear, etc.

32 NAD 83 VELOCITIES (GOLD) ITRF 2000 VELOCITIES (BLUE) SANTA CRUZ, CA

33 ORTHO HEIGHTS - LOCALIZE OR NOT? PASSIVE MARKS ARE A SNAP SHOT OF WHEN THEY WERE LEVELED OR DERIVED FROM GPS IF YOU BUILD FROM A MONUMENTED BM AND THE DESIGN WAS DONE REFERENCED TO IT, IT IS “THE TRUTH”, UNLESS IN GROSS ERROR. LOCALIZATIONS ARE A GOOD WAY TO NOT ONLY LOCK TO THE SURROUNDING PASSIVE MARKS, BUT ALSO TO EVALUATE HOW THE CONTROL FITS TOGETHER. HOW GOOD IS THE NGS HYBRID GEOID MODEL IN YOUR AREA? GEOID 09 IS THE CURRENT MODEL

34 ELLIPSOID, GEOID & ORTHO HEIGHTS H 88 = h 83 – N 09 EACH COMPONENT HAS ERRORS

35 NGS Data Sheet - GEOID03 Published NAVD88 to GPS Derived H = =  (-32.60) - Nh GEOID96 = 0.17 m GEOID99 = 0.11 m GEOID03 = 0.05 m GEOID09 = m

36 “INCLINED PLANE” “LOCALIZATION” = PROPER TIE TO PASSIVE CONTROL (IMPROPER HINGED LOCALIZATION) “GEOID XX” (MODELED + ELLIPSOID) “ELLIPSOID ONLY” (GNSS VERTICAL DIFFERENCE ONLY) LOCALIZATION + GEOID = METHOD OF CHOICE! RT DERIVED ELEVATION CHOICES

37 BEST FIT PLANAR PROJECTION TO PASSIVE MARKS (CALIBRATIONS/LOCALIZATIONS)

38 PASSIVE/ACTIVE ORTHOS

39 GNSS ECEF X,Y,Z (WGS 84 & PZ90) NAD 83 (,,h)SPC N,E,h + GEOID XX = SPC N,E,H OR CALIBRATE TO 4-5 SITE POINTS IN THE DESIRED DATUM. THIS IS USED TO LOCK TO PASSIVE MONUMENTATION IN THE PROJECT AREA. GNSS TO ANY DATUM

40 PROJECT SURFACE VS. GRID IS YOUR DATA COLLECTOR CONFIGURED TO HANDLE THE TRANSFORMATION? FEATURES AND WORK ARE REFERENCED TO THE GROUND CONTROL MONUMENTATION IS USUALLY REFERENCED TO THE GRID THERE ARE DIFFERENT WAYS TO RESOLVE THIS: 1. MODIFIED SPC 2. LDP 3. LOCALIZATION TO PASSIVE MONUMENTATION 4. ASSUMED (TANGENT PLANE) RTN CAN ENCOMPASS LARGE REGIONS COMPOSSED OF MANY STATES!

41 DATA COLLECTORS MUST HAVE CORRECT PROJECTION PARAMETERS- EG., UTM, SPC, LDP, ASSUMED EXAMPLE 1

42 MESA COUNTY RTN & LOCAL COORDINATE ZONES EXAMPLE 2

43 LOYOLA SPATIAL SYSTEMS- RTKNET WILL OVERLAPPING RTN PRODUCE THE SAME COORDINATES?

44 KEYSTONE - KEYNET

45 CARON EAST -

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47 NO OBSTRUCTIONS WHAT ABOUT GLONASS?

48 Dilution Of Precision - DOP

49 NHUN-DOP/ NO OBSTRUCTIONS

50 NHUN – SATELLITES/ WITH OBSTRUCTIONS

51 NHUN – DOP / WITH OBSTRUCTIONS

52 URBAN CANYONS GNSS vs GPS – MIGHT HELP

53 HIGHWAY CORRIDORS GNSS vs GPS – MIGHT HELP

54 ROUTE OBSTRUCTIONS GNSS vs GPS – MIGHT HELP ftp://ftp.ngs.noaa.gov/dist/whenning/GLRHMC/


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