Presentation on theme: "REMEMBERING 2O10’S LANDSLIDES Rain-triggered, earthquake-triggered, hurricane-triggered, and wildfire- exacerbated landslides impacted communities around."— Presentation transcript:
REMEMBERING 2O10’S LANDSLIDES Rain-triggered, earthquake-triggered, hurricane-triggered, and wildfire- exacerbated landslides impacted communities around the world. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA
IMPACTED NATIONS Haiti, Madeira (Portugal), USA (California) Brazil, Peru, China, Taiwan, ), Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua), …
SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 Hundreds killed and injured. Homes damaged, and destroyed. Cars damaged and destroyed. Lives and livelihoods of thousands adversely affected. Medical care needs of evacuees and displaced increased sharply
SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 (Continued) Infrastructure (roads, bridges) damaged and destroyed. Urgent need for timely search and rescue $ Hundreds of millions in uninsured or self-insured economic losses.
BASIC PHYSICS OF LANDSLIDES Planet Earth’s Restlessness and Gravity Causes: Landslides
LANDSLIDES NATURAL PHENOMENA THAT OCCUR WITH OR WITHOUT HUMAN ACTIVITY
LANDSLIDES Falls, Topples, Slides, Spreads, Flows
LANDSLIDE HAZARD Landslides encompass all categories of gravity-related slope failures in Earth materials.
SLOPES Slopes are the most common landforms. Although they appear stable and static, slopes are actually dynamic, evolving systems.
SLOPES Material is constantly moving on slopes at rates varying from imperceptible creep to thundering avalanches and rock falls moving at high velocities.
THE COMBINATION OF WINTER STORMS, HEAVY RAINFALL, FLASH FLOODS AND THE RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF PAST WILDFIRES, EARTHQUAKES, HURRICANES AND TYPHOONS, TREE CLEARING, AND URBANIZATION IS INCREASING LANDSLIDE RISK EVERYWHERE.
LANDSLIDE TRIGGERS Gravity slope failures are triggered by earthquake ground shaking or excess precipitation The slope does not need to be very steep for a landslide to occur.
LANDSLIDES HAITI MACHU PICCHU SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MADEIRA (Portugal) RIO DE JANEIRO TAIWAN CENTRAL AMERICA CHINA
M7.0 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES HAITI THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE’S POOREST NATION WITH 8 IN 10 AT POVERTY LEVEL 4:53 p.m.; JANUARY 12, 2010
THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE AND THE CARIBBEAN PLATE
PORT AU PRINCE: 1.8 MILLION IN A NATION OF NINE MILLION
RAIN AND MUDSLIDES IN MACHU PICCHU 2,500 TOURISTS STRANDED JANUARY 28, 2010
On January 28, 2010, rain and mudflows devastated the homes of thousands of Peruvians living in the vicinity of Machu Picchu and created havoc for tourists visiting Machu Picchu and the Peruvian authorities.
Peruvian authorities used helicopters to airlift some of the foreign tourists trapped by rain and mudslides that killed seven people visiting the famed Inca ruins.
MUDFLOWS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA: FEB 6, 2010 THE INTERSECTION OF HEAVY RAINFALL IN FIRST WINTER STORM OF 2010 AND BURNED OUT AREAS FROM WILDFIRES OF 2009 INCREASED RISK
FACT: MUDSLIDES INCREASE AFTER WILDFIRES
LA CONCHITA, CA
MUDSLIDES IN LA CONCHITA, CA: JAN 13, 2010
MUDSLIDES IN LA CONCHITA, CA
CARS TRAPPED IN FLASH FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES
CARS TRAPPED IN MUDSLIDES
MUDSLIDES IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
As the first storm of the 2010 season moved into Southern California, the National Weather Service issued flash-flood watches and mudflow warnings for wildfire- burn zones in mountain areas from Santa Barbara to San Bernardino counties.
This storm tapped into subtropical moisture, giving it the potential to bring moderate to heavy rain and create significant hazards of flash flooding and debris flows, especially in the 2009 burn areas of Santa Barbara, Ventura and Los Angeles counties.
WILDFIRE BURN AREAS ARE VULNERABLE TO MUDFLOWS
SANDBAGS: FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST FLOODING
K-RAILS: FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST MUDFLOWS
FLASH FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES IN THE MADEIRA ISLANDS, PORTUGAL AT LEAST 42 DEAD FEBRUARY 20-21, 2010
LOCATION OF MADEIRA
WHAT HAPPENED The worst storm to hit Madeira since 1993 lashed the south of the Atlantic Ocean island, including the capital, Funchal, Saturday, turning some streets into torrents of mud, water and debris.
WHAT HAPPENED (continued) The flash floods were so powerful they carved paths down mountains and ripped through the city, churning under some bridges and tearing others down.
FEBRUARY 21: FLASH FLOOD
WHAT HAPPENED (continued) Funchal’s residents and visitors had to contend with a lack of fresh water as a result of destroyed infrastructure.
FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES PARALYZE BRAZIL WORST IN 50 YEARS APRIL 7, 2010
RIO DE JANEIRO
Flooding from torrential rains and mudslides claimed at least 200 lives in Brazil's Rio de Janeiro City and State.
FEBRUARY 25: RIO DE JANIERO, BRAZIL
BRAZIL: JANUARY 1, 2010
10,000 homes, mostly in the slums where about a fifth of Rio's people live, often in shacks that are vulnerable to heavy rains were severely impacted by mudslides
LANDSLIDES IN TAIWAN EXACERBATED BY M6.5 EARTHQUAKE AND RAIN APRIL 26, 2010
SEARCH AND RESCUE
TROPICAL STORM AGATHA TRIGGERS LANDSLIDES IN CENTRAL AMERICA EXACERBATED BY RAIN MAY 29, 2010
Over 140 landslides were triggered in Guatemala and Nicaragua.
LANDSLIDE IN ZHONQU COUNTY, CHINA Over 700 dead, hundreds injured, and over 1,000 missing Midnight - Saturday, August 7, 2010
A massive landslide triggered by heavy rainfall in Zhouqu County set in motion the side of a mountain, that damaged, toppled, and buried buildings and their sleeping residents on Sunday, August 8 th.
An estimated 1.8 million cubic meters of mud and debris flattened three villages in Zhouqu; In Yueyuan village, not a single structure was left intact by the landslides.
MUDSLIDE: ZHONGU, CHINA
In addition, rock, mud, and debris from the landslide blocked the Bailong River which passes through the area, creating a 3km (2- mile) long temporary lake.
Water in the temporary lake overflowed, sending waves of water, mud and rocks crashing down on the town, inundating low- lying neighborhoods with up to 4 meters of water.
EXPLOSIONS RELEASED THE BLOCKED BAILONG RIVER
PRIME MINISTER WEN JIABAO CALLED FOR ACTION: AUG 8TH
The Chinese army deployed 5,300 soldiers with 150 vehicles, 20 speed boats and four helicopters, and rescued 1,240 people had been rescued from the landslide mud and debris, or rescued from the tops of buildings where they had taken refuge..
Over a meter of mud in many parts of the impacted area and rugged terrain made it almost impossible for rescue teams to bring in vital heavy equipment and specialists needed for search and rescue operations.
A SURVIVOR AWAITING RESCUE
SEARCH AND RESCUE
A SUCCESSFUL RESCUE
Streams of refugees left the area, carrying a few possessions they had managed to salvage; others carrying the bodies of loved ones.
Power lines were down in two-thirds of the county.
Thousands of homeless residents were forced to live in the open, or in the rubble of unsafe buildings, as dry, stable areas were not available to establish temporary shelters using tents provided by the Government..
At least 45,000 people were evacuated, including the residents of downstream towns thought to be at risk from new landslides that may be triggered in conjunction with the continuing rainfall..