2Presentation outlines Basic concepts in Value Chain AnalysisValue and value additionValue Chainagricultural value chainStages of a value chainBusiness development servicesValue chain leaderWhy the interest on value chain analysis (VCA)?Potential objectives of VCAHow to conduct VCAData collectionValue chain mappingAnalysis of constraints and opportunitiesValue Chain frame workValidating findings of VCA
3Basic concepts of Value Chain Analysis Value and value additionValueAmount a good or service is worth of in the marketThree types of valueForm value – associated with the change of the form of a raw material (production, processing)Time value - related with availing at another period of time produce produced at a period of time (storage)Space value - related with availing at another location product produced in one location (transport)
4What is a Value Chain (1)VC encompass the full range of activities and services required to bring a product or service from its conception to sale in its final markets.VC includes input suppliers, producers, processors and buyers.They are supported by a range of technical, business and financial service providers
5What is a Value Chain (2)A value chain entails the addition of value as the product progresses from input supply to production to consumption.Value chains are also the conduits through which:finance (revenues, credit, and working capital) moves from consumers to producers;technologies are disseminated among producers, traders, processors and transporters;information on customer demand preferences are transmitted from consumers to producers and processors and other service providers.
6What is an agricultural value chain? An agricultural value chain is considered as an economic unit of analysis of a particular commodity (eg. milk) or group of related commodities (eg. dairy) that encompasses a meaningful grouping of economic activities that are linked vertically by market relationships.The emphasis is on the relationship between networks of input suppliers, producers, traders, processors, and distributors.
7Stages of a value chainAny operating stage capable of producing a saleable product or service serving as an input to the next stage in the chain or for final consumption or useA stage of production in a value chain performs a function that makes significant contribution to the effective operation of the value chainTypical value chain linkages include input supply, production, assembly, transport, storage, processing, wholesaling, retailing, and utilization, with exportation included as a major stage for products destined for international markets.
8Business development services Services that play supporting role to enhance the operation of the different stages in the value chain and the chain as a wholeInfrastructural services (market place development, roads and transportation, communication, energy supply, water supply)Production and storage services (input supply, genetic and production hardware from research, farm machinery services and supply, extension services, weather forecast, storage infrastructure)Marketing and business skills (market information, market intelligence, technical and business training, facilitation of linkages of producers with buyers, organization and support for collective marketing)Financial services (credit, saving, risk insurance)Policy and regulatory services (property rights, market and trade regulations, investment incentives, legal services, taxation)
9The Value Chain and Business support services ProductionPost-harvesthandlingProcessingRetailingConsumptionTradingMarket information and intelligenceFinancial servicesTransportationCommunicationsGovt. policy regulationTech. & business training & assistanceProduction input supplyResearchTransportInputSuply
10Value chain leaderAn organization with major stake in the value chain and plays crucial role in the functioning, performance and development of the value chain.Value chain leaders are especially critical in the development of new and emerging value chainsValue chain leader could be private business which intends to make profit or a public agency which intends to promote the development of the value chain.
11Why the interest on value chain analysis (VCA)? A comprehensive understanding of the operation of commodity markets requires an understanding of the operation of the different stages through which a product and its associated value additions pass on from production to consumption or end useA comprehensive understanding of the coordination of the value chain requires a careful assessment of consumer demand characteristics and the organizational and institutional arrangements that are in place to meet these demands.
12Potential objectives of VCA Identification of leverage points to improve chain performanceAnalysis of agriculture-industry linkagesAnalysis of income distributionAnalysis of employment issuesAnalysis of economic and social impacts of interventionsAnalysis of environmental impact of interventionsGuide collective action for marketingGuide research priority settingConduct policy inventory and analysis
13How to conduct a VCAValue chain analysis consists of a four step process:Data collection and analysis,Chain mapping (actors, functions and relationships) and end market analysisAnalysis of opportunities and constraints, andValidating the findings of the VCA through stakeholders forum
15Data collection (1)Good value chain analysis begins with good data collection, from the initial desk research to the targeted interviews.Both qualitative and quantitative data are required for the VCA.The qualitative data are collected using PRA tools such as: focused group discussions, Key Informant interview, personal observations, etc
16Data collection (2) Tools to be used Review of relevant literature: reports, documents, databases, and websites relevant for the study will be reviewed.The aim is to familiarize the team with the industry, its market and the business environment in which it operates, as well as to identify sources for additional information.Secondary data will be collected from CSA, CRA, woreda and zonal offices, and other relevant sourcesprice and marketing data,number of different market actors in the specific rural markets,credit provided,technology supply and distribution,storage and transport facilities,information on processing, packaging and grading will be collected.
17Data collection (3) PRA tools to be used Focused group discussions (FGD): a useful way to explore concepts, generate ideas, determine differences in opinion between stakeholder groups and triangulate with other data collection methodsFGD can better capture the social interaction and spontaneous thought processes that inform decision making, which is often lost in structured interviews.At least two FGDs of farmers (10-15 people) per district will be conductedIn depth Key Informant Interview (KII): interview with knowledgeable individuals: experts of livestock extension, livestock marketing, forage production and marketing, cooperatives promotion, abattoir managers, traders, meat supermarket managers, butchers, feed and livestock researchers, transporters, veterinarians and NGOs will be held.
18Data collection (4) PRA tools to be used The KII should inform:value chain actors’ current capacity to learn;how information is exchanged among participants;from where they learn about new production techniques, new markets and market trends;the extent of trust that exists among actors; andidentify where chain participants see opportunities for and constraints to upgrading.Visits: marketing and processing facilities and transactions in market places will be visited in all the sites. At least one feed and livestock market per woreda will be visited. Processing facilities such as dairy processing plants, feed processors and export abattoirs will be visited.
19Data collection (5)The qualitative data gathered by the above methods will reveal dynamic factors of the value chain such as: trends, incentives and relationships.To complement this, quantitative analysis of the chain is necessary to provide a picture of the current situation in terms of:the distribution of value-added,profitability,productivity,production capacity andbenchmarking against competitors.Analyzing these factors highlights inefficiencies and areas for reducing cost.
20Value Chain Mapping (1)Value chain mapping is the process of developing a visual depiction of the basic structure of the value chain.A value chain map illustrates the way the product flows from raw material to end markets and presents how the industry functions.It is a compressed visual diagram of the data collected at different stages of the value chain analysis and supports the narrative description of the chain
21Value chain mapping(2) Objectives To gain basic overview of the value chain to guide the full VCA to be undertakenIdentify constraints and possible solutions at different levels in the VCVisualize networks to get a better understanding of connections between actor and processesDemonstrate interdependency between actors and processes in the VCCreate awareness of actor to look beyond their own involvement in the VC
22Value Chain Mapping (3)A two phased process for developing the value chain mapping is recommended a) initial basic mapping based on the information derived from desk research and knowledge at the outset of the analysis, and b) adjusted mapping that includes revisions based on interviews and feedback from firms and individuals brought into the analysis process
23value chain mapping (3)There is no such a thing as a comprehensive, all encompassing VC mapThere are many potential dimensions of the VC that could be included in an initial mapping exercise:The core processes in the VCThe main actors in the processThe product flows,Volume of product flowCosts and margins at different levelsConstraints and opportunities at the different levelsFlow of information etcTherefore it is crucial to choose which dimensions are to be mapped based on the available resources, the scope and objective of the VCA and mandate of the organization.
24Mapping the core processes The first question that must be asked in any value chain analysis is what the different processes in the value chain are.Example: Core processes in sheep VC (SNNP & Oromia)Input SupplyProductionTradingProcessingDomestic Consumption/ Export
25Mapping actors along the value chain Example: Actors along the core processes of the sheep value chainInput SupplyProductionTradingProcessingConsumptionSheep producersThe extension systemSmall holder farmersCollectorsBrokersSmall tradersBig tradersSheep fattenersExport abattoirsShoat butchersSuper marketsMeat exportersLive animal exportersIndividual consumers in big towns and AddisHotels and restaurantsFarmers (for fattening/rearing)
26Domestic Consumption/Export Mapping activities along the VC Example: Core processes and activities in the sheep VCInput SupplyProductionTradingProcessingDomestic Consumption/ExportBreeding stockVeterinary servicesFeedWaterHousingRearingFatteningCollectionTransportationDistribution to consumers(retail, wholesale)SlaughterChillingPackingDomestic consumptionExport to MENA countries
27Example: Sheep value chain functions, actors, and product flows Mapping product flowsExample: Sheep value chain functions, actors, and product flowsHotels and restaurantsConsumers in big tows and Addis AbabaExport marketsConsumptionLocal consumersShoat butchersSuper marketsProcessingLive animal exporterExport abattoirsFarmers(breeding/ fattening)Live animal TradingSmall tradersCollectorsBrokersBig tradersProductionSmall holder farmersInput SupplyBusiness and Extension services
28Mapping Volume of product flows Example: Product Supply Pattern in the Shoat Value Chain (Borena)
29Mapping the flow of values and benefits Example: Costs and margins of actors involved in a market channel selling shoats to supermarketsProducersBrokersCollectorsSmall tradersSuper marketsSelling price7508108208701280Marketing cost-163995Marketing margin607050410Net margin5411315Producer's share of final price (%)59
30Making a value chain map matrix A VC map matrix is the matrix which summarizes the key information from maps in one table.The matrix can be used as the basis for designing questionnaires, determining which actor groups to interview and which geographical locations to concentrate field work in.It can also serve as an easy to interpret sector summary from VC perspective.